fixed and variable general production costs incurred in the process of turning raw materials and materials into finished products.
Fixed general production costs means indirect production costs, which are often invariable regardless of the volume of manufactured products, such as depreciation cost, maintenance cost of machinery, equipment, workshops… and administrative management cost at production workshops.
Large lakes are important because of their size and
ecological distinctiveness, as well as their economic and
cultural value. Optimal management of them requires a
proper understanding of anthropogenic impacts, both on
the lake ecosystems, as such and on the services they
provide for society. The specific structural and functional
properties of large lakes, e.g. morphology,
hydrography, biogeochemical cycles, and food-web
structure, are all directly related to their size.
First, even in these practical examples, evolutionary
knowledge does not often change what a physician does
in his or her day-to-day practice; instead, it guides
research, as in the example of jaundice. Treatment deci-
sions are, and should be, based on controlled studies on
humans, not on theory or on experiments performed on
model organisms alone. Darwinian medicine does not
often give direct practice guidelines.
Second, merely listing quick applications sells evolution-
ary biology short.
Moreover, school financial aid officials said that under
the Direct Loan Program they were also able to easily change the amount
of a loan if needed. For example, schools can adjust the amount of a
Direct Loan to reflect changes in students’ courseload or increases in grant
and scholarship aid—events that could affect the loan amount available to
borrowers. The fourth factor—ease of tracking student loans over time—
was important because the Direct Loan Program improved the loan
process for students.