This book represents recent progress and development of the photodiodes including the fundamental reviews and the specific applications developed by the authors themselves. The key idea of this book is that it allows authors to deal with a wide range of backgrounds and research progresses in photodiode-related areas. With respect to the original collection of the book chapters, this book contains several improvements and new problems and related solutions are also discussed in the areas from fundamental physics and design to device and circuit applications....
Solar energy is defined as that radiant energy transmitted by the sun and intercepted by earth. It is
transmitted through space to earth by electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging between
0.20 and 15 microns.
Microwaves are generally considered to be a specific part of the wide radio
frequency spectrum. The band from 300 MHz to 30 GHz is typically considered
to be “microwaves,” for example by the Institute of Electrical end
Electronics Engineers (IEEE), although many of us prefer to set the lower
limit somewhat higher—perhaps at 1 or even 3 GHz. Above 30 GHz, the
term “millimeter waves” is used. High school physics suggests that we are
talking about wavelengths ranging from about 30 cm down to 10 mm...
Siemens Milltronics Process Instruments has a long and successful
history specializing in the manufacture of equipment for industrial
process measurement. Based in Peterborough, Canada, Siemens
Milltronics (PI2) is now a key member of the Sensors and Commu
nication division within the Siemens Industry division, supplying
instrumentation across the globe.
Founded in 1954 by Stuart Daniel, a former employee of Canadian
General Electric, the company began as Milltronics and engineered
electronic ball mill grinding controls for the cement and mining
The role of the optical transmitter is to convert an electrical input signal into the corresponding optical signal and then launch it into the optical ﬁber serving as a communication channel. The major component of optical transmitters is an optical source. Fiber-optic communication systems often use semiconductor optical sources such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and semiconductor lasers because of several inherent advantages offered by them.
Color plays an essential role in our day-to-day lives. From birth we are taught to react to colors logically or emotionally. Colors have meaning, which vary from culture to culture and continent to continent. It governs and controls traffic, triggers strong emotions, and is used to describe moods. Light, perceived by the human eye, is the product of electromagnetic waves in a small range of wavelengths. Different wavelengths are perceived as different colors.
The term microwaves may be used to describe electromagnetic (EM) waves with frequencies ranging from 300 MHz to 300 GHz, which correspond to wavelengths (in free space) from 1 m to 1 mm. The EM waves with frequencies above 30 GHz and up to 300 GHz are also called millimeter waves because their wavelengths are in the millimeter range (1–10 mm). Above the millimeter wave spectrum is the infrared, which comprises electromagnetic waves with wavelengths between 1 m (10–6 m) and 1 mm. Beyond the infrared spectrum is the visible optical spectrum, the ultraviolet spectrum, and x-rays.
Regions and gates can be made to better separate and analyze populations of interest.
Furthermore, on the basis that the dyes used to stain cells have overlapping emission
spectra, the compensation is normally made to reduce interference.
While basic instruments may only permit the simultaneous collection of two or three
fluorescence signals, the more complex and expensive research instruments mean that it is
possible to obtain more than 14 parameters (Winson & Davey, 2000; Chattopadhyay et al.,
2008) depending on the laser equipment utilized.
Light is just one portion of the various electromagnetic waves flying
through space. The electromagnetic spectrum covers an extremely broad range,
from radio waves with wavelengths of a meter or more, down to x-rays with
wavelengths of less than a billionth of a meter. Optical radiation lies between
radio waves and x-rays on the spectrum, exhibiting a unique mix of ray, wave,
and quantum properties.
Temperature Measurement of Transparent Solid Bodies
Pyrometric, Contactless Method
All solid bodies which partially or totally transmit thermal radiation in the wavelength of visible and infrared radiation, are classified as transparent bodies . The notation used to consider pyrometric methods for measuring the surface temperature of solid bodies has already been introduced in Section 8.2. It will be recalled that solid bodies, which have a transmission factor limited to a = 0, are non-transparent bodies in the whole range of wavelengths used in optical pyrometry .
Transparent heat mirror thin films have high transmittance in the visible range of wavelength and high reflectance in the infrared range of wavelength. TiO2/TiN/TiO2 films prepared via a D.C reactive magnetron sputtering method on Corning glass and Alkali glass substrates, serve as transparent heat mirrors. The outer TiO2 layer has both the photo-catalytic and anti-reflective properties. The experiment data showed that the film thickness required for photocatalytic properties exceeds 350nm.
Raman spectroscopy and optical second-harmonic (SH) spectroscopy has a very important role in studies of optical properties of materials. Our goal is to build a spectrometry system to measure weak optical signals such as Raman scattering and surface SH signals. We studied to improve an old Double Grating Spectrograph GDM-1000 (Carl Zeiss, Jena, Germany) for wider range of wavelengths and transformed it successfully into a spectrometry system coupling with computer using Lock-in amplification technique. ...