Without real-time intelligence about operational performance, network status, and customer demand, water utilities face the challenge of reacting swiftly to any change in these conditions.
Water utilities also experience the challenge of deteriorating water quality due to aging distribution piping and depleting water sources.
Water utilities have a long history of planning in preparation for emergencies,
particularly natural disasters. But contingency and emergency planning has taken on a
new dimension with current concern about potential threats to water system security. The
range of crises that have become plausible has expanded, and utilities now are
considering more robust security procedures and emergency plans than they have
historically had in place. When it comes to ensuring a water system’s security, few
utilities, regardless of size or geographic location, can function independently.
Economic development, population growth, and environmental pollution evolving in many parts of the world are placing great demands on existing resources of fresh water and reflecting a "water crisis". Resource management, efficient utilization of the water resources, and above all water purification are all alternatives to resolve the water crisis. Purification approaches include traditional approaches that have lasted for several centuries without major modifications as well as new innovative approaches....
Few services are more important in our country than providing high-quality potable water and
ensuring that wastewater is properly treated and returned to the environment. Most Americans take
for granted the tens of thousands of people who are employed daily in addressing America’s water
and wastewater needs. Utility managers are responsible for making sure that proper water and
wastewater services are provided to residents, businesses, industries, and other customers within a
community. Water and wastewater employees work in utility operations and administrative support
To tackle polluted source water, water utilities in the region are often forced to install expensive treatment
plants that can cost millions to install and operate. USDA economists estimate that removing nitrate alone
from drinking water costs more than $4.8 billion a year. The cost of dealing with algal blooms is particularly
daunting. The total capital cost of water treatment that would address cyanobacterial blooms and cyanotoxins,
can range between $12 million and $56 million for a town of 100,000 people.
Water-resource managers have long strived to meet their goals of system reliability and environmental protection in the face of many uncertainties, including demographic and economic forecasts, intrinsic weather variability, and short-term climate change induced by El Ni
This book aims to raise awareness of how the International Benchmarking Network of Water and Sanitation Utilities (IBNET)can help utilities identify ways to improve urban water and wastewater services. It provides an introduction to benchmarking and to the objectives, scope and focus of IBNET and describes some of its recent achievements. The methodology and data behind IBNET are elaborated, and an overview of IBNET results and country data are presented.
Water and wastewater utilities across the country are facing many common challenges,
including rising costs, aging infrastructure, increasingly stringent regulatory
requirements, population changes, and a rapidly changing workforce. Effective utility
management can help utilities respond to both current and future challenges and
support utilities in their common mission of being successful 21st century service
The Energy Efficiency Manual is your primary tool for improving energy efficiency and reducing
your utility costs. It is a comprehensive, step-by-step guide that is designed to help you manage
your activities effectively and with confidence.
The core of the Energy Efficiency Manual is 400 energy efficiency “Measures.” The Measures
have a standard format that makes it easy to organize them into an optimum efficiency program for
your facility. Refer to the inside of the front cover to learn how to exploit the Measures....
The utility of primer pairs in SCoTs was advocated by Gorji et al. (2011). SCoT
markers are generally reproducible, and it is suggested that primer length and annealing
temperature are not the sole factors determining reproducibility (Gorji et al., 2011). They are
dominant markers, however, while a number of co-dominant markers are also generated
during amplification, and thus they could be used for genetic diversity analysis (Collard &
Mackill, 2009b). This has been validated through study of genetic diversity among rice
varieties (Collard & Mackill, 2009b).
This book is one of the most comprehensive and up-to-date books written on Energy Efficiency. The readers will learn about different technologies for energy efficiency policies and programs to reduce the amount of energy. The book provides some studies and specific sets of policies and programs that are implemented in order to maximize the potential for energy efficiency improvement. It contains unique insights from scientists with academic and industrial expertise in the field of energy efficiency collected in this multi-disciplinary forum....
he goal is to provide tools for leaders to improve
both the environmental performance and overall competiveness by reducing
materials, energy and water utilization. Section 5 are papers related to sustainable
environment: all aspects of ecosystem for sustainable development, ecological
assessment and sustainability for the environment.
Study on the Intra-Annual Distribution Characteristics of the Water Budget in the Hilly Region of Red Soil in Northeast Jiangxi Province, China
Junfeng Dai, Jiazhou Chen, Yuanlai Cui, and Yuanqiu He
In northeast Jiangxi Province, water balance is important for water resource utilization and agricultural regionalization. In this region, the red soil is affected by the subtropical monsoon climate in which rainfall is abundant, but unevenly distributed (Chen and Zhang 2002). The high intensity of rainfall leads to water loss during the rainy season.
MINERAL NUTRIENTS ARE ELEMENTS acquired primarily in the form of inorganic ions from the soil. Although mineral nutrients continually cycle through all organisms, they enter the biosphere predominantly through the root systems of plants, so in a sense plants act as the “miners” of Earth’s crust (Epstein 1999). The large surface area of roots and their ability to absorb inorganic ions at low concentrations from the soil solution make mineral absorption by plants a very effective process.
They give sodium tail currents with relative longterm constants (Wright, et
al., 1988). At lower doses more suble repetitive behavior is seen (Brodie and Aldridge, 1982).
As with type I pyrethroids, the primary action is on the central nervous system, since
symptoms correlate well with brain concentrations (Rickard and Brodie, 1985). As might be
expected, both classes of parathyroid produce large increases in brain glucose utilization
(Cremer et al. 1983).
One dimensional nanoscale structures such as nanowires have drawn extensive research interests in recent years. The size miniature brings unique properties to nanowires due to quantum confinement. The large surface-to-volume ratio renders nanowires with high sensitivity to surface effects. The unique geometrical advantages and properties facilitate the utilization of nanowires in nano-electronics. InTech scientific publisher has initialized a series of books focusing on fundamental research in nanowires, which largely boosted the widespread of knowledge among the research society....
Populations in developing countries are growing so quickly that the land and
water are unable to sustain them. In most developing countries, prime farmland
and fresh water are already fully utilized. Although irrigation can be employed to
bring land in arid areas into production, it often leads to salinization. In some
countries, the amount of newly irrigated land is equalled by salinized irrigated
land going out of production. Moreover, irrigation water is often drawn from
river basins or aquifers shared by several countries, and friction over its use is
Non-point source controls washed off fields is the largest source of agricultural pollution in
the United States. Farmers may utilize to reduce runoff flows and retain soil on their fields. Common
techniques include contour plowing, crop mulching, crop rotation, planting perennial crops and
installing riparian buffers.
Nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus are typically applied to farmland as commercial fertilizer;
animal manure; or spraying of municipal or industrial waste water (effluent) or sludge.
TI warrants performance of its products to the specifications applicable at the time of
sale in accordance with TI’s standard warranty. Testing and other quality control
techniques are utilized to the extent TI deems necessary to support this warranty.
Specific testing of all parameters of each device is not necessarily performed, except
those mandated by government requirements.
In order to minimize risks associated with the customer’s applications, adequate design
and operating safeguards must be provided by the customer to minimize inherent or
procedural hazards. ...
A further example of process redesign for manufacturability is Boeing’s Point of Use system for chemical
materials. This enables the storage of materials where the production process utilizes them, as opposed
to the previous system which utilized centralized chemical disbursement centers that entailed frequent
machinist travel over substantial distances and greater overall chemical usage and waste. Generally, point
of use efforts enable the storage of materials where the production process utilizes them.