Word usage

Xem 1-20 trên 95 kết quả Word usage
  • The vast majority of work on word senses has relied on predefined sense inventories and an annotation schema where each word instance is tagged with the best fitting sense. This paper examines the case for a graded notion of word meaning in two experiments, one which uses WordNet senses in a graded fashion, contrasted with the “winner takes all” annotation, and one which asks annotators to judge the similarity of two usages.

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  • The A–Z of Correct English is a reference book which has been written for The student and The general reader. It aims to tackle The basic questions about spelling, punctuation, grammar and word usage that The student and The general reader are...

    pdf203p yeungoaingu 23-04-2009 676 458   Download

  • As you begin English Grammar Demystifi ed, get ready for a different learning experience. English Grammar Demystifi ed will help you better understand and use the English language, but you will fi nd that this book takes a different approach from the usual English improvement text. In the fi rst two parts of this book, you will learn the basics of English grammar with a thorough overview of the parts of speech and punctuation and capitalization rules.

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  • In this paper we introduce the novel task of “word epoch disambiguation,” defined as the problem of identifying changes in word usage over time. Through experiments run using word usage examples collected from three major periods of time (1800, 1900, 2000), we show that the task is feasible, and significant differences can be observed between occurrences of words in different periods of time.

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  • 400 Must-Have Words for the TOEFL® will help you improve your score on the TOEFL test. In particular, this book will build your TOEFL vocabulary for the new Internet-based TOEFL of 2005. This book is designed for ease of use as a self-study guide. Its chapters were written for easy completion in one sitting—about 25 minutes. 400 Must-Have Words is also highly effective in the TOEFL-prep classroom. Each chapter begins with a list of 10 target words. These words are defined and used in sample sentences.

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  • English usage is a subject as wide as the English language itself. By far the greater part of usage, however, raises no ontroversies and poses no problems for native speakers of English, just because it is their natural idiom. But there are certain limited areas --particular sounds, spellings, words, and constructions--about which there arises uncertainty, difficulty, or disagreement. The proper aim of a usage guide is to resolve these problems, rather than describe the whole of current usage.

    pdf220p thevinh 07-07-2009 2025 925   Download

  • This is a practical guide to common problems in English grammar and usage. It is written for foreign students who would like to know more about English, and who want to avoid mistakes. English grammar is the grammatical structure of English sentences just the place orderly, proper and harmonious relations between the word elements to form a complete sentence and regulations in order to communicate.

    pdf287p daokim 23-07-2009 916 642   Download

  • The book is intend for higher level students of english and for teachers. Being a reference book, it contains information at various levels, ranging from relatively simple points to quite advanced problem.English grammar is the grammatical structure of English sentences just the place orderly, proper and harmonious relations between the word elements to form a complete sentence and regulations in order to communicate a correctly

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  • Tham khảo sách '.400 must-have words for the toefl® .', ngoại ngữ, toefl - ielts - toeic phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • Each chapter begins with a list of 10 target words. These words are defined and used in sample sentences. Usage tips are given for many words, as are any commonly used parts of speech related to the target word.

    pdf10p kathy205 29-07-2010 96 33   Download

  • (BQ) Ebook 100 Words kids need to read by 1st grade - Book 1 reinforces the 100 words that children need to know – and it helps them master comprehension, spelling, writing, and usage of each word. Includes: Fill-in-the-blank stories and sentences, word riddles, games, and puzzles, stories that present the words in context, "Guess the Word" activities, word classifying and sorting activities, practice using irregular verb forms, proofreading practice For use with Grade 1.

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  • Finally, a few words of caution. Vision is given a prominent position in aesthetics, often dominating the other senses. The present approach is similar in this, but it should be stressed that hearing, touch, smell, and even taste all are implicated in perceptual processing. The vision system in the brain is linked to the other sensory systems, which permits interaction at an early processing stage. At a later stage, visual information is integrated with other kinds of sensory information to produce multimodal perceptual experiences and mental imagery....

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  • Automated essay scoring is now an established capability used from elementary school through graduate school for purposes of instruction and assessment. Newer applications provide automated diagnostic feedback about student writing. Feedback includes errors in grammar, usage, and mechanics, comments about writing style, and evaluation of discourse structure. This paper reports on a system that evaluates a characteristic of lower quality essay writing style: repetitious word use.

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  • In the present paper, we propose the effective usage of function words to generate generalized translation rules for forest-based translation. Given aligned forest-string pairs, we extract composed tree-to-string translation rules that account for multiple interpretations of both aligned and unaligned target function words. In order to constrain the exhaustive attachments of function words, we limit to bind them to the nearby syntactic chunks yielded by a target dependency parser.

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  • In statistical natural language processing we always face the problem of sparse data. One way to reduce this problem is to group words into equivalence classes which is a standard method in statistical language modeling. In this paper we describe a method to determine bilingual word classes suitable for statistical machine translation. We develop an optimization criterion based on a maximumlikelihood approach and describe a clustering algorithm. We will show that the usage of the bilingual word classes we get can improve statistical machine translation. ...

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  • Most previous corpus-based algorithms disambiguate a word with a classifier trained from previous usages of the same word. Separate classifiers have to be trained for different words. We present an algorithm that uses the same knowledge sources to disambiguate different words. The algorithm does not require a sense-tagged corpus and exploits the fact that two different words are likely to have similar meanings if they occur in identical local contexts.

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  • The classifying of words according to syntactic usage is basic to language handling; this paper describes an algorithm for automatically classifying words according to thirteen commonly used parts of speech: noun, adjective, verb, past verb, adverb, preposition, conjunction, pronoun, interjection, present participle, past participle, auxiliary verb, and plural or collective noun.

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  • This paper presents noisy-channel based Korean preprocessor system, which corrects word spacing and typographical errors. The proposed algorithm corrects both errors simultaneously. Using Eojeol transition pattern dictionary and statistical data such as Eumjeol n-gram and Jaso transition probabilities, the algorithm minimizes the usage of huge word dictionaries.

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  • When computer programs disambiguate words in a sentence, they often encounter non-literal or novel usages not included in their lexicon. In a recent study, Georgia Green (personal communication) estimated that 17% to 20% of the content word senses encountered in various types of normal English text are not fisted in the dictionary. While these novel word senses are generally valid, they occur in such great numbers, and with such little individual frequency that it is impractical to explicity include them all within the lexicon. ...

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  • This paper describes an approach to conceptual analysis and understanding of natural language in which linguistic knowledge centers on individual words, and the analysis mechanisms consist of interactions among distributed procedural experts representing that knowledge. Each word expert models the process of diagnosing the intended usage of a particular word in context. The Word Expert Parser performs conceptual analysis through the Interactlons of tl~e individual experts, which ask questions and exchange information in converging on a single mutually acceptable sentence meaning. ...

    pdf6p bungio_1 03-05-2013 20 1   Download

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