The generation of wastes as a result of human activities has been continuously speeding up since the beginning of the industrial revolution. Hence, both optimized waste water treatment technologies and modern tools to assess the effects of pollution sources are necessary to prevent the contamination of aquatic ecosystems The book offers an interdisciplinary collection of topics concerning waste water treatment technologies, water quality monitoring and evaluation of waste water impact on natural environments.
The detection of pharmaceutical residues remained elusive until instruments such as liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry became commonplace in environmental laboratories. The documentation of the occurrence of pharmaceutical residues and endocrine disrupting chemicals in water resources has raused questions about their long-term effects in the ecosystem and their potential effects on human health.
Critical aspects for the wider application of ultraviolet (UV) light in drinking water
treatment sometimes have been described, in spite of the success of the method as
established in the field:
• Absence of well-established and generally accepted design rules
• Absence of a permanently active residual agent in the treated water
• Suspicions of the possible photochemical formation of by-products
• Possibility of revival–reactivation by repair mechanisms of irradiated
• Need for operational control of the permanent reliability of the technique...
Economic development, population growth, and environmental pollution evolving in many parts of the world are placing great demands on existing resources of fresh water and reflecting a "water crisis". Resource management, efficient utilization of the water resources, and above all water purification are all alternatives to resolve the water crisis. Purification approaches include traditional approaches that have lasted for several centuries without major modifications as well as new innovative approaches....
The steady increase in industrialization, urbanization and enormous population
growth are leading to production of huge quantities of wastewaters that may frequently
cause environmental hazards. Raw or treated waste water is very oft en discharged
to freshwaters and results in changing ecological performance and biological diversity
of these systems. About 70% of water supplied ends up as wastewater and several natural
water reservoirs are being contaminated by untreated sewage/industrial effl uents.
This makes waste water treatment and waste water reduction very important issues....
Human activities may seriously affect the quality of aquatic ecosystems. Pathogen
organisms, nutrients, heavy metals, toxic elements, pesticides, pharmaceuticals and
various other organic micropollutants enter to aquatic environment through a range of
point and diffuse sources. The presence of these compounds has adverse impacts on
aquatic biota. It is well recognised that the distribution and the abundance of various
species in aquatic systems are directly related to the water quality and hydrological
This book is a result of contributions of experts from international scientific community working in different aspects of nanocomposite science and applications and reports on the state of the art research and development findings on nanocomposites through original and innovative research studies.