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Asean Biodiversity

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Asean Biodiversity

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  1. A S E A N B I O D I V E R SITY 1
  2. “Let us all celebrate life together” 5 Inside ............................................................................................................................................. Global Conservation News .................................................................................................................................. 6 Special Reports What’s Driving the Wildlife Trade? ....................................................................................................................................... 12 Unsung Heroes of the Forest ................................................................................................................................................................................ 18 Solving Crime Against Nature ........................................................................................................................................................................ 22 Identification Sheets for Wildlife Species Cover photo courtesy of FREELAND Traded in Southeast Asia ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 23 September - December 2009 Disabling Wildlife Trafficking Syndicates ............................................................................................... 24 Thailand Gets Tough on the Illegal Ivory Trade ........................................................... 26 Wildlife Law Enforcement and Governance in the Phillpines.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 28 Patrolling and Enforcement Programs for Protected Area .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 30 Planning a Basic Enforcement Vol. 8, No. 3 Ranger Training Course .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 33 Profiles Malaysia Kuala Selangor Nature Park .................................................................................................................................................................................... 34 Malaysia Kampung Kuantan Firefly Park .................................................................................................................................................................... 37 Philippines Mt. Kitanglad Range Natural Park ............................................................................................................................................. 40 A S E A N B I O D I V E R SITY 3
  3. Bookmarks Philippines Hosts ASEAN Centre Biodiversity Editor-in-Chief Monina T. Uriarte, PhD Headquarters ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 46 Experts Examine Gaps in ASEAN Protected Areas .......................................................... 47 Managing Editor Bridget P. Botengan ASEAN Trains Wetland Managers Creative Artist to Sustain Biodiversity Conservation ............................................................................................................................................ 48 Nanie S. Gonzales ASEAN CONFERENCE ON BIODIVERSITY 2009 Writer-Researcher Biodiversity in Focus: 2010 and Beyond ....................................................................................................................... 49 Sahlee Bugna-Barrer ‘Zooming in on Biodiversity’ EDITORIAL BOARD Photo Contest Winners Announced ....................................................................................................................................................... 54 Rodrigo U. Fuentes Guidelines on GMOs Discussed in ASEAN Forum ............................................................. 55 Executive Director ASEAN Ministers Discuss Climate Change Clarissa C. Arida and Transboundary Haze Issues ......................................................................................................................................................................... 56 Director, Programme Development and Implementation Philippines’ Mt. Kitanglad Range Natural Park is 28th ASEAN Heritage Park .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 57 Rolando A. Inciong Head, Public Affairs ASEAN Trains Park Rangers to Combat Illegal Wildlife Trade ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 58 ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity (ACB) ASEAN Ministers Recognise ACB’s Efforts Headquarters in Biodiversity Conservation ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 59 3F ERDB Bldg. Forestry Campus University of the Philippines-Los Baños Regional Cooperation and Commitment Urged College, Laguna, Philippines for Transboundary Protected Areas ..................................................................................................................................................... 60 Telefax: +632.584-4247; +6349.536-2865 E-mail: contact.us@aseanbiodiversity.org GBIF and ACB Collaborate to Enhance Access Website: www.aseanbiodiversity.org and Use of Biodiversity Information in Asia ................................................................................................. 61 ACB Annex Thai Princess Discusses Biodiversity Ninoy Aquino Parks and Wildlife Center Conservation with ACB .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 62 North Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City 1156 Philippines Networking on Marine Protected Areas Printed by: Economic Press Highlighted in EAS 2009 Congress ......................................................................................................................................................... 63 No. of Copies: 2,000 ASEAn Foundation and ACB: Partners for ‘ASEAN Champions of Biodiversity’ ................................................................... 64 Disclaimer: Views or opinions expressed herein do not necessarily represent any official view SE Asia’s Info Officers and Media Trained of the European Union nor the Association of on Communicating Biodiversity ............................................................................................................................................................................ 65 Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Secretariat. The authors are responsible for any data or Workshop Enhances Ecotourism Expertise information presented in their articles. of PA Managers ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 66 Letters, articles, suggestions and photos are Asian Negotiators Hold Consultations welcome and should be addressed to: on International Regime on Access and The Editor-in-Chief ASEAN Biodiversity Benefit Sharing on Biological Resources ................................................................................................................. 66 ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity College, Laguna Surfing the Web of Life E-mail: mturiarte@aseanbiodiversity.org ................................................................................................................................................................. 32 sbbarrer@aseanbiodiversity.org 4 SEPTEMB ER - DE CE M BE R 2 0 0 9 www. a s e a n b i o d i ver si t y. o r g
  4. “Let us all celebrate life together” Mr. Rodrigo U. Fuentes Executive Director, ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity T he International Year of Biodiversity is a celebration the SCBD, fully supports the celebration of the International of life! What is biodiversity? Why is it important? Year of Biodiversity. We will work in tandem with SCBD and Why do we have to take care of it? What do we stand our partners in the European Commission and the ASEAN to lose when we destroy biodiversity? Member States in educating the world about the urgent need Unfortunately, not too many people know the answers to conserve biodiversity through various activities. to these questions. We are surrounded by biodiversity yet we A major public awareness activity of the Centre in often fail to recognize its value. The food that nourishes us 2010 is the ASEAN Champions of Biodiversity, a regional comes from plant and animal resources. The medicine that programme that will recognize the outstanding contributions we take when we are sick is derived from medicinal plants. of the youth, media, and business sectors to the biodiversity Millions of people have jobs as farmers, fishermen, foresters, conservation. To be implemented in partnership with the and tourist guides because of biodiversity. Pharmaceutical, ASEAN Foundation, the European Commission, the ASEAN food, agriculture, and cosmetic companies thrive because of Member States, and the United Nations Educational, nature’s wealth. Scientific and Cultural Organization, the ASEAN Champions Only a small fraction of Southeast Asia’s over 500 million of Biodiversity seeks to address the need to generate a greater people know what biodiversity means. There is a dearth of public and leadership awareness of the problems facing the information materials on biodiversity, resulting in low public region’s rich but highly threatened biodiversity. It will also awareness of the values of biodiversity and conservation. develop a cadre of champions who will serve as Biodiversity Resources for conservation are limited, often translating Ambassadors. into lack of information, education, and communication ACB will also engage the region’s communicators materials. including government information officers and media To help address this, the world will celebrate this 2010 by supporting Communication, Education, and Public the International Year of Biodiversity (IYB) with the theme Awareness (CEPA) programmes. “We will help provide a “Biodiversity is life. Biodiversity is our life.” An initiative platform for government and media to have regular exchanges of the United Nations Secretariat of the Convention on on biodiversity conservation. That way, they can craft Biological Diversity (SCBD), IYB aims to raise public successful communication campaigns together to promote awareness of the importance of biodiversity and the biodiversity conservation,” Director Fuentes said. consequences of its loss. It will also promote the engagement Regular communication activities such as press briefings, of the public and other actors for the implementation of the press releases, exhibits, film showings, and forums for Convention on Biological Diversity. According to SCBD, the students, business, and policymakers will also be conducted. year will also celebrate the successes in realizing the target of We encourage YOU to participate in this global achieving a significant reduction in the rate of biodiversity celebration. We can also do something in our own spheres of loss by 2010. influence. The ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity, as a major partner of Let us all celebrate life together. A S E A N B I O D I V E R SITY 5
