Regardless of the motivation, sponsor behavior observed through these support instances suggests that
while the costs can be significant, the perceived benefits at the time of support were greater to most fund
sponsors. Understanding both the significance to the sponsor and their motivations would be important in
making judgments as to whether investors should reasonably expect this model to continue, as it is
possible that the sponsor value proposition could shift, especially where necessary support amounts are
“There is nothing more difficult to plan, more
doubtful of success, nor more dangerous to manage
than the creation of a new system” Machievelli.
The development of a new computer system
represents an area of potentially significant risk to an
organisation. New computer systems are developed
to meet a variety of business needs, whether they be
to meet new legal requirements, to maintain or
enhance profitability, to improve efficiency or to
reduce costs. The failure of a new system could
have a major impact on an organisation’s future
viability and well being.
A person's soft skill EQ is an important part of their individual contribution to the success of an organization. Particularly those organizations dealing with customers face-to-face are generally more successful, if they train their staff to use these skills. Screening or training for personal habits or traits such as dependability and conscientiousness can yield significant return on investment for an organization. For this reason, soft skills are increasingly sought out by employers in addition to standard qualifications....
Shleifer and Vishny (1997) elaborate on
this point and suggest that the benefits from concentrated ownership are relatively larger
in countries that are generally less developed, where property rights are not well defined
and/or protected by judicial systems.
The use of industrially manufactured nitrogen (N)
fertilizers increased rapidly in developed countries
between 1960 and 1980. This facilitated a large increase
in the production of feed and food grains (maize, wheat,
and rice) per unit of cultivated land, but in some regions it
also contributed to enrichment of surface and groundwater
with various forms of nitrogen. Fertilizer, however, is not
the only source of nitrogen that can cause contamination of
It must be noted that on 12 July 2010 the Commission proposed the extension of investor
compensation schemes to cover investors in UCITS. The amendments to Directive 97/9/EC
aimed to cover situations where a depositary is liable for the loss of assets of UCITS but is not
able to cover its liabilities. This should serve as an additional means to increase the protection
for investors in UCITS. However, at this stage this proposal has not been accepted by the
Council and is subject to further negotiations.
A banking entity may invest in or sponsor a covered
fund if (i) the banking entity is not directly or indirectly
controlled by a U.S. banking entity;
53 (ii) the banking en-
tity is a “foreign banking organization,” or, if not a foreign
banking organization, meets at least two of the following
tests: (a) total non-U.S. assets exceed total U.S. assets;
(b) total non-U.S. revenues exceed total U.S. revenues;
and (c) total non-U.S. income exceeds total U.S. income;
(iii) no ownership interests in the covered fund are of-
fered or sold to a U.S.
The ubiquitous learning activity in the present study was held at the Taipei Zoo. The
Taipei Zoo is one of the main Natural Science Education centres in Taiwan, where
people can acquire knowledge about animals and nature. Since the topic of the
learning activity was related to animals, it was more appropriate for learners to learn
in the zoo. Learning in the zoo enabled learners to experience an experiential learning.
Instruments used to predict future mutual fund returns include the aggregate dividend
yield, the default spread, the term spread, and the yield on the three-month T-bill, variables
identiﬁed by Keim and Stambaugh (1986) and Fama and French (1989) as important in
predicting U.S. equity returns. The dividend yield is the total cash dividends on the value-
weighted CRSP index over the previous 12 months divided by the current level of the
index. The default spread is the yield differential between Moodys BAA-rated and AAA-
In this paper, we
employ the bias-adjusted matching estimator developed by Abadie and Imbens (2006), which
overcomes this difficulty. The matching estimator analysis maps the multiple matching variables
into a single number that measures the distance to the observation to be matched and selects as
control observations those with the lowest value for this distance. Matching estimators,
therefore, make it possible to use several matching variables simultaneously.
A second source for private sector expenditure on R&D is the “EU Industrial R&D
Investment Scoreboard”, which has been conducted by the Institute for Prospective
Technological Studies (IPTS) that is part of the Joint Research Centre of the European
Commission. The annual Scoreboard presents information on the world’s top 1400
companies ranked by their investments in R&D. It contains data drawn from companies’
accounts, most recently for the fiscal year 2009.
R&D indicators, such as R&D intensity, vary in line with the business cycle.
Federal crop insurance policies are generally either yield-based or revenue-based. For most yield-
based policies, a producer can receive an indemnity if there is a yield loss relative to the farmer’s
“normal” (historical) yield. Revenue-based policies were developed after yield-based policies, in
the mid-1990s, to protect against crop revenue loss resulting from declines in yield, price, or both.
The most recent addition has been products that protect against losses in whole farm revenue
rather than just for an individual crop.
Farm mechanization helps in effective utilization of inputs to increase the
productivity of land and labour. Besides it helps in reducing the drudgery in farm
operations. The early agricultural mechanization in India was greatly influenced
by the technological development in England. Irrigation pumps, tillage equipment,
chaff cutters, tractors and threshers were gradually introduced for farm
Leadership is one of the most important and essential factors in good project
management. Leadership can be seen as the art of influencing others to achieve desired
results. Leaders guide behaviors by setting the vision, direction and the key processes; in
other words, leadership has a large influence on the whole project process, including the
actions of others.
Jack Welch, previous CEO of General Electric, is reported to have called his
direct reports together one day and issued a three word dictum: “Don’t manage!
Since each retailer has a monopoly power through the captive consumers, the strategies
employed in the oligopolistic equilibrium depend on the pricing behavior of a hyphotetical
monopolist facing the captive consumers. Before proceeding to solving the
oligopoly model we will illustrate the optimal behavior of the consumers facing any price
pair and, subsequently, prot-maximizing strategy of the monopolist.
Fourth, this study applies new methodologies which have never been applied to
emerging markets. For instance, Chapter 5 explores the determinants of risk-adjusted mutual
fund performance using multidimensional regression in addition to the common approach,
which is to use a zero-cost trading strategy. This alternative methodology can explore several
factors simultaneously while controlling the effect between one and another. Using the two
methods allows us to examine determinants of fund performance statistically and
economically and it provides more meaningful results.
Use of vocabulary is an important aspect of academic writing. Again, following
Storch and Tapper (2009), we examined the occurrences of vocabulary in the
Academic Word List (AWL) developed by Coxhead (2000). The AWL consists of
570 word families derived from a corpus of academic texts drawn from our ‘sub-
corpora’ from arts, commerce, law, and science (see Coxhead, 2000 for details).
These words are academic words that are found across disciplines and comprise
9-10% of an academic text (Storch & Tapper, 2009).
The classifications most likely to yield significant differences among identifiable groups of •
small businesses are industry, employee size of business, and years of business ownership.
The other classifications examined, for example legal form of business, infrequently exhibit
substantial differences among their components and even when they do, the differences are
often functions of variations among groups in the aforementioned classifications.
• The classifications most likely to yield significant differences among identifiable groups of
small businesses are industry, employee size of business, and years of business ownership.
Industry produces the most divergent evaluation of problems, though some similarities be-
tween industries do exist. The other classifications examined, for example legal form of
business, exhibit fewer substantial differences among their components. It is important to
note that when they differ, the differences are often functions of variations among groups in
the aforementioned classifications.
However, this model is complicated by the fact that
conflicts often occur in mixed-motive relationships where the involved
parties both have cooperative and competitive goals and Mitchell’s model
seems to have neglected this pluralistic/multifaceted/more complex
dimension to the relationship.
The competitive element creates conflict
and the cooperative element creates incentives to negotiate an
There are, however, studies that confirm that conflicts tend
to occur even when the involved parties have highly compatible goals.