Xem 1-20 trên 35 kết quả Yield stress
  • Salinity stress negatively impacts agricultural yield throughout the world affecting production whether it is for subsistence or economic gain. The plant response to salinity consists of numerous processes that must function in coordination to alleviate both cellular hyperosmolarity and ion disequilibrium. In addition, crop plants must be capable of satisfactory biomass production in a saline environment (yield stability).

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  • Like many other patterns, investment in research is often cyclical. International centers like CIMMYT have focused substantial resources on biotic and abiotic stresses for about two decades now, but raising total productivity is also back on the development agenda. There are a number of reasons for this, among them sharp rises in the price of staple foods as well as the manifestation of detrimental effects of climate change on productivity. Those factors threaten not only the livelihoods of resource-poor people but food security at...

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  • In the following calculation procedures, the design of steel members is executed in accordance with the Specification for the Design, Fabrication and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings of the American Institute of Steel Construction. This specification is presented in the AISC Manual of Steel Construction. Most allowable stresses are functions of the yield-point stress, denoted as Fy in the Manual. The appendix of the Specification presents the allowable stresses associated with each grade of structural steel together with tables intended to expedite the design.

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  • Giáo án môn học: Tin ứng dụng trong Thiết kế cầu Version βeta 8. Chọn CONC trong Materials, sau đó chọn Modify/Show Material để xuất hiện Material Property Data. Sau đó: Nhập 3600 vào ô Modulus of Elasticity. Nhập 0.2 vào ô Poisson’s Ratio. Nhập 4 vào ô Specified Conc Comp Strength, f′c. Nhập 60 vào ô Bending Reinf. Yield Stress, fy. Nhập 60 vào ô Shear Reinf. Yield Stress, fys. Chấp nhận các giá trị mặc định khác Nhấn OK trong ô Material Property Data và Define Materials để thoát ra ngoài. 9.

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  • This Section is a “Service Section” for reference by the BPVC construction Sections providing tables of material properties including allowable, design, tensile and yield stress values, physical properties and external pressure charts and tables.

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  • Plants are sessile organisms and as such must have mechanisms to deal with both abiotic and biotic stresses to ensure survival. The term “abiotic stress” includes many stresses caused by environmental conditions such as drought, salinity, UV and extreme temperatures. Due to global climate change it is predicted that abiotic stresses will increase in the near future and have substantial impacts on crop yields (Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change; http://www.ipcc.ch).

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  • Nowadays, environmental issues including air and water pollution, climate change, overexploitation of marine ecosystems, exhaustion of fossil resources, conservation of biodiversity are receiving major attention from the public, stakeholders and scholars from the local to the planetary scales. It is now clearly recognized that human activities yield major ecological and environ- mental stresses with irreversible loss of species, destruction of habitat or cli- mate catastrophes as the most dramatic examples of their effects.

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  • IN BOTH NATURAL AND AGRICULTURAL CONDITIONS, plants are frequently exposed to environmental stresses. Some environmental factors, such as air temperature, can become stressful in just a few minutes; others, such as soil water content, may take days to weeks, and factors such as soil mineral deficiencies can take months to become stressful. It has been estimated that because of stress resulting from climatic and soil conditions (abiotic factors) that are suboptimal, the yield of field-grown crops in the United States is only 22% of the genetic potential yield (Boyer 1982).

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  • Lee et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2011, 6:352 http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/6/1/352 NANO EXPRESS Open Access Structure-dependent mechanical properties of ultrathin zinc oxide nanowires Wen-Jay Lee1, Jee-Gong Chang1, Shin-Pon Ju2*, Meng-Hsiung Weng2 and Chia-Hung Lee2 Abstract Mechanical properties of ultrathin zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires of about 0.7-1.1 nm width and in the unbuckled wurtzite (WZ) phase have been carried out by molecular dynamics simulation. As the width of the nanowire decreases, Young’s modulus, stress-strain behavior, and yielding stress all increase.

