There is a basic law in thermodynamics; the law of conservation of energy, which states that
energy may neither be created nor destroyed just can be transformed. Nature is an expert using
this physics fundamental law favouring life and evolution of species all around the planet, it
can be said that we are accustomed to live under this law that we do not pay attention to its
existence and how it influence our lives.
Over the past decade, there has been a prolific increase in the research, development
and commercialisation of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and their associated technologies
(see Figure 1). This rise has been a result of a number of contributing factors,
including continued miniaturisation (leading towards an era of truly ‘pervasive’ and
‘invisible’ computing); low-power circuits, devices and computation (for example, the
ultra-low-power sleep states now found in microcontrollers); and efficient short-range
communication (such as ZigBee and Bluetooth).
Wireless Sensor Networking is one of the most important new technologies of the
century and has been identified to see significant grow in the next decades. Wireless
sensor networks are power-efficient, small-size and communicate wirelessly among each
other to cooperatively monitor and access the properties of their targeted environments.
Applications reach from health monitoring, through industrial and environmental
monitoring to safety applications.
Wireless Sensor Networks came into prominence around the start of this millennium
motivated by the omnipresent scenario of small-sized sensors with limited power deployed
in large numbers over an area to monitor different phenomenon. The sole motivation
of a large portion of research efforts has been to maximize the lifetime of the
network, where network lifetime is typically measured from the instant of deployment
to the point when one of the nodes has expended its limited power source and becomes
in-operational – commonly referred as first node failure....
For the past decade, there has been rapid development and advancement in the communication
and sensor technologies that results in the growth of a new, attractive and
challenging research area – the wireless sensor network (WSN). A WSN, which typically
consists of a large number of wireless sensor nodes formed in a network fashion,
is deployed in environmental fields to serve various sensing and actuating applications.
A WSN is composed of a large number of sensor nodes that are communicating using a
wireless medium. The sensor nodes are deployed in the environment to be monitored in ad
hoc structure. In WSN, there is sink node that collects data from all sensors, and usually not
all nodes hear all other nodes. WSN is considered a multi-hop network.
In the early 21st century, research and development on sustainable energy harvesting
(EH) technologies have started. Since then, many EH technologies have evolved,
advanced and even been successfully developed into hardware prototypes for proof
of concept like Helimote, AmbiMax, et al. Researchers from all around the world are
devoting their precious time and efforts into finding a realistic and novel energy
harvesting solutions for sustaining the operational lifetime of low‐power electronic
devices like mobile gadgets, smart wireless sensor networks, etc....
Many exciting impacts on our daily life are shortly anticipated due to recent advances
in wireless communication networks that enable real-time multimedia services to be
provided via mobile broadband Internet on a wide variety of terminal devices. The
trend is mainly driven by the evolution of wireless networks and advanced wireless
information and communication technology (ICT).
Wireless technology has enormous potential to change the way people and things communicate. Future wireless networks will allow people on the move to communicate with anyone, anywhere, and at any time using a range of high-performance multimedia services. Wireless video will support applications such as enhanced social networking, distance learning and remote medicine. Wireless sensor networks can also enable a new class of intelligent home electronics, smart and energy-efficient buildings and highways, and in-body networks for analysis and treatment of medical conditions....
Sputtering is similar to vacuum deposition. In this method, an inert gas such as argon or helium is introduced into a chamber that contains anode and cathode electrodes supplied by an external high-voltage source. The anode contains the sample to be deposited on and the cathode contains the deposited material. The principle is that the high voltage ignites a plasma effect in the inert gas and the gas ions bombard the target containing the material to be deposited. When the kinetic energy of the bombarding ions is sufﬁciently high, some of the atoms from the target surface are freed and...
Energy harvesting from ambient waste energy for the purpose of running low-powered electronics
has emerged during the last decade as an enabling technology for wireless applications.
The goal of this technology is to provide remote sources of electric power and/or to recharge
storage devices, such as batteries and capacitors. The concept has ecological ramifications in
reducing the chemical waste produced by replacing batteries and potential monetary gains by
reducing maintenance costs.
In recent years, it was realized that the Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) communication
systems seems to be inevitable in accelerated evolution of high data rates
applications. The MIMO systems, have received considerable att ention of researchers
and commercial companies due to their potential to dramatically increase the spectral
effi ciency and simultaneously sending individual information to the corresponding
users in wireless systems.
We are all witnesses that the beginning of the 21st century in technological terms is
dedicated to mobile communications - they are everywhere: smartphones, Ipads, ereaders,
and many other wireless devices. Once a fiction, today is a reality – music on
demand, video on demand, live video conversation via IP on a tablet. What will be the
next technological achievement that will have such huge impact on human living? I
dare to predict that the second half of this century will by highly influenced by mobile
robotics – robots will become ubiquitous décor in everyday life....
Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) are a fundamental element of pervasive networks,
where user can communicate anywhere, any time and on-the-fl y. MANETs introduce
a new communication paradigm, which does not require a fi xed infrastructure - they
rely on wireless terminals for routing and transport services. This edited volume
covers the most advanced research and development in MANET. It seeks to provide an
opportunity for readers to explore the emerging fi elds about MANET.
Radio Frequency Identifi cation (RFID) is a modern wireless data transmission and reception
technique for applications including automatic identifi cation, asset tracking
and security surveillance. As barcodes and other means of identifi cation and asset
tracking are inadequate for recent demands, RFID technology has att racted interest for
applications such as logistics, supply chain management, asset tracking, and security
Wireless sensor networks promise an unprecedented fine-grained interface
between the virtual and physical worlds. They are one of the most rapidly developing
new information technologies, with applications in a wide range of fields
including industrial process control, security and surveillance, environmental
sensing, and structural health monitoring. This book is motivated by the urgent
need to provide a comprehensive and organized survey of the field.
Novel generation wireless system is a packet switched wireless system with wide area
coverage and high throughput. It is designed to be cost effective and to provide high spectral
efficiency . The 4th wireless uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing, Ultra Wide
Radio Band and millimeter wireless and smart antenna. Highly directive, planar UWB
antennas are gaining more and more attention, as required in many novel and important
This book “Communications and Networking” focuses on the issues at the lowest two layers
of communications and networking and provides recent research results on some of these
issues. In particular, it fi rst introduces recent research results on many important issues at the
physical layer and data link layer of communications and networking and then briefl y shows
some results on some other important topics such as security and the application of wireless
This book has been prepared to present state of the art on WiMAX Technology. It has
been constructed with the support of many researchers around the world, working on
resource allocation, quality of service and WiMAX applications. Such many different
works on WiMAX, show the great worldwide importance of WiMAX as a wireless
broadband access technology.