Asean Biodiversity: Biodiversity and Climate Change

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Asean Biodiversity: Biodiversity and Climate Change

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Addiction is a terrible thing. It consumes and controls us, makes us deny important truths and blinds us to the consequences of our actions. Our world is in the grip of a dangerous carbon habit. Coal and oil paved the way for the developed world’s industrial progress.

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Nội dung Text: Asean Biodiversity: Biodiversity and Climate Change

  2. ASEAN CENTRE BIODIVERSITY FOR Conserve Biodiversity, Save Humanity! ASEAN’s Rich Biodiversity medicine, and aesthetic and other life sustaining resources. Without a concerted effort to protect and conserve biodiver- Despite occupying only three percent of the earth’s surface, sity, the ASEAN region’s 567 million people and the entire the ASEAN region hosts 20 percent of all known species human race would be in danger. that live deep in the region’s mountains, jungles, rivers, lakes and seas. The region includes three mega-diverse ASEAN’s Response: states (Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines); several bio-geographical units (e.g., Malesia, Wallacea, Sundaland, ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity Indo-Burma and the Central Indo-Pacific); and numerous As an intergovernmental regional centre of excellence, the centers of concentration of restricted-range bird, plant and ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity (ACB) facilitates cooperation insect species. ASEAN has one-third, translating to 284,000 and coordination among the members states of ASEAN, and square kilometers, of all coral reefs, which are among the with relevant national governments, regional and international most diverse in the world. Common land and water borders organizations, on the conservation and sustainable use of bio- have allowed the ASEAN states to share many species that logical diversity guided by fair and equitable sharing of benefits are biologically diverse from the rest of the world. All these arising from the use of such biodiversity in the ASEAN region. make the ASEAN region significant to global diversity. ACB aims to contribute to the reduction of the current rate of loss of biological diversity by enhancing regional cooperation, capacitating stakeholders, promoting awareness for biodiver- The Threat sity conservation, and maintaining the regional biodiversity database. To contribute to the achievement of socially respon- The region’s rich biodiversity is heavily under threat. Out of sible access, equitable sharing, utilization and conservation 64,800 known species, two percent or 1,312 are endangered. of natural ecosystems and the biodiversity they contain, ACB Seven of the world’s 25 recognized biodiversity hotspots are builds strategic networks and partnerships geared to mobilize in the ASEAN region. If the rate of deforestation continues, resources towards optimally augmenting effective programmes the region will lose up to three-fourths of its forests, and up on biodiversity conservation. to 42 percent of its biodiversity by 2100. Eighty percent of coral reefs are at risk due to destructive fishing practices and coral bleaching. Contact Us ACB Headquarters Forest conversion, forest fires, shifting cultivation, large-scale 3F ERDB Bldg., Forestry Campus mining, wildlife hunting and trading, population growth and College, Laguna 4031,Philippines Tel/Phone: +6349 536-2865, +6349 536-1044 poverty, climate change, and lack of conservation resources Website: greatly contribute to biodiversity loss. Biodiversity loss could General Inquiry: trigger enormous effects on food security, health, shelter,
  3. Inside Message ‘We must kick the carbon habit’ 5 Global Conservation News 6 Special Reports Climate and Biodiversity 0 The twin planetary environmental challenges of the 21st Century By Dr. Ahmed Djoghlaf European Union Policies on Climate Change 8 April - June 2008 By Juan Echanove Linkages Between Biodiversity and Climate Change in Vietnam 22 By Prof. D. Sc. Truong Quang Hoc n 28 Vol. 7, No. 2 More Perfect Storms Climate Change + biodiversity loss = disaster in Asia By Sahlee Bugna-Barrer Profiles Malaysia Gunung Ledang Johor National Park 0 Tanjung Piai Johor National Park 5 Vietnam Chu Mom Ray National Park 9 ASEAN BIODIVERSITY 