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  • Lenne, 1996) and to decrease damage by pests and pathogens (Cantelo & Sanford, 1984). In some crops (e.g. rice) this is applied on a large scale to maximize yield by minimizing damage by pathogens (Zhu et al., 2000). Information on genetic diversity and population structure also assists plant breeding in the selection of parents for crossing, providing a more rational basis for expanding the gene pool, and for identifying materials that harbor genes of value for plant improvement.

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  • Wind energy developments may impair the setting ofhistoric sites and can compromise the visual amenity ofthe wider landscape,detracting from historic character,sense of place,tranquillity and remoteness.In certainconditions,indirect impacts can also include noise andshadow flicker from turbines.Turbines towers are now typically in excess of 60 metres in height and may have a zone of visualinfluence more than ten kilometres in radius.

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  • How and when such theoretical uncertainty will translate into actual market movements will depend on market dynamics. Because of extreme monetary ease, short-term interest rates have been close to zero for some time and markets expect policy rates to remain low. The yield curve is quite steep yet long-term interest rates are very low by historical standards. Graph 4 shows that the US dollar term spread has been around 250–350 basis points since mid-2009.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về lâm nghiệp được đăng trên tạp chí lâm nghiệp quốc tế đề tài:"A study on growth stresses, tension wood distribution and other related wood defects in poplar (Populus euramericana cv 1214): end splits, specific gravity and pulp yield...

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  • In 1992, the first United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, popularly known as the Rio Earth Summit, was convened in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to address the state of the environment and sustainable development. The Earth Summit yielded several important agreements including “Agenda 21”, a plan of action adopted by over 178 governments to address human impacts on the environment at local, national and global levels, and key treaties on climate change, desertification and biodiversity.

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  • Central to these conditions are developments in benchmark interest rates. These comprise mainly the key ECB interest rates, money market rates and government bond yields, with the latter containing the term structure of risk-free rates, domestic sovereign credit risk and liquidity premia (see Chart 1). These rates are the main determinants of the conditions of direct fi nancing in fi nancial markets for both non-fi nancial and fi nancial corporations and, consequently, for the wholesale market funding and deposit funding of banks.

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  • Ideally, multiple traits would be considered for selection, such as milk yield, AFC and longevity, to consider both production and functionality. Such a plan might be difficult to implement quickly, so, for more simplicity, evaluation could initially be based on ‘likeability’ scores assigned by the farmer. To evaluate likeability, farmers would be asked to assign an animal a score of from 1 to 5, where 1 and 5 indicate an extremely poor or good cow, respectively. Such a trait would comprise a mixture of productivity, reproduction and health.

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  • But uncertainty about the path of future interest rates (and differences in investor preferences) will make debt of different maturities imperfect substitutes. Because of this, changes in the mix of short-term and long-term bonds offered by the government will change relative prices and thus influence the shape of the yield curve. At the same time, monetary policy based on setting the policy rate becomes less effective: the lower the degree of asset substitutability, the weaker the transmission of changes in the overnight rate to other interest rates.

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  • Similar performance benefits are also available in gas turbine an reciprocating gas engine cogeneration systems. For example, an class technology gas turbine generator with feeding to an HRSG (which in turn provides process steam) can yield overall energy effectiveness levels between 80-85% depending upon process steam conditions. In comparison, the same F-class gas turbine i combined cycle (and producing power only) yields an overall energy effectiveness of between 50-55% depending upon the c design. This comparison is illustrated in Figure 3.

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  • Nanotechnologies have already attracted massive interest in multiple fields of science and industry. In the past decades, we have witnessed the progress in micro-level experimental techniques that revolutionize the material science. Designing new materials based on the knowledge of mechanics of their building blocks and microstructure manipulations at nanometer scale have become a reality. Nanoindentation, as a leading micro-level mechanical testing technique, has attracted wide attention in numerous research fields and applications....

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  • A higher-risk CMO tranche could, for example, have an average life that changes from 2 years to 20 years with even a modest increase in interest rates. Higher risk refers here to the cash flow variability of the tranche, not its credit quality, although underwriters can create structured securities that combine higher average life sensitivity with lower credit quality. The highest yields go to those tranches that, by design, exhibit the most volatile average lives. Such tranches receive excess principal cash when prepayments rise, and pay off early.

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