  5. GLOBAL CONSERVATION NEWS 2009 not a good year their chance of extinction. The Climate accord offers for wildlife preservation, study suggests that scientists some grounds for hope says WWF and governments should update December 22 – The UN December 30 – Tigers, habitat conservation strategies Climate Change Conference rhinoceroses, and polar that have long emphasized ended with frustration and bears, among the world’s drawing boundaries around verdicts of failure from many endangered species, had the environmentally-sensitive areas delegates because it did not worst year in 2009 according and restricting development reach a binding agreement on to the World Wide Fund for within those borders. A more how to tackle climate change— Nature (WWF). However, the “dynamic” focus should be or any agreement at all on Elbe beaver, lynx and Amur placed on establishing wildlife targets for carbon emissions. leopard may have a slightly corridors and pathways linking However, important principles more promising future. WWF fragmented habitats. Climate behind fighting climate change criticized the progressive change will be felt most swiftly have been established for the Orangutan destruction of animal habitats by inhabitants of largely flat first time, and some action by a combined process of landscapes, such as mangroves could start immediately even conservationists who predict climate change, increased and prairie grasslands, where the without the existence of a the charismatic red ape will poaching and over-exploitation rate of warming may be more universal agreement. The become extinct if no action by humans. WWF estimates than double the quarter mile Copenhagen Climate Accord is taken to protect its jungle that only around 3,200 per year average calculated for is a political “statement of habitat. Some reports estimate tigers still exist in the wild ecosystems generally, the study intent” forged by four major that 50-60,000 orangutans still worldwide, and the South found. The velocities charted developing country economies live in the wild in Malaysia and China tiger might even be in the report were based on the (Brazil, China, India and Indonesia, but deforestation extinct, thanks to poaching “intermediate” level of projected South Africa) and the United and the expansion of palm and the demand for illegal tiger greenhouse gas emissions States, backed in principle oil plantations have taken a products in traditional Asian assumed over the next century by the European Union and heavy toll. Environmentalists medicine. Approximately by the U.N.’s Intergovernmental “noted” by the rest of the world are calling for the creation 1,900 of a total of around Panel of Climate Change. during the final session of the of wildlife “corridors” in 6,300 different species of – Reuters conference. The Accord states Malaysia to link the scraps of amphibians have been classified that signatory nations will jungle where orangutans have as highly endangered. Also in build clean-energy economies become trapped by decades of dire peril are the Annamese and help the most vulnerable encroachment by loggers and rhinos in Viet Nam, with only nations adapt to the effects of oil palm firms. Experts say that eight animals believed to still climate change. The Accord wildlife corridors would enable exist. – Deutsche Welle envisages a Copenhagen Green orangutans to move across Climate Fund—approximately the fragmented landscape and Indochinese tiger US$30 billion a year between alongside rivers to seek food 2010 and 2012—to help and mates. The corridors could Wild Indo-Chinese tiger developing countries prepare be used by other endangered now extinct in China for climate change, develop species such as the pygmy December 23 – A man who and integrate new technologies elephant and rhinoceros, but shot dead and ate the last into development plans and progress on the initiative has wild Indochinese tiger in protect their forests. By 2020 been slow. Some 80 percent of China has been sentenced the Accord envisages US$100 the world’s orangutans live in to 12 years in jail and fined billion a year for mitigation Borneo, which is split between Lynx 85,000 US dollars. He and and adaptation—far below Malaysia and Indonesia, and another man claimed that they what bodies like the World the rest are found in Indonesia’s Ecosystems strain shot the tiger in self-defense. Bank estimate is needed. This Sumatra province. – AFP to keep pace with The men left the scene after deal offers sharp contrast to the climate change realizing they had killed the 2007 talks in Bali, Indonesia, Ten climate change December 24 – New research Indochinese Tiger, which was when countries offered no ‘Flagship’ species named shows that earth’s various on China’s list of endangered financial support and provides December 15 – Starving ecosystems, with all their plants species. They later came back a new step toward the era of koalas and homeless clownfish and animals, will need to shift to collect the corpse and took clean energy security and green are among 10 species likely to about a quarter-mile per year the skinned animal home growth. – Environment News suffer huge losses due to global on average to keep pace with and ate it with six other men. Network warming, according to a report global climate change. The The Indochinese tiger is on released by the International farther individual species—from the brink of extinction, with Time running out Union for Conservation of shrubs and trees to insects, fewer than 1,000 left in the for orangutans Nature (IUCN). Although birds and mammals—need forests of Lao PDR, Viet Nam, December 21 – The world has the 10 species are not those to move to stay within their Cambodia, Thailand and less than 20 years left to save most at risk, IUCN selected preferred climate, the greater Myanmar. – Press TV the orangutan, according to them because they are well- 6 SEPTEMB ER - DE CE M BE R 2 0 0 9 www. a s e a n b i o d i ver si t y. o r g
  6. GLOBAL CONSERVATION NEWS researched “flagship” species The Malaysian Biosafety Act treasures. Komodos can grow orchids in the Teagueia genus, that are being affected by a 2007 was approved by the up to 10 feet in length and a group previously thought to spectrum of climate change House of Representatives weigh up to 310 pounds. They contain only 6 species. Ecuador impacts, from melting sea and entered into force on 1 are listed as “vulnerable” in as a whole is home to 4,000 ice to beach erosion. These December 2009. With this the International Union for known orchid species—a species include the staghorn approval, the government Conservation of Nature’s Red thousand of them discovered coral, clownfish, leatherback will establish a National List of Threatened Species. in the past 12 years alone. sea turtle, koala bear, arctic Biosafety Board that will Only 3,000 of the poisonous – National Geographic News fox, emperor penguin, beluga include representatives from lizards, native to Komodo and whale, quiver tree, salmon, seven Ministries and another a few other islands in eastern Sarawak to gazette two and ringed seal. – National four experts from relevant Indonesia, remain in the wild, mangrove forests in 2010 Geographic News fields. In addition, the Genetic according to The Nature December 1 – In a move Modification Advisory Conservancy. – AFP to minimize the devastating Committee (GMAC)—a effects of an impending group of scientists responsible tsunami and increase for assessing whether live environmental conservation, modified organisms (LMOs) Sarawak is already in its are safe to be released into final stage of gazetting two the environment—is now mangrove forests as a fully expected to become a formal protected area. These are the Beluga whale body. The Act is being hailed Batang Lassa National Park by others as an ambitious measuring 22,000 hectares, Endangered pheasant move to protect against the and the Limbang Mangrove encountered in central risks genetic modification National Park (4,290 hectares). Viet Nam could have on biodiversity and Currently, there are three December 14 – The Forest the environment, as well as a mangrove forest reserves in Protection Agency in Thua milestone in the creation of a Sarawak, with a total of 16,662 Thien–Hue has discovered legal framework for the biotech hectares, already gazetted as a a rare pheasant, Lophura industry in Malaysia—one Smallest orchid fully protected area. These are ewadsi—listed in the IUCN of the most biodiversity- the Kuching Wetland National Red List Category. A railway dense countries in the world. World’s smallest orchid Park, Rajang Mangrove man saw a strange “chicken” – International Centre for Trade discovered National Park and the Sibuti crowned by a white comb and Sustainable Development December 3 – The world’s Wildlife Sanctuary. – Bernama in a cage near the Hai Van smallest known orchid—just Pass tunnel and reported it over 2 millimeters (0.08 Asian carp may be near to local forest rangers. The inch) across and nearly see- U.S. Great Lakes rangers immediately took through—has been discovered November 21 – There