The wavelength shift effect of the Whispering Gallery Mode (WGM) laser with Er3+ /Yb3+ co-doped phosphate glass microsphere has been investigated. The experiment was carried out by half fiber taper coupling technique. The microsphere lasers have been pumped at 980 nm to take full advantage of energy transfer effect from ion Ytterbium to ion Erbium. The WGM’s wavelength shift were analyzed for sphere diameters of 90 µm. The observed lasing lines extends from 1532 nm to 1611 nm.
Although we are well into the fourth decade since the advent of the laser, the number
and type of lasers and their wavelength coverage continue to expand. One seeking a
photon source is now confronted with an enormous number of possible lasers and laser
wavelengths. In addition, various techniques of frequency conversion—harmonic
generation, optical parametric oscillation, sum- and difference-frequency mixing, and
Raman shifting—can be used to enlarge the spectral coverage.
In the previous chapter, the transfer matrix method (TMM) was introduced to solve the coupled wave equations in DFB laser structures. Its efﬁciency and ﬂexibility in aiding the analysis of DFB semiconductor LDs has been explored theoretically. A general N-sectioned DFB laser model was built which comprised active/passive and corrugated/planar sections. In this chapter, the N-sectioned laser model will be used in the practical design of the DFB laser. The spatial hole burning effect (SHB)  has been known to limit the performance of DFB LDs.
The extent to which an organic molecule absorbs electromagnetic radiation in the ultraviolet region (UV light) depends on the structure of the molecule. Generally, molecules that contain one single double bond absorb weakly in the UV region. However, if multiple double bonds are present in a molecule and they are conjugated, the molecule absorbs more strongly and the absorbance is shifted to longer wavelengths. The pH of the mobile-phase effects the ionization of ionogenic solutes and also the analyte UV response.
Sudden shifting of the ocean floor due to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and submarine slumping. open ocean: short heights, long wavelengths (100 km), and long periods 400500 mph!!! shallow water: their length shortens and their
height increases dramatically. These are NOT tidal waves
The introduction of semiconductor lasers has boosted the development of coherent optical communication systems. With the built-in wavelength selection mechanism, distributed feedback semiconductor laser diodes with a higher gain margin are superior to the Fabry– Perot laser in that a single longitudinal mode of lasing can be achieved. In this chapter, results obtained from the threshold analysis of conventional and singlephase-shifted DFB lasers will be investigated. In particular, structural impacts on the threshold characteristic will be discussed in a systematic way. ...
Sudden shifting of the ocean floor due to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and submarine slumping.open ocean: short heights, long wavelengths (100 km), and long periods 400-500 mph!!! shallow water: their length shortens and
their height increases dramatically...
Prolamellar bodies (PLB) contain two photochemically active forms of the enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase POR-PChlide640 and POR-PChlide650 (the spectral forms of POR-Chlide complexes with absorption maxima at the indicated wavelengths). Resuspension of maize PLB in media with a pH below 6.8 leads to a rapid conversion of POR-PChlide650 to POR-PChlide640 and a dramatic re-organization of the PLB membrane system. In the absence of excess NADPH, the absorption maximum of the POR complex undergoes a further shift to about 635 nm....