  4. asean BIODIVERSITY Conserve Biodiversity, Save Humanity Editor- in-Chief Monina T. Uriarte Managing Editor Bridget P. Botengan Creative Artist Nanie S. Gonzales Writer-Researcher Sahlee Bugna-Barrer EDITORIAl BOARD Bookmarks Rodrigo U. Fuentes Urban Biodiversity Conservation Tops Executive Director Agenda of SEA Environment Officials  Clarissa C. Arida Director, programme Development ACB National Contact Points Hold First Meeting  and Implementation Ma. Consuelo D. Garcia ASEAN States Strengthen Transboundary Director, Biodiversity Information Collaboration to Protect Truong Son Range  Management Gregorius Wisnu Rosariastoko ASEAN Develops Long-Term Plan to Save Biodiversity 5 Director, Networking, partnership and Resource Mobilization EU Engages RP Media to Help Heighten Rolando A. Inciong Awareness on Climate Change 6 Head, public Affairs ACB Steps Up Biodiversity Information ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity (ACB) Management in ASEAN 7 Headquarters: ACB to Develop Biodiversity Management Courses 8 3F ERDB Bldg. Forestry Campus University of the philippines-los Baños College, laguna, philippines French Embassy and ACB Discuss Telefax: +63-49.536-2865 Possible Research Collaboration 9 E-mail: Website: Youth and Teachers Ride the Green Wave! 50 ACB Annex: Ninoy Aquino parks and Wildlife Center Top UN CBD executive discusses strategic partnership North Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City 1156 philippines with ACB and various sectors to help protect the Earth’s biodiversity 5 printed by: Dolmar Press, Inc. No. of Copies: 2,000 ASEAN Member States Discuss Disclaimer: Views or opinions expressed Safety in Biotechnology 55 herein do not necessarily represent any official view of the European Union nor the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Surfing the Web of Life 55 (ASEAN) Secretariat. The authors are responsible for any data or information presented in their articles. Policy Brief Gap Analysis of Protected Areas letters, articles, suggestions and photos are welcome and should be addressed to: Coverage in the ASEAN Countries 57 The Editor-in-Chief ASEAN Biodiversity Certification Programmes for Ecotourism ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity College, laguna Development and Biodiversity Conservation 58 E-mail:  ApRIl - JUNE 2008 n
  5. ‘We must kick the carbon habit’ Message delivered by Mr. Ban Ki-Moon, Secretary-General of the United Nations, for World Environment Day 2008 A ddiction is a terrible thing. it consumes and habit. this is the theme for World Environment day 2008. controls us, makes us deny important truths and “Kick the Habit: towards a Low carbon Economy”, recog- blinds us to the consequences of our actions. our nizes the damaging extent of our addiction, and it shows the world is in the grip of a dangerous carbon habit. way forward. coal and oil paved the way for the developed world’s often we need a crisis to wake us to reality. With the cli- industrial progress. Fast-developing countries are now taking mate crisis upon us, businesses and governments are realizing the same path in search of equal living standards. Meanwhile, that, far from costing the Earth, addressing global warming in the least developed countries, even less sustainable energy can actually save money and invigorate economies. While sources, such as charcoal, remain the only available option for the estimated costs of climate change are incalculable, the the poor. price tag for fighting it may be less than any of us may have our dependence on carbon-based energy has caused a sig- thought. Some estimates put the cost at less than one per nificant build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Last cent of global gross domestic product – a cheap price indeed year, the nobel Peace Prize-winning intergovernmental Panel for waging a global war. on climate change put the final nail in the coffin of global Even better news is that technologies already exist or are warming skeptics. We know that climate change is happen- under development to make our consumption of carbon- ing, and we know that carbon dioxide and other greenhouse based fuels cleaner and more efficient and to harness the gases that we emit are the cause. renewable power of sun, wind and waves. the private sector, We don’t just burn carbon in the form of fossil fuels. in particular, is competing to capitalize on what they recog- throughout the tropics, valuable forests are being felled for nize as a massive business opportunity. timber and making paper, for pasture and arable land and, Around the world, nations, cities, organizations and increasingly, for plantations to supply a growing demand for businesses are looking afresh at green options. At the United biofuels. this further manifestation of our carbon habit not nations, i have instructed that the plan for renovating our only releases vast amounts of co2; it also destroys a valuable new York headquarters should follows strict environmental resource for absorbing atmospheric carbon, further contribut- guidelines. i have also asked the chief executives of all Un ing to climate change. programmes, funds and specialized agencies to move swiftly the environmental, economic and political implications towards carbon neutrality. of global warming are profound. Ecosystems – from moun- Earlier this year, the Un Environment Programme tain to ocean, from the Poles to the tropics – are undergoing launched a climate neutral network – cn net – to energize rapid change. Low-lying cities face inundation, fertile lands this growing trend. its inaugural members, which include are turning to desert, and weather patterns are becoming ever countries, cities and companies, are pioneers in a movement more unpredictable. that i believe will increasingly define environmental, eco- the cost will be borne by all. the poor will be hardest nomic and political discourse and decision making over the hit by weather-related disasters and by soaring price infla- coming decades. tion for staple foods, but even the richest nations face the the message of World Environment day 2008 is that we prospect of economic recession and a world in conflict over are all part of the solution. Whether you are an individual, diminishing resources. Mitigating climate change, eradicat- an organization, a business or a government, there are many ing poverty and promoting economic and political stability steps you can take to reduce your carbon footprint. it is mes- all demand the same solution: we must kick the carbon sage we all must take to heart. ASEAN BIODIVERSITY 5