are the “chicken” to North Hai nestled in the roots of another signs Asian carp may have Van Nature Reserve, where flower in Ecuador. Lou Jost, an breached barriers designed the animal was identified as ecologist with the EcoMinga to keep the prolific fish out Lophura ewadsi, a species of plant-conservation foundation, of the Great Lakes, which Lophura that was believed to be Komodo dragon has studied the plants of the could spell ecological disaster extinct. Around 70 years ago, South American country’s for the vital source of fresh Jean Delacour, a Frenchman, Singapore Zoo breeds mountainous forests for 15 water. Concentrations of located a Lophura ewadsi in rare Komodo dragon years. Earlier this year, he DNA discovered by Notre Bach Ma National Park, but December 6 – The Singapore had collected an orchid of a Dame University researchers this species has not been seen Zoo has successfully bred the larger species to study in his may indicate the presence since then. In Viet Nam, only highly-endangered Komodo greenhouse and discovered the of bighead and silver carp the central provinces of Quang dragon. The 40-centimetre tiny plant several months later. upstream from two electrical Tri and Thua Thien–Hue have (16-inch) hatchling is the first The newly found orchid, part barriers designed to bottle up Lophura. – Vietnam Net Komodo dragon born in an of the Platystele genus, has not the invasive fish. If the fish Asian zoo outside Indonesia, yet had the type of scientific reaches the Great Lakes, about Malaysian Biosafety Act the native home of the world’s review that would lead to its 20 miles from the barriers, enters into force largest lizard species. The official designation as a new they would quickly destroy December 14 – The Malaysian breeding of Komodo dragons species. But, Jost said, orchid the lakes’ $4.5 billion fishery government has implemented in captivity is fraught with expert Carl Luer, a researcher by consuming other fish and a new measure aimed at difficulties due to incompatible affiliated with the Missouri their food sources. Only Lake promoting biotechnology pairings, dearth of experience Botanical Garden, agrees that Superior among the five lakes within the country, while in egg incubation and over- the plant is a unique species. may be too cold for the carp, complying with the standards representation of males in zoos. In the region where the tiny which can reproduce rapidly set out by the Cartagena The reptiles are considered orchid was found, Jost also and reach 100 pounds (45 Protocol on Biosafety (CPB). one of Indonesia’s national recently discovered 28 new kg). The Great Lakes are the A S E A N B I O D I V E R SITY 7
  7. GLOBAL CONSERVATION NEWS world’s largest body of surface rising to nine billion by 2050. on Biological Invasions, fresh water and are relied on Key recommendations from held in Fuzhou, east China’s by 30 million people in the the report include investing Fujian Province, from 2–6 United States and Canada for in ecological infrastructure; November 2009, called on drinking water and recreation. rewarding benefits through policymakers worldwide to pay – Environment News Network payments and markets; closer attention to the threat reforming environmentally from invasive alien species, Asia governors endorse Mekong River harmful subsidies; addressing since these are causing 1.4 U.N. forest carbon scheme losses through regulation trillion U.S. dollars of losses November 13 - Six provincial agricultural land, change in and pricing; and recognizing a year globally. The Fuzhou governors from Indonesia, river flows and land submersion protected areas as the Declaration on Biological Lao PDR and the Philippines have been increasing. cornerstone of conservation Invasions called for recognition backed REDD+, an expanded Fishermen, farmers, salt makers policies. Further information of the links between biological United Nations scheme aimed and urban poor people who can be found at www.teebweb. invasions, biodiversity loss and at protecting and conserving are living along the coast org. – EurekAlert the degradation of ecosystem forests in return for carbon and river will suffer the most services. It also urged credits. Reduced Emissions because natural resources they New crocodile policymakers and scientists from Deforestation and have been using will become in Cambodia to focus on the interactions Degradation (REDD) aims to exhausted gradually. Experts November 11 – The discovery between climate change and reward developing countries at the forum called for urgent in Cambodia of rare Siamese biological invasions, and the for saving their forests in action on the development crocodiles has brought fresh threats of invasive species to return for carbon offsets of salt water control projects hope for one of the world’s biodiversity, food security, that they can sell to rich and construction of sea and rarest reptiles. DNA tests trade, human health and nations. The United Nations river dikes to prevent further have found 35 pure-bred economic development. hopes REDD will be part damage due to climate change, Siamese crocodiles at the – China View of a broader global climate among other activities. Phnom Tamao wildlife rescue pact from 2013, ushering in Officials of many Mekong centre in Cambodia. There MoU to restore degraded a potentially multi-billion Delta provinces agreed to are fewer than 250 of the land in Malaysia dollar boost to the global boost research and seek out species left in the wild, but October 29 – A five- carbon market. REDD+ new species of plants that can the crocodiles at the sanctuary year Memorandum of expands the idea to protection, adapt themselves to climate could now form the basis of a Understanding (MoU) restoration and sustainable change. In addition, they hope captive-breeding programme. between WWF-Malaysia management of forests, to re-organize residential areas The discovery continues a and the State government and holds the promise of and infrastructure to diminish remarkable comeback for the has been signed to restore boosting livelihoods for local losses caused by the rising sea species. Siamese crocodiles 967 hectares of degraded communities. The governors level. – Viet Nam Net Bridge were declared extinct in land in the North Ulu said that the REDD+ the 1990s—before a small Segama landscape, for the approach offers tremendous TEEB releases report population was discovered enhancement of orangutan promise in creating a new on the economics in Cambodia’s Cardamom habitats within the Heart set of incentives for the of ecosystems and Mountains. However, Siamese of Borneo (HoB). The preservation and sustainable biodiversity for policy crocodiles mature slowly, and project is made possible with management of forests and makers it will take 15 years before the RM4.35 million from the urged world leaders to push November 13 – A report by breeding programme comes ITOCHU Corporation of the concept at U.N. climate The Economics of Ecosystems to fruition. In the meantime, Japan. In February 2007, talks in Copenhagen in and Biodiversity (TEEB) everything from poaching to the governments of Brunei December. – Reuters initiative, hosted by the UN hydroelectric projects poses a Darussalam, Indonesia and Environment Programme, threat to crocodiles and their Malaysia signed the HoB Mekong Delta battles calls on policymakers to habitats. – BBC News Declaration to protect an climate change and accelerate, scale up and area of more than 22 million rising tides embed investments in the hectares in the center of the November 13 – The 1st management and restoration island and bordering all three Mekong Delta Climate Change of ecosystems. It also calls for regions. – Daily Express Forum was held in Can Tho more sophisticated cost benefit City on 12-13 November this analysis before policy decisions Rising sea temperatures year to promote community are made. The report outlines bad news for seaweed awareness and cooperation. a 10-point plan aimed at Siamese crocodiles farmers In the past few years, the catalyzing a transition to more October 28 – Seaweed farmers effects of climate change have ecosystem savvy economies that Invasive species in the islands of Nusa Penida become more evident along are able to meet the multiple cause $1.4 trillion and Nusa Lembongan in Bali, the Mekong River. Reports challenges and deliver the of losses a year are suffering from changing sea of seawater encroachment multiple opportunities on a November 6 – The first- conditions as a result of climate on freshwater sources and planet of six billion people, ever International Congress change. Sea temperatures had 8 SEPTEMB ER - DE CE M BE R 2 0 0 9 www. a s e a n b i o d i ver si t y. o r g
