Water loss

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  • The water problems in Asia’s cities are similar. These include sources and uses of raw water, the large propor-tion of water loss in distribution networks, intermittent supply, and the quality of tap water. In some cities, the excessive use of groundwater resources has caused serious environmental problems, including rapid deple-tion of groundwater, deterioration of water quality, and land subsidence.

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  • LIFE IN EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE presents a formidable challenge to land plants. On the one hand, the atmosphere is the source of carbon dioxide, which is needed for photosynthesis. Plants therefore need ready access to the atmosphere. On the other hand, the atmosphere is relatively dry and can dehydrate the plant. To meet the contradictory demands of maximizing carbon dioxide uptake while limiting water loss, plants have evolved adaptations to control water loss from leaves, and to replace the water lost to the atmosphere.

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  • The source of free water loss is either renal or extrarenal. Nonrenal loss of water may be due to evaporation from the skin and respiratory tract (insensible losses) or loss from the gastrointestinal tract. Insensible losses are increased with fever, exercise, heat exposure, and severe burns and in mechanically ventilated patients. Furthermore, the Na+ concentration of sweat decreases with profuse perspiration, thereby increasing solute-free water loss. Diarrhea is the most common gastrointestinal cause of hypernatremia.

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  • Hypovolemia Etiology True volume depletion, or hypovolemia, generally refers to a state of combined salt and water loss exceeding intake, leading to ECF volume contraction. The loss of Na+ may be renal or extrarenal (Table 46-1). Table 46-1 Causes of Hypovolemia I. ECF volume contracted A. Extrarenal Na+ loss 1. Gastrointestinal (vomiting, nasogastric suction, drainage, fistula, diarrhea) 2. Skin/respiratory (insensible losses, sweat, burns) 3. Hemorrhage B. Renal Na+ and water loss 1. Diuretics 2. Osmotic diuresis 3. Hypoaldosteronism 4. Salt-wasting nephropathies C.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về lâm nghiệp được đăng trên tạp chí lâm nghiệp quốc tế, đề tài:"Water relations of adult Norway spruce (Picea abies (L) Karst) under soil drought in the Vosges mountains: whole-tree hydraulic conductance, xylem embolism and water loss regulation...

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về lâm nghiệp được đăng trên tạp chí lâm nghiệp quốc tế, đề tài: "Whole tree hydraulic conductance and water loss regulation in Quercus during drought: evidence for stomatal control of embolism?...

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  • The planet is a marvelous place: a place with blue skies, wild storms, deep lakes, and rich and diverse ecosystems. The tides ebb and flow, baby animals are born in the spring, and tropical rain forests harbor an astonishing array of life. The Earth sustains living things and provides humans with the resources to maintain a bountiful way of life: water, soil, and nutrients to grow food, and the mineral and energy resources to build and fuel modern society, among many other things.

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  • 6 Study on the Intra-Annual Distribution Characteristics of the Water Budget in the Hilly Region of Red Soil in Northeast Jiangxi Province, China Junfeng Dai, Jiazhou Chen, Yuanlai Cui, and Yuanqiu He 6.1 INTRODUCTION In northeast Jiangxi Province, water balance is important for water resource utilization and agricultural regionalization. In this region, the red soil is affected by the subtropical monsoon climate in which rainfall is abundant, but unevenly distributed (Chen and Zhang 2002). The high intensity of rainfall leads to water loss during the rainy season.

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  • The same amount of water has been present on our planet for about 4 billion years, since shortly after the Earth was formed. Since then it has cycled through evaporation, condensation, precipitation and surface runoff multiple times. Water scarcity as an abiotic factor ranging from moderate to severe stress levels, accompanied by loss of moisture in the soil, is extremely hard for most organisms to cope with, particularly terrestrial plants and their food-chain dependents.

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  • WATER PLAYS A CRUCIAL ROLE in the life of the plant. For every gram of organic matter made by the plant, approximately 500 g of water is absorbed by the roots, transported through the plant body and lost to the atmosphere. Even slight imbalances in this flow of water can cause water deficits and severe malfunctioning of many cellular processes. Thus, every plant must delicately balance its uptake and loss of water. This balancing is a serious challenge for land plants. To carry on photosynthesis, they need to draw carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, but doing so exposes them to...