  6. GLOBAL CONSERVATION NEWS Mining project endan- (tSEMP) has been leading gers pristine forest efforts to address environmen- June 30 – Residents in tal concerns regarding the lake. Kaeng Krachan district tSEMP is helping villages have protested a move by create community fisheries to the government to approve protect and preserve their own a new mining project near resources, develop alternative the Kaeng Krachan forest, livelihoods to reduce stress on a proposed World Heritage the environment, and promote site. the mining firm wants ecotourism so that visitors may to dig for dolomite depos- enjoy the various species that its near the Kaeng Krachan live in the lake. – BBC national Park. the pristine UN set for IPCC-type tropical forest, which covers panel on biodiversity the Kaeng Krachan national Park and a wildlife sanctuary May 29 – A scheme to set in Ratchaburi, Phetchaburi up an independent authority and Prachuap Khiri Khan, has on species loss on the lines of been declared a heritage site the intergovernmental Panel for Southeast Asia. dolomite, on climate change (iPcc) which contains magnesium, was approved in principle by is used for soil adjustment in a committee vote at the Un Kaeng Krachan forest convention on Biodiversity in farming or in drug produc- tion. – Bangkok Post Bonn. Biodiversity advocates have struggled for decades to Viet Nam launches Saving Cambodia’s sound alarms about the accel- Looming tropical programme to combat Great Lake erating rate of species extinc- disaster needs desertification May 29 – tonle Sap is the tion, and its potentially dire urgent action June 12 – thousands of largest freshwater lake in consequences for mankind. June 25 – A major review hectares of land and about Southeast Asia and is known calls to action however have published in the Ecological 20 million people are being to cambodians as the Great been largely ignored. the Society of America’s journal, threatened with desertification Lake. it is an area of extraor- iPcc report played a major Frontiers in Ecology and the in Viet nam according to the dinarily rich biodiversity and role in raising awareness on Environment, shows that deputy Minister of Agri- a key breeding ground for climate change and is a very the world is losing the battle culture and Rural develop- fish, which migrate upstream strong model that could be over tropical habitat loss ment. According to a survey from the Mekong to spawn in emulated for any assessment with potentially disastrous conducted by the Food and seasonally-flooded forest areas. on biodiversity. An authorita- implications for biodiver- Agriculture organisation and However, it faces threats from tive panel would lend scientific sity and human well-be- the UnESco, the country over exploitation and illegal credibility and underscore the ing. Research shows that has 462,000 hectares of sand fishing methods, destruction urgency of biodiversity issues. up to 15 million hectares along its coasts, more than of key wildlife habitats, pollu- – Agence France-Presse of tropical rainforest are 419,000 hectares of which tion, and deforestation. the being lost every year and is concentrated in 10 central Asian development Bank- Ecosystem destruction species are being lost at a coastal provinces. in the past financed tonle Sap Environ- costing hundreds rate of up to 10,000 times 40 years, about 10 to 20 mental Management Project of billions a year higher than what would hectares of agricultural land May 30 – the new Economics happen randomly without was annually encroached by of Ecosystems and Biodi- humans present. Majority sand. to fight desertification, versity, a review of the costs of the world’s population the government launched a and benefits of forests, rivers live in the tropics and what national action programme, and marine life, state that the is at stake is the survival of funded by the World Bank, steeply accelerating decline of species that pollinate most the Global Environment Fund the natural world is already of the world’s food crops, and the tropical Forest Fund. costing hundreds of billions purify our water systems, the country has already of dollars a year. the report attenuate severe flood risk, invested about Vnd1 trillion warns of severe consequences sequester carbon and modify ($55.6 million) in growing to all economies if forests climate. the review “Tropic 200,000 hectares of forest per continue to be felled, seas turmoil: a biodiversity tragedy year. As a result, forest cover- overfished and if land is turned in progress”’ can be found at age increased from 28.3% in to intensive farming. the 1995 to 38% in 2007. – Viet report says that the world has – University of Adelaide Nam News Service Tonle Sap river lost 40% of its forests in 300 6 ApRIl - JUNE 2008 n