  8. GLOBAL CONSERVATION NEWS Thailand and Myanmar, as Reducing Emissions from by re-examining current Gurney’s pitta was classified Deforestation and Degradation practices, implementing as “critically endangered” by (REDD). Seima contains 23 regulations on environmental the International Union for carnivore species, including protection, using cost benefit Conservation of Nature and seven cat species, two bear analysis to support sustainable Natural Resources until the species, and two wild dog development goals, and discovery of populations in species. Researchers have strengthening risk reduction Myanmar led to its downlisting recently discovered species and protective mechanisms. to “endangered” in 2008. new to science, including one There must be greater Habitat loss related to oil species of bat and two species awareness of the fact that palm cultivation has reduced of frog. – Innovations Report natural resources cannot be the species to just 17 known easily renewed and the cost of territories in southern Thailand. Sumatran tiger environmental reconstruction While the small Thai population population now only 500 is higher than preservation. Seaweeds is located in the Khao Pra Bang October 23 – The head of – UPI Asia increased by 2 to 3 degrees Kram Wildlife Sanctuary, the the Gunung Leuser Park in Celsius in the last two years, Myanmar population remains Indonesia, reported that there causing the outbreak of a unprotected. There is a proposed are only 500 Sumatran tigers disease locally known as ice- establishment of the Lenya (Panthera tigris sumatrae) left ice, a condition that causes National Park in Tanintharyi living in the forests of Sumatra. seaweed to decay. The extreme Division to conserve Gurney’s The number is constantly changes in sea conditions had pitta and the wildlife of the declining due to poaching and depleted stocks of Euchema southern Tanintharyi Division habitat clearing for plantations. seaweed, previously the most in Myanmar. – The Myanmar The declining habitat has also profitable species for farmers. Times led to conflicts between the Elephants Seaweed farming is the main tigers and the local population livelihood of people on the New park in Cambodia near the forests. – The Star Cambodia villagers save two islands, with earnings protects species Online elephants previously reaching Rp1.5 and carbon October 14 – Conservationists million to 2 million each October 26 – The government in Cambodia have brokered harvest period. Now, the of Cambodia recently declared an agreement that should farmers struggle to make ends the creation of the Seima see elephants living more meet. The islands are also at Protection Forest, which covers peacefully alongside their risk of being submerged due more than 1,100 square miles human neighbors. As villagers to rising seawater levels. – The along Cambodia’s eastern develop and expand their land, Jakarta Post border with Viet Nam. The elephants lose their habitat. At protected area safeguards the same time, they become New hope for rare threatened primates, tigers, and Sumatran tiger more likely to wander into Gurney’s pitta elephants and massive stores fields—destroying crops and October 28 – The Gurney’s of carbon. Seima is the first Cambodians waking up occasionally attacking humans pitta was once considered protected area in Cambodia to climate change and livestock. Flora and Fauna extinct but new research created with the conservation October 19 – Cambodia held International is helping to reveals that there could be as of forest carbon as one of its first National Forum on keep the peace between people many as 35,000 individuals in its key goals. The Wildlife Climate Change in Phnom and pachyderms by giving Myanmar’s southern Tanintharyi Conservation Society (WCS) Penh to raise awareness on funds to villagers to develop Division. BirdLife International is helping to measure carbon climate change issues and small businesses like chicken estimates that there are stocks contained in Seima their effects on socioeconomic farming as an alternative between 9,300 and 35,000 Protection Forest to calculate development. As such, issues to clearing the forests the Gurney’s pitta territories in the total amount of carbon related to climate change elephants call home. They are Myanmar. Endemic to southern dioxide emissions that will not are likely to be incorporated also giving advice on how to be released to the atmosphere into its national development keep the elephants away from as a result of the project’s work plans. At the end of the crops, such as using chili or on reducing deforestation. forum, Cambodia issued electric fences. – BBC News This will support the “Carbon its draft position ahead of for Conservation” initiatives December’s Climate Change UNEP hosts of WCS to help provide Conference in Copenhagen. It intergovernmental incentives to people to protect said it would do “its utmost” negotiations on their forest in high-biodiversity to reduce greenhouse gases, but strengthening science for The Gurney’s Pitta was once landscapes, which are being developed countries must help policy on biodiversity and considered extinct but new developed in conjunction with in its efforts. Cambodia must ecosystems research reveals a large negotiations on a proposed also prepare for impending October 9 – Over 300 population in Myanmar. international policy known impacts of climate change delegates from about 100 A S E A N B I O D I V E R SITY 9
  9. GLOBAL CONSERVATION NEWS countries gathered from selects the top 10 varieties through tourism and equitable now overtaking even the 5 to 9 October 2009 to for the locality under access and benefit sharing most sobering predictions participate in the 2nd Ad-hoc organic conditions—with when such knowledge is used of the last report of the Intergovernmental and Multi- zero chemical inputs—and by modern industries, and Intergovernmental Panel of Stakeholder Science-Policy these are distributed by the in research and development Climate Change (IPCC). The Platform on Biodiversity and members among themselves. activities. – Bernama report indicates that many of Ecosystem Services (IPBES), These trials determine the the IPCC’s extreme forecasts hosted by the United Nations survival of the fittest among Mekong at risk are becoming more likely, Environment Programme traditional varieties, in of climate change and events that were thought (UNEP). The delegates contrast to conventional October 6 – The World to occur in the long-term discussed the development agriculture that relies on Wildlife Fund called for Asia’s are already happening or of a mechanism to provide expensive chemical inputs. first regional climate change will happen far sooner than periodic, timely and policy- Farmers are also encouraged to adaptation agreement in predicted. The Compendium relevant scientific information use a diversified and integrated the Greater Mekong region. shows increasing concern covering the full range of farming system; compost The area—which comprises about ocean acidification; biodiversity and ecosystem biomass to develop organic Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, loss of tropical and temperate service issues to governments fertilizers; and rear native Thailand, Viet Nam, and mountain glaciers; shifts in the and the broader development livestock varieties. – IPS southwest provinces of hydrological cycle; perennial community in support of China—is already strongly droughts; and loss of marine policy development and affected by climate change, species and habitats. Managing decision-making. – UNEP which is detailed in the the effects of intensified WWF report, “The Greater global warming will require Using traditional farming Mekong and Climate Change: new measures, including to beat climate change Biodiversity, Ecosystem large-scale translocation October 9 – Farmers across Services and Development or assisted colonization of Southeast Asia are turning to at Risk.” The report states species, and eco-agriculture, traditional farming methods A farmers’ empowerment that over the last 50 years, in which landscapes are to beat climate change. program in the Philippines average daily temperatures managed to sustain a range enables farm folk to breed Unpredictable rainfall and traditional seed varieties that across Southeast Asia have of ecosystem services. Experts extreme weather can disrupt can survive dry spells. increased between 0.5 and increasingly agree that active planting seasons and cause 1.5 centigrade. By the end of protection of tropical forests crop failure. Some farmers Sarawak plants used this century, temperatures in is a cost-effective means of are now trying to adapt to by indigenous the Greater Mekong region cutting global emissions. To climate change by taking communities tested are predicted to rise between download the full report, another look at traditional for commercial value 2 to 4 centigrade. WWF visit: http://www.unep.org/ seeds and farming practices. October 8 – Some 3,000 said that the region’s coastal compendium2009/. ecofactory In the Philippines, the plants known to be commonly communities are threatened by Farmer-Scientist Partnership used by Sarawak’s indigenous a rise in sea levels, and changes New round of UN for Development (or communities are to be to the climate are stressing climate change talks ‘MASIPAG’) adopts a researched by the Sarawak ecosystems. Land is being lost kicks off in Bangkok “farmers’ empowerment” Biodiversity Centre (SBC) to in coastal zones, and glacial September 28 – About 2,500 approach: it encourages determine if they can be grown melting in the Himalayas international delegates from farmers to collect, breed and commercially. SBC, through may impact the region’s major 180 countries were in Bangkok, select traditional varieties of its Traditional Knowledge rivers. Wetlands will either Thailand for the latest round seeds to produce organic food. (TK) Documentation dry up or become flooded of climate change talks prior Farmers are experimenting Programme launched in 2002, out. The WWF report calls to the Climate Change on up to 50 varieties planted had recorded 3,357 plants for implementing a regional Conference in Copenhagen side-by-side in trial farms. used by nine indigenous climate change adaptation in December 2009. The talks Traditional seed varieties are communities in the State. agreement and for a reduction aimed to develop a more selected, as these seeds are SBC has identified more than in non-climate stresses such as manageable global agreement the most adaptable, and the 100 essential oil plants that unsustainable infrastructure. on climate change, close the products of selection over have anti-microbial properties – UPI gap between rich and poor time. These are then collected and have high potential to be positions and create better and improved through developed as ingredients for Climate change speeding understanding of issues such breeding and selection. Some healthcare products. Many toward irreversible as reducing deforestation traditional varieties can survive products sold in the market tipping points and sharing climate-friendly dry spells better; others are and used today are produced September 28 – A United technology. The conference more resistant to pest and based on information derived Nations Environment in Copenhagen is scheduled diseases, which are themselves from TK. The value of such Programme report entitled to seal a new deal on climate influenced by climate change. knowledge is immense and TK “Climate Change Science change issues to replace the Each organization comprising can bring much benefit to the Compendium 2009” states Kyoto Protocol. – Philippine the farmers’ network then community and the country that global warming is Star 10 SEPTEMB ER - DE CE M BE R 2 0 0 9 www. a s e a n b i o d i ver si t y. o r g
