We have known the close connection between changing eletric fields
and magnetic fields. They can create each other and form a system of
Electromagnetic fields can propagate in the space (vacuum or material
environment). We call them electromagnetic waves. They play a very
important role in science and technology.
The purpose of this monograph is to formulate a quantitative and self-consistent theoretical
approach to wave–particle interactions occurring in space plasmas, and present
a logical development of the subject. In the Earth’s magnetosphere, Nature has given
us a plasma laboratory that is accessible to observations made by radio, magnetic and
electric instruments on the ground, and a great variety of instruments aboard rockets
and Earth-orbiting satellites. Spacecraft are making similar observations in the more
distant solar system.
Entrained oscillations in Ca
underlie many biological pacemaking phe-nomena. In this article, we review a long-range signaling mechanism in
smooth muscle that results in global outcomes of local interactions. Our
results are derived from studies of the following: (a) slow-wave depolariza-tions that underlie rhythmic contractions of gastric smooth muscle;
This book is concerned with Ultra-Low-Frequency (ULF)-electromagnetic
waves observed on the Earth and in Space. These are so-called geomagnetic
variations or pulsations. Alfv´en’s discovery related to the influence of the
strong magnetic field on the conducting fluids (magnetohydrodynamics) led
to development of the concept that the ULF-waves are magnetospheric magnetohydrodynamic
MHD-waves at their propagation gather information about the magnetosphere,
ionosphere, and the ground. There are two applied aspects based on
using the ULF electromagnetic oscillations.
An ocean wave is an undulation of the sea surface. Wave crest,Wave trough,Wave height,Wave lengt,Wave period
Progressive waves move across the sea surface.,Standing waves oscillate about a fixed point.
Wind velocity : Wind duration, Fetch (distance over which wind blows), Simply put, wave size increases as all
these factors increase.
This book deals with topics in atomic and molecular structure and
dynamics that are important to astronomy. Indeed, the topics selected
are of central interest to the field of astronomy, many having been initiated
by the needs of understanding worlds other than ours. Except
for some lunar surface material returned by the Apollo missions, and
material naturally delivered to us by cosmic rays, comets, and meteors,
our only access to the other worlds of our astronomical Universe is
through our observations of electromagnetic radiation from them.
Interference and diffraction of light are arguments for wave
charactiristics of light.
We know that there are two types of wave processes: transverse &
longitutional waves →to what are light waves belong ?
Study of polarization of light makes clear that
This conclusion is in according to the concept that light waves are
electromagnetic waves with a definte band of frequencies. Recall that
electromagnetic waves are transervse waves in which e-vectors &
m-vectors oscillate in such follwing directions...
It has been a great pleasure for me to have prepared the latest edition of my
book on nonlinear optics. My intrigue in the subject matter of this book is as
strong as it was when the first edition was published in 1992.
The principal changes present in the third edition are as follows: (1) The
book has been entirely rewritten using the SI system of units. I personally
prefer the elegance of the gaussian system of units, which was used in the first
two editions, but I realize that most readers would prefer the SI system, and
the change was made for this reason. (2) In...
Nano, a word derived from the Greek wordνανoς(nanos, which translated denotes
“dwarf”), is nowadays a synonym for a whole research area—the nanosciences.
One area within this huge research field is nano-optics, where the response of a
nanoparticle to an incoming light wave is investigated. In detail, nanoparticles made
of noble metals evoke a special interest, since these particles show a strong response
to the incoming light wave.