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  • The Holistic Guide to Weight Loss, Anti-Aging and Fat Prevention offers solutions for society’s overweight epidemic and details how you can personally achieve and maintain a healthy weight while having greater energy and feeling more relaxed. You’ll learn how to view weight management as an important aspect of your overall health and take small, doable steps that will produce big results.

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  • Liddle's syndrome is a rare familial (autosomal dominant) disease characterized by hypertension, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, renal K + wasting, and suppressed renin and aldosterone secretion. Increased distal delivery of Na+ with a nonreabsorbable anion (not Cl–) enhances K+ secretion. Classically, this is seen with proximal (type 2)renal tubular acidosis (RTA) and vomiting, associated with bicarbonaturia. Diabetic ketoacidosis and toluene abuse (glue sniffing) can lead to increased delivery of β-hydroxybutyrate and hippurate, respectively, to the CCD and to renal K+ loss.

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  • IN NATURAL HABITATS, plants are surrounded by an enormous number of potential enemies. Nearly all ecosystems contain a wide variety of bacteria, viruses, fungi, nematodes, mites, insects, mammals, and other herbivorous animals. By their nature, plants cannot avoid these herbivores and pathogens simply by moving away; they must protect themselves in other ways. The cuticle (a waxy outer layer) and the periderm (secondary protective tissue), besides retarding water loss, provide barriers to bacterial and fungal entry.

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  • Extrarenal Nonrenal causes of hypovolemia include fluid loss from the gastrointestinal tract, skin, and respiratory system and third-space accumulations (burns, pancreatitis, peritonitis). Approximately 9 L of fluid enters the gastrointestinal tract daily, 2 L by ingestion and 7 L by secretion. Almost 98% of this volume is reabsorbed so that fecal fluid loss is only 100–200 mL/d. Impaired gastrointestinal reabsorption or enhanced secretion leads to volume depletion.

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  • Hypovolemia: Treatment The therapeutic goals are to restore normovolemia with fluid similar in composition to that lost and to replace ongoing losses. Symptoms and signs, including weight loss, can help estimate the degree of volume contraction and should also be monitored to assess response to treatment. Mild volume contraction can usually be corrected via the oral route. More severe hypovolemia requires intravenous therapy. Isotonic or normal saline (0.

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  • Table 46-3 Causes of Hypokalemia I. Decreased intake A. Starvation B. Clay ingestion II. Redistribution into cells A. Acid-base 1. Metabolic alkalosis B. Hormonal 1. Insulin 2. β2-Adrenergic agonists (endogenous or exogenous) 3. α-Adrenergic antagonists C. Anabolic state 1. Vitamin B12 or folic acid (red blood cell production) 2. Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (white blood cell production) 3. Total parenteral nutrition D. Other 1. Pseudohypokalemia 2. Hypothermia 3. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis 4. Barium toxicity III. Increased loss A.

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  • Anterior view of dermatomes (left) and cutaneous areas (right) supplied by individual peripheral nerves. (Modified from MB Carpenter and J Sutin, in Human Neuroanatomy, 8th ed, Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1983.) Figure 25-3 Posterior view of dermatomes (left) and cutaneous areas (right) supplied by individual peripheral nerves. (Modified from MB Carpenter and J Sutin, in Human Neuroanatomy, 8th ed, Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1983.)Temperature sensation, to both hot and cold, is best tested with small containers filled with water of the desired temperature.

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  • For this, credit is due to a set of economists and water quality engineers who were actively exploring the application of taxes to the problems of large, polluted watersheds. In the mid-1960s, large studies of the Delaware River Estuary were undertaken to assess, among other things, the desirability of using effluent charges to control pollutants. In 1967, Johnson reported that a “zoned” effluent charge program (where different tax levels were applied in different zones along the estuary) would cost half as much as a “uniform treatment” regulation.

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  • Algorithm depicting clinical approach to hyperkalemia. NSAID, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; ACE, angiotensin-converting enzyme; RTA, renal tubular acidosis; TTKG, transtubular K+ concentration gradient. The appropriate renal response to hyperkalemia is to excrete at least 200 mmol of K+ daily. In most cases, diminished renal K+ loss is due to impaired K+ secretion, which can be assessed by measuring the transtubular K + concentration gradient (TTKG).

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  • “The implementation of the National Policy requires a modernization of the legal framework, hence the importance of a new Water Act that allows the creation of institutions necessary …. It is essential to get politicians to internalize and take action, because so far, the IWRM Policy remains a reference document” (Costa Rica).

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