  10. GLOBAL CONSERVATION NEWS critically endangered list, with just 110 cao vit gibbons and around 200 Tonkin snub- nosed monkeys left in the world. The new forest reserves will hopefully increase their chances of survival. The new gibbon sanctuary, the 6,500- Saola hectare Bangliang Nature Reserve in China’s Guangxi which was only discovered in Province, is directly adjacent a remote mountainous corner to Viet Nam’s Cao Vit Gibbon of Lao PDR in 1992. The Conservation Area, which saola has long horns that slope Flora and Fauna International backwards and belongs to the helped to establish in 2007. wild cattle family. The threat Massive floods devastate Metro Manila, Philippines. The Bangliang reserve more to one of the world’s most than quadruples the area enigmatic mammals stems Massive floods to and the Nonggang babbler. of protected forest for the from traps set by hunters and become the norm These new discoveries attest gibbon. The two protected poachers in the Annamite September 28 – Experts to the biological richness of areas together contain the Mountains that straddle the warned that the record- the Mekong region but are world’s last examples of the Lao PDR–Viet Nam border. breaking amount of rainfall extremely vulnerable to the species. The Tonkin snub- While the saola is not valued as brought by Tropical Storm effects of climate change. nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus much as the tiger or elephant, “Ondoy” (international Rising seawaters, powerful avunculus) is endemic to they are sometimes killed by codename Ketsana) that storms, and warming north-western Viet Nam and the snares set by poachers inundated large parts of temperatures will definitely was thought to be extinct until trying to kill high-value Metro Manila could happen transform ecosystems and the the 1990s. The cao vit gibbon animals. The saola population again. The storm dumped habitats of these fragile species. (Nomascus nasutus) was also is very small, and there 455 millimeters of rainfall in – Time Magazine thought to be extinct until it may only be a few hundred a 24-hour period, which was was rediscovered in 2002. The individuals at most in the wild. greater than the amount of Fresh hope for main threat to both species is Saving this species means a rains brought by Hurricane endangered primates habitat loss. – The Independent campaign to remove poachers’ “Katrina” that devastated the September 24 – Two of the snares and the reduction of US state of New Orleans in world’s rarest primates, the One of world’s rarest hunting with dogs in key areas 2005. The floods caused by cao vit gibbon and the Tonkin animals in danger of the Annamite forests. There the typhoon was the worst in snub-nosed monkey, now have of extinction is also a need for improved Metro Manila in decades and a more secure future after the September 12 – Conserva- methods to detect saola in killed hundreds of citizens. creation of safe havens for tionists are raising the alarm the wild and radio tracking This should serve as a wake- them in China and Viet Nam. about the fate of the saola, a to understand the animal’s up call for more Filipinos Both species are now on the critically endangered species conservation needs. – IPS to re-think their attitudes toward climate change and develop better disaster management plans. – Manila Bulletin Trove of fragile new species in Mekong September 28 – The World Wide Fund for Nature Cat Ba leopard gecko Tiger-striped pit viper Odessa barb (WWF) released a report on Photo by Thomas Ziegler/ WWF Photo by Lee Grismer/ Photo by Neil Hepworth/ Greater Mekong WWF Greater Mekong WWF Greater Mekong 163 new species discovered in the Greater Mekong of Southeast Asia, which covers Thailand, Viet Nam, Burma, Cambodia, Laos and China’s Yunnan province. These rare species include the Cat Ba leopard gecko, tiger-striped pit viper, Khorat big-mouthed frog, Odessa barb, a new Khorat big-mouthed frog Oligodon deuvei Nonggang Babbler Photo by David S. McLeod/ Photo by Lee Grismer/ Photo by James Eaton/ species of Oligodon snake, WWF Greater Mekong WWF Greater Mekong WWF Greater Mekong A S E A N B I O D I V E R S ITY 11
  11. SPECIAL REPORTS The ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity collaborated with the ASEAN-Wildlife Enforcement Network and the FREELAND Foundation in this issue on illegal wildlife trade. The ASEAN- WEN (www.asean-wen.org) coordinates the regional response to illegal trade in protected species, which threatens biodiversity, endangers public health, and undermines economic wellbeing. The network involves police, customs and environment agencies of all 10 ASEAN Member States. FREELAND (www.freeland.org) is a non-profit foundation that is dedicated to ending the illegal wildlife trade, conserving natural habitats and protecting human rights. WHAT’S DRIVING THE WILDLIFE TRADE?* W orldwide there is a high—and in many cases growing—demand for wild plants and animals and the products made from them. Wild species are used as the source of a wide variety of goods, including foods, medicines, pets, display, fashion and cultural items, industrial resins and extracts, and household items. Use may be local to the resource itself, e.g. hunting for meat for direct consumption, or take place many thousands of miles away, the wildlife products passing along a complex processing and trade chain from harvester to end-consumer. * Lifted from: TRAFFIC, 2008. “What’s Driving the Wildlife Trade? A Review of Expert Opinion on Economic and Social Drivers of the Wildlife Trade and Trade Control Efforts in Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR and Viet Nam”. East Asia and Pacifi c Region Sustainable Development Discussion Papers. East Asia and Pacific Region Sustainable Development Department, World Bank, Washington, DC. The full report is online at (http://www.traffic.org/ home/2008/10/3/new-study-on-whats-driving-the-wildlife-trade-in-south-east.html). 12 SEPTEMB ER - DE CE M BE R 2 0 0 9 www. a s e a n b i o d i ver si t y. o r g
  12. SPECIAL REPORTS Why illegal and unsustainable wildlife trade in Southeast Asia matters There is increasing recognition that the wildlife trade in Southeast Asia has far-reaching effects. Not only does it supply markets and consumers both lo- cally and across the globe, but it also has significant implications for conservation and development at local, national and regional levels, as well as internation- ally. The wildlife trade is of significant economic importance in Southeast Asia. It involves wide and complex networks for both sourcing and marketing. It en- gages a diverse range of actors, including rural harvesters, professional hunters, a wide variety of intermediate traders, wholesalers and retailers, up to the final consumers of wildlife – many of whom live thousands of miles away from the product source. Participants derive from across the social spectrum, rang- ing from poor rural villagers and small- scale traders to large businesses, affluent city-dwellers and politically-powerful Thai police seize birds in Chatuchak Market. Photo by Tassanee Vejpongsa/FREELAND. interests. The scale of economic benefits received through participating in the Southeast Asia is both a centre for universities, scientific bodies, and wildlife trade are similarly varied. Trade, the consumption of wildlife products, independent researchers across Cam- in some cases, is a regular source of in- and also a key supplier of wildlife prod- bodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Vietnam come; in others, an occasional income ucts to the world. Cambodia, Indonesia, and elsewhere. The responses covered source; and in some cases, a “safety net” Lao PDR and Viet Nam are among the around 30 plant and animal taxa that in times of hardship. For some, selling southeast Asian countries that act as ma- are traded in and from the four coun- wildlife can be a lucrative business, at- jor sources of wildlife in trade, the trade tries under a variety of market, policy tracting large amounts of money and involving a wide variety of native spe- and regulatory contexts. The question- generating very large profits. cies, which, in many cases, are declining naire data were analysed at an aggregate The conservation impacts of the as a result of unsustainable, and often level, to give a picture of the wildlife wildlife trade in Southeast Asia are illegal, harvest. In 2005, with funding trade overall, and detailed case studies immense. Unsustainable, and often il- support from the World Bank-Nether- were produced for three species groups: legal, exploitation of wild plants and lands Partnership Program, TRAFFIC tiger (Panthera tigris), agarwood (Aq- animals is having devastating effects initiated a study to better understand uilaria spp.) and Gyrinops spp., and on the region’s biodiversity. There has the economic and social drivers of the tortoises and freshwater turtles (vari- been a drastic decline in the popula- wildlife trade in these four countries, ous species). Workshops and meetings tions of many wildlife species with high and to assess the effectiveness of inter- with wildlife trade experts in the region commercial value, many of which are ventions that have been employed to were also organized to guide the proj- now rare, endangered or locally extinct halt illegal and unsustainable trade in ect’s research and consider and further – such as the tiger, Sumatran Rhinoc- their native flora and fauna. elaborate on the project findings. eros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis), Javan Since empirical data are sparse and The study aimed to generate find- rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus), Asian incomplete, the primary data sources ings and recommendations that would elephant (Elephas maximus), pangolins for the study were a survey of expert be useful to governments, non-govern- (Manis spp.), freshwater turtles and opinion and a review of relevant lit- mental organizations, donors and oth- tortoises, agarwood and numerous wild erature. A detailed questionnaire was ers in considering how interventions to orchid species. completed by 89 experts on the wild- reduce illegal and unsustainable wildlife Where it continues at unsustain- life trade, drawn from government de- trade might be applied more effectively able levels, the wildlife trade may also partments, conservation organisations, in future. undermine efforts to achieve sustainable A S E A N B I O D I V E R S ITY 13