  7. GLOBAL CONSERVATION NEWS years, and half its wetlands the loss of biological diversity well as Asian elephants, red than half the entire orangutan in just 50 years. More than by 2010. the conference also pandas, capped leaf monkeys, population of Borneo island, one third of mangroves have hoped to address the need to and the world’s largest tiger re- which is shared between in- disappeared in just 20 years renew agricultural diversity of serve. Populations of so-called donesia, Malaysia and Brunei. and there is increasing soil loss, crops and livestock to address estuarine irrawaddy dolphins, Experts believe the overall as well as severe erosion, and food security concerns. – As- saltwater crocodiles and nest- extinction rate of Borneo growing water scarcity. details sociated Press ing olive Ridley sea turtles are orangutans is 9 percent per on how to estimate the costs also vulnerable. the fates of year, but in central Kali- associated with this environ- Global warming has rare spoon-billed sandpipers, mantan they are disappearing mental degradation will come changed behavior which are down to only 200- even faster due to unchecked in the final report, due by of plants and animals 300 pairs, are also unknown. expansion of palm oil planta- 2010. – Guardian May 15 – Scientists from the – National Geographic News tions. orangutans are found national Aeronautics and only on Borneo and Sumatra Our dying planet Space Administration say there Palm oil wiping out and are listed as endangered May 17 are now more than 27,000 key orangutan habitat by the World conservation – the Living examples of how nature has in Indonesia Union. it says numbers of the Planet index, responded to warmer tempera- May 10 – the centre for ape have fallen by well over 50 produced tures around the world since orangutan Protection in percent in the past 60 years as by WWF, the early 1970s. they range indonesia warned that one of a result of habitat loss, poach- the London from earlier springs in Britain the biggest populations of wild ing and the pet trade. – Agence Zoological and the movement north of orangutans on Borneo will be France-Presse Society and insects and birds in Europe extinct in three years if drastic the Global Footprint network to avoid warmer weather, to measures are not done to stop Philippines launches tracks 4,000 species including changes in the hunting behav- the expansion of palm oil food security programme nearly 241 fish, 83 amphibian, ior of polar bears at the north plantations. More than 30,000 April 29 – the Philippines 40 reptile, 811 bird and 302 Pole because of melting ice. wild orangutans live in the will have to continue import- mammal species. the report only life in the Antarctic ap- forests of indonesia’s central ing rice until 2011 after years reveals that almost a third of pears to be largely unaffected Kalimantan province, or more of under-investment in farm- the world’s wildlife has been by the warmer climate. Re- ing and failure to modernize lost in the past 35 years. the searchers say the study, which the agricultural industry. the number of animals per species covered nearly 30,000 pieces Philippines imports 10 percent fell by an average of 27% of research and is published of its annual rice requirement, between 1970 and 2005 - with in the science journal nature, and last produced enough rice land animals down 25 percent, is the first global picture that for domestic consumption marine, 28 percent, and fresh- demonstrates the effect of hu- in 1994. President Gloria water, 29 percent. the main man-induced climate change. Macapagal Arroyo recently threats to species are pollution, – Daily Mail unveiled a $1.05 billion master habitat destruction, over-ex- plan for food security that ploitation, invasive species and Cyclone Nargis and its involves more funding for climate change. the expan- impact on biodiversity fertilizer, seeds, irrigation and sion of humankind, however, May 14 – Environmental- better roads and post-harvest posed the biggest threat. the ists are concerned about Orangutan facilities. – Reuters global population is up to the status of biodiversity in 6.5 billion from 4 billion and Myanmar in the aftermath of people are using 25% more cyclone nargis. the Wildlife resources than can be replaced. conservation Society says – Mirror that Myanmar is probably the most biodiverse country 9 nations convene in Southeast Asia, and large for global biodiversity areas of habitats still remain conference to be explored. conserva- May 18 - the ninth confer- tionists warn that the human ence of the U.n. convention needs resulting from the on Biological diversity was disaster could have a devas- held in Bonn, Germany and tating impact on forests and aimed to ensure the survival of wildlife as hunting, non-for- global biodiversity amid grow- est product extraction, and ing global threats. officials logging are likely to increase. also reviewed the goals set in critically endangered animals 2002 at the U.n. Earth Sum- in Myanmar include endemic mit, which called for slowing species of rhinos and bats, as A boy inspects imported rice in Quezon City, Metro Manila. ASEAN BIODIVERSITY 7
