Water contamination

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  • The use of models to provide additional details on contaminant fate and transport has rapidly increased in the past 3 decades. The increasing global recognition of the potential risks associated with surface water or ground water contamination and speciÞc environmental regulations implemented after 1980 have demanded a more accurate understanding of these risks as they relate to human health and the environment.

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  • Water is an important natural resource which forms the core of the ecological system. Human use of water depends on ambient water quality and human alterations of the landuse have an extensive influence on water quality. Water is typically referred to as polluted when its quality is adversely affected by contaminants and undergoes a marked shift in its capability to support the biological communities. The book is written for research scholars, hydrologists and environmentalists and especially students....

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  • In recent years, the awareness of water needs and processing requirement has become an increasingly important topic. As the earth's population increases the demand for "clean" water has become an even larger factor in residential as well as industrial and commercial costs. There are now almost no natural water sources that do not require some purific

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  • Over the past 15 years, evidence has accumulated that the nation's ground water resource, which supplies more than 50 percent of the population's drinking water, is threatened not only by excessive overdrafts but also by contamination caused by past and present industrial, agricultural, and commercial activities. In the United States, it is estimated that more than 300,000 sites may have contaminated soil or ground water requiring some form of remediation (see Table 1-2 in Chapter 1).

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  • Water contamination and the degradation and destruction of aquatic ecosystems is a problem of truly global dimensions and impedes sustainable development in poor countries because there is no clean water; there are waterborne diseases; and there is pollution and the lack of sanitation. This chapter provides knowledge of water pollution and its prevention.

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  • This 1993 document entitled "Assessment of Sources of Air, Water, and Land Pollution: A Guide to Rapid Source Inventory Techniques" provides techniques for conducting source inventories in Chapter 2 and describes models for estimating air emissions under current controls in Chapter 3. Appendix II includes the United Nations (UN) classification of industries and services.

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  • Every year in the U.S. factories release over 3 million tons of toxic chemicals into the land, air and water. This hazardous waste causes us to lose over 15 million acres of land every year, it leads to respiratory complications and other health problems and it makes our rivers and lakes too polluted for us to swim in and drink.

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  • Difficulty in accessing ground water without disturbing ground-water flow patterns, chemistry, microbiology, and the physical and chemical makeup of formation materials has made accurate characterization of in situ ground-water conditions a very challenging task.

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  • Written by a multidisciplinary group of scientists from around the globe Environmental Restoration of Metals-Contaminated Soils provides a summary of the current environmental remediation technology.

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  • The generation of wastes as a result of human activities has been continuously speeding up since the beginning of the industrial revolution. Hence, both optimized waste water treatment technologies and modern tools to assess the effects of pollution sources are necessary to prevent the contamination of aquatic ecosystems The book offers an interdisciplinary collection of topics concerning waste water treatment technologies, water quality monitoring and evaluation of waste water impact on natural environments.

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  • Limitations on the availabilityof water resourcesareamong the greatest challenges facing modern society, despite the fact that roughly 70% of the earth’s surface is covered by water. Human society depends on liquid freshwater resources to meet drinking, sanitation and hy‐ giene, agriculture, and industry needs.Roughly 97% of the earth’s surface and shallow sub‐ surface water is saline and about 2% is frozen in glaciers and polar ice.

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  • For more than 30 years there has been remarkable growth in the need for quality water purification by all categories of users – municipal, industrial, institutional, medical, commercial and residential. The increasingly broad range of requirements for water quality has motivated the water treatment industry to refine existing techniques, combine methods and explore new water purification technologies.

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  • Hydraulic fracturing is an industrial process used to extract fossil fuel reserves that lie deep underground. With the introduction of horizontal drilling, new commercial sources of energy have become available. Wells are drilled and injected with large quantities of water mixed with specially selected chemicals at high pressures that allow petroleum reserves to flow to the surface. While the increased economic activities and the outputs of domestic energy are welcomed, there is growing concern over negative environmental impacts from horizontal drilling in shale formations.

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  • A heightened concern for the environment, combined with increasing sophistication in tracking and modelling air currents, has led to the realization that local air and water may be contaminated by pollutants emitted many miles away. Indeed, this realization has resulted in inter-regional and international tensions regarding air pollution. For example, much of the acid rain problem in the northeastern United States is a result of SOx emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Midwest.

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  • The risks associated with all aspects of fracturing have been looked at from a variety of perspectives, but most concerns revolve around the use of water resources and their potential contamination [6]. Other risks are associated with surface spills [7,8]. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been investigating drinking water contamination and is expected to complete an extensive study on all aspects of hydraulic fracturing in 2014 [9].

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  • If the soil becomes saturated, oxygen may become scarce and in anoxic conditions, denitrifying bacteria may convert the nitrate to nitrogen gases (NO, N2O, and N2). Nitrogen converted to these gases becomes unavailable for plant uptake or for surface water contamination. Additionally, saturated soil during the growing season is harmful to many crops like maize that cannot tolerate low oxygen concentrations in the root zone for more than a few days.

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  • The steady increase in industrialization, urbanization and enormous population growth are leading to production of huge quantities of wastewaters that may frequently cause environmental hazards. Raw or treated waste water is very oft en discharged to freshwaters and results in changing ecological performance and biological diversity of these systems. About 70% of water supplied ends up as wastewater and several natural water reservoirs are being contaminated by untreated sewage/industrial effl uents. This makes waste water treatment and waste water reduction very important issues....

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  • This novel, timely and cost-competitive book on ‘Wetland Systems to Control Urban Runoff’ covers water and environmental engineering aspects relevant for the drainage and treatment of stormwater, wastewater and contaminated natural watercourses from predominantly urban areas, providing a descriptive overview of the complex ‘black box’ treatment systems and design issues involved. The fundamental science and engineering principles of relevant water and wastewater treatment units and processes are explained to address the student as well as the professional market.

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  • Groundwater is an important resource that serves as a backbone of human development. In several regions, mostly in developing countries, groundwater from sedimentary and hard rock aquifers used for drinking is naturally contaminated with arsenic. In different countries in Asia such as India, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Nepal, Pakistan, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam, the situation of arsenic toxicity is alarming and severe health problems are reported amongst the inhabitants relying on groundwater as sources of water for drinking purposes....

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  • Through the studies, we can deduce that most of the industrial discharge carries toxic substances. Due to the presence of high amount of toxic, carcinogen, and teratogen of metals, researchers are highly concerned with its effect on the environment and health of mankind. Rigorous investigations are currently being carried out to study the consequences of the contamination on the surface water, groundwater, and surface land due to industrial discharge.

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