“Earth is a unique planet, possibly one of the few in the galaxy that has water. Nearly 71% of it’s surface is ocean. From
space, Earth is brilliantly blue, white in places with clouds and ice, sometimes swirling with storms. At it’s surface the ocean is in constant motion with powerful currents that stretch for thousands of miles and towering waves. Beneath the ocean’s
surface lie hidden mountain ranges, vast trenches tens of thousands of feet deep, immense hot springs, and huge volcanoes
spewing molten rock in massive eruptions.”...
Each year, typically in the summer, the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and
Climate selects a topic for special study (often called our “summer study”). Our
goal is to organize an informal workshop where scientists and agency staff can
share information about current issues in the atmospheric sciences, meteorology,
and climate. These events are a forum for frank discussions and creative inter-
action, and sometimes lead us to develop more in-depth activities.
Weather natural hazards, the environment and climate change are of concern to all of
us. Especially, it is essential to understand how human activities might impact the
nature. Hence, monitoring, research, and forecasting is of the outmost importance.
Furthermore, climate change and pollution of the environment do not obey national
borders; so, international collaboration on these issues is indeed extremely important.
Extreme weather is hitting all regions of the globe with increasing
severity. Despite the damage that can and will be caused from these
extreme weather events, certain industries will nevertheless benefit
and certain industries will be hurt. It is the purpose of this book to identify
and evaluate the sectors, industries, companies, and more specifically the
particular stocks, bonds, and futures that will be the winners and losers
as extreme weather events continue to impact the Earth. Every investment
idea in this book will work under the current, global climate condition.
This book offers an interdisciplinary view of the biophysical issues related to climate change. Climate change is a phenomenon by which the long-term averages of weather events (i.e. temperature, precipitation, wind speed, etc.) that define the climate of a region are not constant but change over time. There have been a series of past periods of climatic change, registered in historical or paleoecological records.
Climate change is a long-term shift in the statistics of the weather (including its
averages). For example, it could show up as a change in climate normalcy (expected
average values for temperature and precipitation) for a given place and time of year,
from one decade to the next. We know that the global climate is currently changing.
The last decade of the 20th Century and the beginning of the 21st have been the
warmest periods in the entire global instrumental temperature record, starting in the
This book provides a general introduction to the popular topic of climate variability. It explores various aspects of climate variability and change from different perspectives, ranging from the basic nature of low-frequency atmospheric variability to the adaptation to climate variability and change. This easy and accessible book can be used by professionals and non professionals alike.
In case of the control period (1961-1990), the initial and the lateral boundary conditions for
the regional model are taken from (i) the ERA-40 reanalysis database (Uppala et al., 2005)
using 1° horizontal resolution, compiled by the European Centre for Medium-range
Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), and (ii) the HadCM3 ocean-atmosphere coupled GCM using
~150 km as a horizontal resolution. For the validation of the PRECIS results CRU TS
1.2 (Mitchell & Jones, 2005) datasets were used.
The National Research Council was mandated by the government to research the use of space-based observation of the earth in order to determine environmental changes. The committees were asked to determine the questions that should be addressed, taking into account the intended federal and local agencies that would use the data acquired. They then had to prioritize the experiments and observations knowing that it will be impossible to fund them all. The results make extremely sobering reading.
The coeﬃcient of interest, γ1, is the percentage eﬀect of HNC on air pollution. The vector of
covariates, xt, includes indicator variables for month of the year, day of the week, and hour of the
day as well as interactions between weekends and hour of the day. In addition, xt includes weather
variables including current and 1-hour lags of quartics in temperature, humidity, and wind speed.
Equation (1) is ﬁrst estimated using least squares (OLS) for four diﬀerent time windows rang-
ing from 1986-1993 to 1989-1990.
Our aim is to minimise the harm caused by flooding. This involves reducing the likelihood of flooding and
reducing the impacts when flooding occurs. At the same time there are underlying pressures that are increasing
risk, such as climate change, housing development or changes in land use. Sometimes we can affect these
drivers, for example by influencing planning and land development. There are, however, other drivers that are
beyond our direct influence, such as climate change impacts on the weather and sea level rise.
This is the first of two reports that address the complex issue of incorporating the needs of climate research
into the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS, which has
been driven by the imperative of reliably providing short-term weather information, is itself a union of heretofore
separate civilian and military programs. It is a marriage of convenience to eliminate needless duplication and
reduce cost, one that appears to be working.
Water-resource managers have long strived to meet their goals of system reliability and environmental protection in the face of many uncertainties, including demographic and economic forecasts, intrinsic weather variability, and short-term climate change induced by El Ni
At higher temperatures, developed economies face a growing risk of large-scale
shocks - for example, the rising costs of extreme weather events could affect global
financial markets through higher and more volatile costs of insurance.
Integrated assessment models provide a tool for estimating the total impact on
the economy; our estimates suggest that this is likely to be higher than
The World Bank’s mission is to alleviate poverty and support sustainable development. Climate
change is a serious environmental challenge that could undermine these goals. Since the
Industrial Revolution, the mean surface temperature of Earth has increased an average 2°
Celsius due to the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Most of this change
has occurred in the past 30 to 40 years, and the rate of increase is accelerating. These rising
temperatures will have significant impacts at a global scale and at local and regional levels.
No longer is climate change only studied by scientists. Increasingly policy makers
and citizens, including students, are discussing and grappling with serious climate
change issues facing Wisconsin and the planet.
Students are ready to learn and explore this complex topic and its importance in
their world. They are energy consumers today as well as tomorrow’s voters. They
have the ability to continue on the same track or to help slow climate change.
1) Begin class in the dark today. If possible,
close blinds and turn off lights. Ask students
if they know where their electricity comes
from. Is it from a coal-fired power plant?
Hydro-electric? Wind energy? Is the plant
nearby? Have this discussion in the dark.
2) Turn on the lights and point out the ease
with which the room was supplied electricity.
Where does the power originate? Explain that
students will investigate this today in class.
Governing Water (2004 – 2007) is a project funded by the European Commission. The aim is to raise awareness and promote dialogue on good governance, using water as a discussion issue, within and between communities in Fiji. More than 40 rural and urban communities on Viti Levu and Vanua Levu have participated in the Governing Water project. Through Governing Water, over 300 community facilitators and schoolteachers have been trained.
The essential oil industry is under threat from numerous issues at present. Rising
agricultural input costs, particularly petrochemical based fertilizers and fuels are squeezing
farmers’ profit margins. Rising food prices and the increasing value of housing and industrial
land prices is creating competition for land, particularly around populated areas. Adverse
weather conditions and changing climate are creating both short and long term problems.
Poor crop yields are occurring much more regularly than before because of unusually heavy
rain, hail, floods, heat-waves and cold snaps....
Over the past several years, scientists, public health officials, and policy
makers have become increasingly interested in understanding how the emergence
and spread of infectious diseases could be affected by environmental factors,
particularly variations in climate. In September 1995 the Institute of Medicine/
National Academy of Sciences and the National Science and Technology Council
held a Conference on Human Health and Global Climate Change.