  13. SPECIAL REPORTS are most effective in reducing illegal and unsustainable wildlife trade? The design of interventions is shaped by a series of assumptions made by governments, non-governmental or- ganizations, and others of what drives illegal and unsustainable wildlife trade, and which conditions therefore need to change in order to reduce it. The inter- ventions that are then set in place em- ploy a series of measures to manipulate, influence and change these key condi- tions. While many of the assumptions that guide the design of wildlife trade inter- ventions are based on common-sense Leopard and Pangolin rescued by Thai customs. Photos courtesy of FREELAND thinking, and most are informed by long experience and lessons learned by development and poverty alleviation in of alternative livelihood options). practitioners in the field, they are rarely the region, because it is depleting valu- Economic and social factors drive made explicit, or investigated thor- able natural assets upon which millions both demand and supply sides of the oughly prior to or during the course of of people depend at least in part. Many wildlife trade equation, and any effort project design. To improve the effective- of those surviving below the national to improve either biodiversity conserva- ness of interventions, there is therefore a poverty line in Cambodia, Indonesia, tion or development returns in the re- need to ascertain whether the assumed Lao PDR and Viet Nam depend to a gion as these relate to the use and trade economic and social drivers of wildlife significant extent on biological resources of wild resources needs to be cognizant trade, and related chains of causalities, for their wellbeing and survival, and are of these drivers and to design actions linkages and outcomes that are being less able to access or afford alternative in a way that takes them into account. acted upon, are actually borne out by sources of livelihoods when biodiversity Yet there remains little common under- evidence. is depleted. The loss of wild animal and standing about the trade’s underlying The study investigated whether plant species thus undermines a basic economic and social drivers, or about expert opinion and available literature means of production for a large part of the effectiveness and impacts of wildlife supported or refuted the assumptions the human population in the region, trade-related interventions in economic that are made when designing wildlife and erodes vital coping mechanisms. and social terms. trade interventions, and to ascertain This gap in knowledge represents whether survey respondents believed The need to factor economic a serious constraint to designing com- that associated interventions had been and social considerations into prehensive measures that will not only effective in reducing illegal and unsus- efforts to halt the illegal and reduce illegal and unsustainable wildlife tainable wildlife trade in Cambodia, In- unsustainable wildlife trade trade but also simultaneously result in donesia, Lao PDR and Vietnam. A wide range of interventions has tangible improvements in livelihoods, Research focused on five broad cat- been employed to date in efforts to halt poverty reduction and the achievement egories of interventions that are com- the illegal and unsustainable wildlife of sustainable development goals. monly employed, individually or in trade in Southeast Asia. These range This study is believed to be the first combination, to reduce unsustainable from more conventional “command and broad spectrum effort to generate and and/or illegal wildlife trade. Each of control” measures (which tighten the synthesize information about economic these intervention types is, at least im- laws, regulations, enforcement and pen- and social dimensions of illegal and un- plicitly, founded on assumptions about alties restricting wildlife harvesting and sustainable wildlife trade in Southeast a different set of economic and social trade), through attempts to secure more Asia with the specific aim of improving drivers, as illustrated in the diagram sustainable sources of wildlife products the effectiveness and outcomes of poli- (Figure 1): those concerning people’s (such as through the domestication of cies, programmes and projects aiming livelihoods, the markets and prices for key species, or the introduction of more to address this trade. wildlife products, the laws and regula- sustainable resource management and tions that are in place to govern people’s harvesting techniques), to more inno- Identifying the assumptions that actions, awareness and knowledge of vative mechanisms that aim to tackle guide wildlife trade interventions regulations and conservation concerns, the broader conditions that encourage The study was designed to provide and the practices and techniques used people to participate in the wildlife answers to two questions: What drives to manage wild animal and plant re- trade (such as supporting development the wildlife trade? Which interventions sources. 14 SEPTEMB ER - DE CE M BE R 2 0 0 9 www. a s e a n b i o d i ver si t y. o r g
  14. SPECIAL REPORTS Indonesia, Lao PDR and Vietnam are Figure 1: Assumptions underlying wildlife trade interventions believed to have been at least partially successful, although beliefs on the level of effectiveness varied among experts. However, based on survey responses and information from the literature, as- sumptions made about economic and social drivers in the design of interven- tion approaches may in some cases be misplaced. The study illuminated the fact that wildlife trade chains are typically highly variable and complex, with an extreme- ly wide reach involving diverse partici- pants whose actions are shaped by dif- ferent conditions and drivers from the point of harvest to the end-consumer. It is therefore perhaps not surprising that interventions, which tend to focus on particular parts of the trade chain, may not be successful in reducing illegal and unsustainable trade overall. Issues emerging from the study not only affect the status of traded spe- Gaps in information about cies and the ecosystems in which they Livelihoods as drivers the wildlife trade occur, undermining the achievement Efforts to reduce poverty, increase Beliefs regarding the importance of of Millennium Development Goal 7 income and diversify livelihoods among different drivers and the effectiveness (environmental sustainability), but will rural communities were believed by of different intervention types vary also hamper efforts to achieve the Goals experts surveyed to have relatively low among wildlife trade experts. While related to poverty, hunger and health. impact on participation in harvesting this may reflect the spectrum of ex- wildlife for trade. The links between periences concerning species, product The effectiveness of interventions wealth, poverty and engagement in the type, harvest site, and other factors, it to control illegal and unsustainable wildlife trade are complex: people in- may also point to a wider lack of clear wildlife trade volved in the trade are not necessarily evidence of generalized traits. This is Many of the interventions that have poor, and the poor who are involved reflected in the literature, with pub- been employed to control illegal and un- usually do not drive the trade. Further, lished work often focusing on trade, in sustainable wildlife trade in Cambodia, they do not capture the majority of particular species or locations, rather the trade’s monetary value. than across the trade chain, and lack- Expert opinions suggested ing data sufficient to assess the impact that improving the income or effectiveness of different interven- or livelihood status of har- tions over time and space. vester communities often did not reduce their partici- The impacts of illegal and pation in the wildlife trade. unsustainable wildlife trade There was a high level of consensus Markets and prices as drivers among experts that the abundance of Both experts and litera- traded species in the wild had declined ture consulted for this study over the past decade, confirming the considered rising affluence findings of the large body of data and and increasing disposable literature that draws attention to alarm- income in consumer coun- ing rates of loss of commercially valu- tries was a major driver of able biodiversity in the region as a result demand for wildlife in the of over-exploitation and trade. Many of region. Unsurprisingly, har- the species that are declining are used to vesters and suppliers are support subsistence needs, e.g. for food highly responsive to the and medicine, as well as providing a market opportunities pre- source of income. Further declines will Animal skin seized by police. Photo courtesy of FREELAND sented by the wildlife trade, A S E A N B I O D I V E R S ITY 15
