It is remarkable to see the rapid increase in interest in the health of men since
the mid-1980s. We have moved from a position where there was almost
complete silence on the subject, an absence that was reflected not only in
policy and clinical practice but also within the academic community, to this
now being recognized as an area of major importance.
This report on "Health Work in the Public Schools" is one of the 25 sections of the report of the Educational
Survey of Cleveland conducted by the Survey Committee of the Cleveland Foundation in 1915. Twenty-three
of these sections will be published as separate monographs. In addition there will be a larger volume giving a
summary of the findings and recommendations relating to the regular work of the public schools, and a second
similar volume giving the summary of those sections relating to industrial education.
The relationship between supply and demand for human bodily material is, moreover, a
complex one. 'Demand' for material is inherently elastic: as scientific developments make more
treatments possible, the demand for that treatment is likely to increase, and the development of
alternatives may lead to more people overall being treated, rather than necessarily reducing
The aesthetic enjoyment we have in music and in the phantasy-feelings to which it gives rise
reflects further, however, a special functional relationship between the sound- Gestalten and the
feelings we experience: the nature or quality of a given phantasy-feeling depends at least in part
on the character of the music which provokes it. As Mach and James, Ehrenfels and Witasek all
in different ways recognised, there is a certain similarity between sound-Gestalten on the one
hand and the psychical states to which they give rise, a fact which opens up the much wider...
Second, within the wider pattern of concurrent care, we identified a more complex
relationship between the two broader provider groups – for high users of GPs, consultation
with some CAM practitioners (eg. acupuncturists) is associated with less frequent visits with
a GP. It is possible that this finding reflects a change in women’s health-seeking behaviour as
a result of what they perceive as a discouraging response by their GPs to their concerns or
In the early theoretical models, the level of stress of
caregivers was seen as a risk factor that linked elder
abuse with care of an elderly relative (36, 37).
While the popular image of abuse depicts a
dependent victim and an overstressed caregiver,
there is growing evidence that neither of these
factors properly accounts for cases of abuse.
Although researchers do not deny the component
of stress, they tend now to look at it in a wider
context in which the quality of the overall
relationship is a causal factor (30, 34, 38).
With regard to wider equipment safety considerations, there are many national and
international standards for medical devices, whose intention is to ensure the safety of
equipment in respect of, for example electrical, mechanical, and software hazards. This
report is not intended to duplicate these standards and processes. Where such standards
and their relationship with radiation safety issues are sufficiently mature, their requirements
have been referenced but not reproduced here. This is the case in many aspects of
radiotherapy (Sections 1.5 and 4).
Professional ethics is now acknowledged as a field of study in its own
right. Much of its recent development has resulted from rethinking
traditional medical ethics in the light of new moral problems arising
out of advances in medical science and technology. Applied
philosophers, ethicists and lawyers have devoted considerable energy
to exploring the dilemmas emerging from modern health care practices
and their effects on the practitioner-relationship.
Internationally, it describes how we must work more intensively with the European
Union and through our bilateral relationships with countries all around the world to
shape an international environment that supports openness. It sets out how
Governments can collaborate to manage new global challenges such as climate
change, food security, natural resource pressures and the impact of new technologies.