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  • Periodontitis is a chronic infection that results from the interaction of periodontopathogenic bacteria and host inflammatory and immune responses and is the most common bacterial infection worldwide. Estimates reveal that 10-15 % of adults have advanced periodontitis, and periodontal disease can contribute to widespread oral health dysfunction and enhanced susceptibility to other systemic diseases (Pussinen et al. 2007).

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  • This book, which presents- standing work from leading researchers HRI includes a wide spectrum of leading ics, is an attempt to capture and present some of the important contributions of HRI a volume. I hope that this book will bring benefits to both experts and novices and professional Vide an insight into the exciting field of HRI.

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  • Pathogenic Mechanisms Enteric pathogens have developed a variety of tactics to overcome host defenses. Understanding the virulence factors employed by these organisms is important in the diagnosis and treatment of clinical disease. Inoculum Size The number of microorganisms that must be ingested to cause disease varies considerably from species to species. For Shigella, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Giardia lamblia, or Entamoeba, as few as 10–100 bacteria or cysts can produce infection, while 105–108Vibrio cholerae organisms must be ingested orally to cause disease.

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  • Managing water for all is not only a question of resource availability and money, but also a matter of good governance. Water involves a wide range of stakeholders at basin, municipal, regional, national and international levels. In the absence of effective public governance to manage interdependencies across policy areas and between levels of government, policymakers inevitably face obstacles to effectively designing and implementing water reforms. In addition, good governance and financial sustainability are inextricably linked.

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  • In order to establish the preferred shopping places for food, consumers were asked to indicate what shop they traditionally buy their groceries from. Six places were identified from past research as: supermarket, spaza shops (which are common in rural areas), Grocery stores, Farmers markets such as the Kei Fresh produce in Mthatha or the farmers market in Wilsonia, East London, Street vendors or the farm gate. Respondents’ were free to mark all the choices. An overwhelming majority of the respondents, 96% in the Transkei and 89.

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  • The Bank assumes that the four types of capital it identifies are substitutable, in other words that the economy is a self-sufficient system, rather than a subsystem of a finite ecosystem, dependent upon the latter for inputs, sinks and life-support functions. The “weak sustainability” approach which forms the basis of genuine savings calculations assumes that there are no ecological limits, only moments when the economy may stumble a little before adapting (for example by inventing new technologies or finding new raw materials) without critical damage occuring.

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  • Earnings occupy a central position in accounting. It is accounting's summary measure of a firm's performance. Despite theoretical models that value cash flows, accounting earnings is widely used in share valuation and to measure performance in management and debt contracts. Various explanations have been advanced to explain the prominence of accounting earnings and the reasons for its usage. An example is that earnings reflects cash flow forecasts (e.g., Beaver, 1989, p. 98; and Dechow, 1994) and has a higher correlation with value than current does cash flow (e.g.

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  • It is not generally appreciated that early examples of critical path networks were developed before 1950, although their value was not widely appreciated at the time. Without the existence of computers, they were inflexible to change, tedious to translate into working schedules and thus impracticable and difficult to use. Gantt’s bar charts were generally preferred, often set up on proprietary charts that allowed rescheduling using movable magnetic or plug-in strips or cards.

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  • We hope that readers will find valuable information and interesting new material in the chapters of it. Since biomass means many things to so many people, it is no wonder that original book title, Remote sensing of biomass has attracted a series of papers, many of them very far from remote sensing topics. If there is an odd number that can not be filed in accordance with the subject at all, the choice will be simple. check quality of the paper and if it is good, the authors suggest that it would be better to works elsewhere....

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  • In the study performed by Purushotham et al. (2011) showed that about 28% of total hardness in the study site exceeded the desirable limits at 600 mg L-1. Naturally, the water hardness is due to the presence of alkaline earths such as calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg). Excess of magnesium affects the soil quality, which results in poor crops yield. The high concentration of magnesium and calcium can cause decrease in water quality and may cause encrustation in the water supply structure.

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  • The scientific literature suggests that the best unit to assess ecosystems is the 'socio-ecological system (SES)' (Gallopin, 1991, Glaser, 2008). SES integrates ecosystem functions and dynamics as well as human activities and the interactions of all these. The SES is equivalent to the SNA's institutional unit. Considering the production of ecosystem services, and in particular provisioning services, SESs are more or less homogenous.

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  • The industrial discharge carries various types of contaminants to the river, lake and groundwater. The quality of freshwater is very important as it is highly consumed by human for drinking, bathing, irrigation and etc. The presence of contaminants from industrial contaminant within the water may reduce the yield of crops and the growth of plant and it will harmful to the aquatic living organism too.

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  • Take molecular genetics and bioinformatics for example; these are perhaps two of the most exciting areas of biology and are beginning to have an impact on other areas of medical therapeutics such as cancer and diabetes, and provide a signpost to ‘personalised medicine’. Yet recent genome wide association (GWAS) studies of large samples, have demonstrated that in schizophrenia around 1000 or more genetic variants of low penetrance may be implicated in the heritability of schizophrenia.

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  • The past fifty years have witnessed two simultaneous and accelerating trends: an explosive growth in population and a steep increase in resource depletion and environmental degradation. These trends have fueled the debate on the link between population and environment that began 150 years earlier, when Malthus voiced his concern about the ability of the earth and its finite resources to feed an exponentially growing population.

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  • Although interior design involves creative solutions that can be fairly subjective, a set of quantifiable design criteria has long been accepted in the industry. Specifically, such criteria deter- mine whether the design is functional and suitable for human in- habitants. Panero and Zelnick [1979] conducted a detailed study on human dimensions and ergonomics, by carefully defining met- rics such as height, width, reachable-range, and visibility, which are believed to be conducive to functional and comfortable de- signs.

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  • In this paper we develop a contingent valuation model for zero-coupon bonds with de- fault. In order to emphasize the role of maturity time and place of the lender’s claim in the hierarchy of debt of a Þrm, we consider a Þrm that issues two bonds with different ma- turities and different seniorage. The model allows us to analyze the implications of both debt renegotiation and capital structure of a Þrm on the prices of bonds.

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  • For new information to be valuable it must, of course, actually be new information. If new cost estimation or accounting procedures simply confirm existing beliefs, they have little likelihood of contributing to changes in decision-making, and thus little likelihood of adding value. Environmental accounting techniques will be most valuable when they correct beliefs that are biased or when they focus on issues subject to high degrees of uncertainty. A focus in much of the environmental accounting literature is on the failure to quantify environmental benefits and costs.

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  • The price premium charged for competitive-market products depends on several factors including the price of standard offer or default service, the availability of incentives to green power marketers or suppliers, and the cost of renewable energy generation available in the regional market. Some marketers have charged prices close to or even below the default market price in recent years (e.g., in Texas); others have offered fixed-price products, providing customers with protection against increasing prices for a specified period of time, usually one year.

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  • To get interested consumers to your website, the site needs to be visible to surfers using Google. Why is Google so important? The research firm Hitwise which measures Web audiences, estimates that Google has 72% of the US search engine market, versus 17.9 % for Yahoo. Microsoft’s two search services, MSN and Live.com, constitute a distant third, at a combined 5.4 percent. Many website owners who track where their visitors come from report that Google’s search engine now refers 80 to 90% of their visitors. 2 For optimal results on Google you will want...

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  • The writing of second language learners of English often presents problems that are different from those found in the writing of native English speaking students. These include culturally conditioned rhetorical patterns that sound ‘strange’ to the native speaker ear as well as unfamiliar grammatical errors that are simply not found in native speaker writing.

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