  15. SPECIAL REPORTS displaying mobility between products, gally and unsustainably. Significant gaps interventions across multiple countries locations and markets in order to meet in understanding remain about the links and products in Southeast Asia. This demand. At the same time, it was noted between awareness-raising and changes research highlighted the diversity of that a variety of factors associated with in the attitudes and behavior of partici- the trade and pointed to the need for a economic growth, trade expansion and pants in the wildlife trade. greater effort to understand more fully the development of infrastructure had this diversity and how best to respond facilitated an increased supply of wild- Resource management practices as drivers to it to achieve conservation and devel- life to markets in the region. Improved A range of resource management opment aims. communications and connectivity, road practices was reviewed in the survey of Eight preliminary conclusions rel- development, and the opening up of expert opinion (including species man- evant to improving the effectiveness of wild animal and plant habitat via il- agement plans, harvest controls such as interventions to reduce the illegal and legal logging and other new activities, closed seasons and limits on technology, unsustainable wildlife trade in Southeast thereby facilitating extraction and trade harvesting size and age of the species). Asia made on the basis of this review are of wildlife products, were believed to For the most part these interventions provided below. These are by no means be the primary factors influencing the were considered to have been at least definitive. They may not, for example, market availability of wildlife. Although somewhat successful in controlling ille- be universally applicable to individual it is only relatively recently that price- gal and unsustainable wildlife exploita- products, or to the situation within dif- and market-based instruments (such tion. Experts however noted that a weak ferent countries, the latter point high- as product certification, buying agree- information base about the multiple and lighted by government staff considering ments, tax incentives and price con- complex factors influencing the sustain- the research findings. They are therefore trols) have started to be used to control ability of harvesting regimes, and about proposed as a starting point for further the wildlife trade, they were generally what levels and types of exploitation were investigation and refinement, including perceived to be effective. sustainable in a given case, continued to through collecting more detailed data act as a constraint to the effectiveness of on wildlife harvest, trade, consumption Laws and regulations as drivers these types of interventions. and the application and impact of asso- The study found that the number ciated interventions. Recommendations of laws and regulations governing the Conclusions and based on these preliminary conclusions wildlife trade in Cambodia, Indonesia, recommendations are also provided, in the belief that in- Lao PDR and Viet Nam had increased Despite the evidence that, thus far, creased action is required alongside in- over recent years, and that these often those seeking to stop illegal and unsus- creased research in order to reduce ille- provided an effective mechanism for tainable trade are, for the lack of better gal and unsustainable trade. controlling illegal and unsustainable terminology, “losing the war”, there are The evidence base for wildlife trade trade. However, law enforcement and also numerous examples demonstrating interventions needs to be strength- broader governance conditions were that individual battles are being won. ened—there are needs both to improve considered to be the critical factors in The key motivation for this study was available data and knowledge about the determining their ultimate success and the desire to increase the number of bat- wildlife trade, and to make this infor- impact. Although the experts consulted tles being won, and, ultimately, to win mation more practical, policy relevant in the study also pointed to tenure ar- the war, by improving the targeting and and easily accessible to planners and rangements, customary norms, tradi- design of efforts to reduce illegal and decision-makers. In particular, invest- tional practices, and voluntary agree- unsustainable wildlife trade, bearing in ments are required to further develop ments as being highly effective where mind both conservation and develop- the evidence base for wildlife trade in- they had been applied, they suggested ment priorities. This was based further terventions, including research on spe- that relatively little attention had been on the recognition that resources to ad- cific species, products, locations and paid to these measures in wildlife trade dress illegal and unsustainable trade are stakeholder groups where data are cur- interventions. limited, and therefore it is critical to rently lacking. Research on the specif- consider how and where best to invest ics of wildlife trade dynamics on a na- Awareness as a driver those resources to achieve the conserva- tional basis should also be undertaken, Experts consulted in this study un- tion and development aims of the peo- as suggested by government staff during derlined that interventions had showed ple and countries concerned. this study. The use of models and tools relatively high degrees of success in raising This study is not unique in posing such as Bayesian Belief Networks in pre- awareness about the illegality and nega- questions concerning the relative effec- dicting the likely outcome of different tive conservation impacts of the wildlife tiveness of different conservation ap- interventions should also be explored trade among harvesters, traders and con- proaches, questions that are increasingly further. sumers. However, improved awareness being asked within conservation more Wealth appears to be a stronger was not thought to have resulted in an generally. However, it is believed to be driver of illegal and unsustainable wild- equal reduction in the amount of wild- the first effort to address such questions life trade in Southeast Asia than pov- life harvested, traded and consumed ille- focusing on wildlife trade drivers and erty—interventions to reduce poverty 16 SEPTEMB ER - DE CE M BE R 2 0 0 9 www. a s e a n b i o d i ver si t y. o r g
  16. SPECIAL REPORTS alone are unlikely to be effective in re- er with more restrictive and pu- ducing illegal and unsustainable wildlife nitive measures; ensuring that trade. There is a critical need to ensure interventions are inter-linked that interventions are better targeted to, and targeted across the differ- and more cognizant of, the dynamics ent species, products, countries, of increasing affluence and wealth, ris- locations, actors and stages in ing aspirations and demands, and wider the trade chain; and actively processes of economic growth in the re- fostering better co-ordination, gion. Particular efforts need to be made data-sharing and joint efforts to target interventions to urban con- between different government sumers, and to richer and more power- agencies, sectors and countries, ful groups. and between governments and The design of wildlife trade inter- non-governmental organiza- ventions needs to take into account the tions, according to their specif- broader conditions and trends that act ic mandates, agendas, interests to drive illegal and unsustainable wild- and capacities. life trade—as well as considering the im- Increased policy attention pacts of changing wealth status, efforts and action is required if wildlife are needed to ensure that wildlife trade trade is to be brought within concerns and safeguards are integrated sustainable levels and conduct- into trade and infrastructure expansion ed according to national and in the region. international trade controls— Laws and regulations stand little meaning that there is a need to chance of success unless they are ef- Authorities bust illegal wildlife trade operation. shift the way in which wildlife fectively implemented and enforced, Photo courtesy of FREELAND trade is perceived, and to raise and wider issues of governance are also the priority that is accorded to tackled—a greater emphasis needs to and product certification, support for the policies, interventions and resources be placed on enforcing the wide array traditional management systems, and that are targeted towards addressing it. of harvest and trade controls already in for research to develop more sustainable This includes securing high-level po- place. This includes integrating policy management practices. litical support to ensure that measures on management of wildlife harvest and Awareness efforts to reduce illegal to address illegal and unsustainable trade with implementation and enforce- and unsustainable trade need to be tar- trade are accorded a high priority, and ment of that policy; ensuring that poli- geted to specific audiences and their ef- mainstreaming wildlife trade issues not cies and controls are targeted at those fectiveness evaluated over time—greater only within conservation policies, pro- points in the trade chain likely to have understanding is required regarding grammes and budgets, but also within the greatest impact; strengthening the how best to communicate to the vari- policies, programmes and budgets tar- judicial sector’s understanding of the ous stakeholder groups involved in the geted towards meeting development significance of illegal and unsustain- wildlife trade to shift their behavior and poverty reduction goals. able wildlife trade, and focusing on the away from illegal and unsustainable ac- building of multi-agency law enforce- tivities. Additional efforts to improve Rural Development, Natural ment capacity. Efforts are also required the knowledge base regarding the shap- Resources and Environment to ensure the good governance that is ing of stakeholder attitudes toward the East Asia and Pacific Region required to ensure the equitable and ef- harvest, trade, purchase and consump- THE WORLD BANK fective application of harvest and trade tion of wildlife products are needed. 1818 H Street, N.W. Washington, controls. Awareness campaigns should also in- D.C. 20433, USA Non-regulatory approaches to con- corporate a monitoring and evaluation Telephone: 202 473 1000 trolling illegal and unsustainable trade, component. Facsimile: 202 522 1666 e.g. market-based interventions and sup- Coordinated packages of mutually Website: worldbank.org/eapenviron- port for improvements in resource man- reinforcing interventions are required ment agement, are under-used—support needs to address illegal and unsustainable to be given to efforts to manage wildlife wildlife trade in a more comprehensive TRAFFIC International harvest and trade sustainably and to help manner—there is a need to better co- 219a Huntingdon Road Cambridge channel legally and sustainably produced ordinate the design and application of CB3 0DL, UK. goods to appropriate markets. This in- different trade interventions along the Telephone: (44) 1223 277427 cludes encouraging greater investigation trade chain. This includes ensuring that Facsimile: (44) 1223 277237 of, and where appropriate, investment interventions present a balanced mix of E-mail: traffic@traffic.org in measures such as buying agreements enabling and positive incentives togeth- Website: www.traffic.org A S E A N B I O D I V E R S ITY 17
  17. SPECIAL REPORTS “I love nature and I like being in the forest. Even though the salary is low and the danger is high, I’m proud to say I’m protecting my country’s natural resources” – Prachuab Karnket, Khao Yai National Park Ranger UNSUNG HEROES OF THE FOREST By SEAMAS McCAFFREY T hailand has the most extensive network of protected areas in Southeast Asia. The nation depends on forest rangers to defend these valuable natural corridors, which hold a wealth of biodiversity, store vast amounts of carbon and perform other critical environmental functions, such as maintaining the fertile soil and fresh water supply that underpin food production. 18 SEPTEMB ER - DE CE M BE R 2 0 0 9 www. a s e a n b i o d i ver si t y. o r g
  18. Thai and Lao PDR rangers receive tactical instruction in the forests of Khao Yai National Park. Photo by Joy Asato/FREELAND Despite the enormous responsi- counter in the jungle; now elephants, often outnumbered and outgunned by bilities and the dangers they face, Thai- tigers and rangers all face a common well-armed poachers. land’s forest rangers have relatively low threat—armed poachers. This fact was brought into stark re- pay. But for Prachuab Karnket, who has “I had a colleague who died in a lief when illegal loggers at Khlong Wang been patrolling Thailand’s World Heri- shoot-out with a gang of poachers about Chao National Park, in Tak’s Wang tage-listed Khao Yai National Park for eight years ago,” says Prachuab. “I still Chao district, gunned down a Park more than 10 years, being a ranger isn’t feel he is with us every time we go out Superintendent in 2008. Few national about money. Prachuab is motivated by on patrol, and is protecting us. I don’t parks can afford to equip every ranger his love of nature, country and the job. think he died in vain. He died protect- with a weapon for self-defence, putting “I know the salary is low and the ing his home.” them at an immediate disadvantage in danger is high, but I could not think Forest encroachment and armed in- the event of an armed confrontation. of any other job I want to have. Every trusions are common in national parks Prachuab says that having only time I go out patrolling, I know my job throughout Southeast Asia, fueled by “three or four guns between a patrol of means something, and that I’m doing the multi-billion dollar illegal trade in seven rangers” can be the most psycho- something important. That helps me timber and wildlife. The rangers tasked logically draining of all the adversities deal with the fear of any dangers I may with protecting the region’s forests are rangers face, because it means friends face in the jungle,” says the must debate over who will affable 29-year-old. carry the guns, and who will stand a better chance of sur- Rangers in Danger vival if they run into trouble. Working to protect some Poachers are not the only of the most beautiful natural deadly threat on patrol. The ecosystems on the planet may snares they leave behind can sound like a dream job, but be just as dangerous, and the reality is that rangers face are harder to detect. Rangers potentially deadly dangers ev- have been badly wounded by ery time they put on the uni- Jan-Hao gun snares, a home- form. Official figures indicate made weapon set up to fire that at least 27 park rangers automatically when triggered have died while on duty in by a trip wire. Thailand since 2004. In the Eastern part of Ta Years ago, a wild elephant Phraya National Park, in a or tiger might have been the Rangers train for search and rescue operations at the Khao Yai forest complex that extends most life-threatening en- National Park, Thailand. Photo courtesy of FREELAND to the border with Cambo- A S E A N B I O D I V E R S ITY 19
  19. SPECIAL REPORTS dia, rangers have to deal with other in- money to subsidize rangers’ equip- on the forest for their livelihoods. Rang- discriminate threats such as land mines ment. Another conservation group ac- ers need to have good communication and unexploded ammunition. Park au- tively supporting Khao Yai rangers—the and mediation skills to diffuse potential thorities are simply not equipped to deal FREELAND Foundation—also regu- conflict, and ensure that forest protec- with mine fields. A United Nations team larly donates advanced handheld GPS tion laws are respected. has helped de-mine some areas, but large units and supplies. Altogether, rangers perform an im- tracts remain dangerous. Four Ta Phraya While most rangers have local pressive variety of rolesfrom forest po- rangers were injured in 2008 when a knowledge of forest routes and can pa- liceman and crime scene investigator; landmine exploded close to their patrol. trol without navigation aids, the modern to educator and guide for students and No matter how carefully rangers ranger needs to know how to use high- tourists, to liaison with local communi- patrol, other dangers are almost impos- tech GPS equipment. GPS technology ties. They also help monitor the health sible to avoid in the forest. Rangers are allows them to go deeper into the for- of the forest, conduct fire prevention ac- regularly struck down with strains of est and vary their routes more, making tivities and may even be called upon for malaria and scrub typhus. Throughout it easier for rangers to detect poachers, search and rescue operations. the rainy season, when mosquitoes and thus cutting the time the poachers have leaches are at their worst, and the trails to illegally log timber, steal rare plants, Friends of the Forest become muddy, and their tents and uni- or lay snares to trap wildlife. Protecting biodiversity and critical forms saturated, rangers must continue On patrol, rangers must stay alert ecosystems is a difficult task, but one patrolling. In the dry season, heat and at all times, tracking the movements of that is vital for the future of our planet. ticks become a problem. wildlife and poachers; and detecting and Poaching and illegal logging are major problems throughout Southeast Asia, destroying the environment and threat- ening major watersheds that support food production. These problems could spiral out of control, if the rangers are not adequately supported to perform their jobs more effectively. The rangers who patrol protected ar- eas are the first, and sometimes only, line of defense. Adequate manpower, equipment, training and support are all needed to help rangers properly protect forests and minimize risks associated with the job. Thailand’s Department of National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation (DNP) does what it can with the avail- Rangers engage in various training activities. Photos courtesy of FREELAND able resources. “It’s not easy protecting large ar- Mental and Physical Demands disarming snares. Crime scene investiga- eas of forest from poachers and land Considering the dangers they face, tion skills help them determine how re- grabbers, and no country has unlim- rangers do an amazing job to protect cently a poachers’ camp was abandoned ited manpower for this,” says Dr. Thailand’s vast forest reserves. Even or to trace the theft of aloe wood. The Chumphon Sukkaseam, former Chief when they are not facing life-threaten- aloe wood is an increasingly rare timber of Khao Yai and head of the DNP’s ing situations, the physical and techni- that is stolen from parks to be distilled National Parks Division. “But with cal demands of the job are high. into aromatic oil and sold for export. the right training and equipment, Rangers patrol Thailand’s parks 365 Because of the time spent in the rangers are able to patrol far more days a year. They must remain fit and jungle, rangers develop a deep knowl- safely and effectively,” he adds. prepared to trek deep into the jungle, edge of indigenous wildlife. They help Dr. Chumphon is exactly the sort away from their families for up to a researchers and conservation groups of high-level advocate rangers need---a week at a time. monitor and detect significant changes conservationist at heart, with a first- The humid environment and the in wildlife populations, which could in- hand understanding of forest protec- demands of the job place high stress dicate forest disturbance or overexploi- tion. As the Senior Officer of the the on rangers’ equipment and uniforms, tation. ASEAN Wildlife Enforcement Network which they themselves repair or replace Protecting parks from poaching and (ASEAN-WEN) Program Coordination at their own expense. The Foundation encroachment sometimes creates ten- Unit, Dr. Chumphon is now helping to for the Protection of Khao Yai raises sions with local communities, who rely guide a region-wide inter-governmental 20 SEPTEMB ER - DE CE M BE R 2 0 0 9 www. a s e a n b i o d i ver si t y. o r g

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