  8. GLOBAL CONSERVATION NEWS development Programme to the most critically endangered conserve coastal mangroves species of turtle in the world that were affected by the and has a legendary status 2004 indian tsunami. the among the people of Viet waves of the tsunami killed nam, where its appearance 31,000, displaced a million, is believed to be a portent of and flooded coastal regions. an extraordinary event. only the mangroves that were three other specimens of the along the coast in some parts turtle are known to scientists, of the island took the brunt two at zoos in china and one of the wave, reducing the in the storied Hoan Kiem damage to inland structures Lake (the Lake of the Re- and vegetation. Mangroves turned Sword) in the centre of play an important role in the Hanoi. the turtles can weigh Funds generated can learn their secrets, or, in lives of coast dwellers as it is up to 136 kg (300 pounds) to preserve Asia’s some cases, before we know a breeding ground for fish, and live more than 100 years. Coral Triangle they exist. the book demon- prawns and shrimp. Man- they have become virtually April 29 – the Asian devel- strates that although extinc- groves also promote nature extinct because of hunters who opment Bank (AdB) said the tion is alarming in its own tourism, which helps local killed them for food, loss of Global Environment Facil- right, many species can help communities get additional nesting habitats and pollution. ity (GEF) and the AdB will save human lives. Sustaining employment and income. – Reuters jointly support the preserva- Life provides more justifica- – lanka business online tion of Asia’s coral triangle, tion for action to conserve Rice terraces should with the GEF committing species, and offers dozens of Researchers find rare be protected as critical $63 million to fund conserva- dramatic examples of both giant turtle in Viet Nam watershed tion of this area known as “the the why and how citizens can April 17 – After three years April 16 – Philippine Govern- Amazon of the seas”. Under act in ways that will conserve of searching, biologists have ment officials are promoting AdB’s leadership, the GEF species that enrich our lives. identified a soft-shell giant the Banaue Rice terraces as a contribution will catalyze at – IUCN turtle of cultural significance tourist and economic develop- least $425 million of co-fi- in northern Viet nam that was ment zone but local officials nancing for the coral triangle Sri Lanka launches believed to be extinct in the said the world’s “Eighth Won- initiative to introduce sustain- mangrove protection wild. the turtle, identified der” needed to be promoted able fisheries management programme as Rafetus swinhoei and is the as a critical environment area. and conserve coral ecosystems April 28 – Sri Lanka only known living specimen though considered as one while reducing poverty. the launched the Mangroves for of its kind, was found in a lake of the Philippines’ premier coral triangle, which crosses the Future (MFF) initiative west of Hanoi. the search tourist destinations, the rice indonesia, Malaysia, Papua with the international Union was funded by the cleveland terraces must be viewed as part new Guinea, Philippines, for conservation of nature Metroparks Zoo in the United of a watershed that need to Solomon islands and timor- and the United nations States through its Asian turtle be nurtured and protected in Leste, has the highest marine Program. R. swinhoei is one of light of the threats of cli- biodiversity in the world. – Thomson Financial News Human health depends on biodiversity April 28 – A new book called “Sustaining Life” provides a comprehensive view on the impact of species extinctions and biodiversity loss on a new generation of antibiotics and medical treatments. the natu- ral world holds secrets to the development of new kinds of safer and more powerful pain- killers, anti-cancer medicines and possibly ways of re-grow- ing lost tissues and organs. Experts warn that we may lose many of the land and marine- based life forms of economic and medical interest before we Centuries old rice terraces in Banaue, Ifugao, Philippines. photo courtesy of Melvin Gascon, Inquirer Northern luzon. 8 ApRIl - JUNE 2008 n
  9. GLOBAL CONSERVATION NEWS mate change. Activities that ricultural science has decreased Google Earth to highlight Philippines will suffer from threaten the life of the terraces yet there is an urgent need to endangered species greater incidence of diseases must be disallowed since it develop sustainable ways to April 11 – Google has like dengue and lower levels will affect the environment produce food. Governments launched the Google Earth of fresh water due to global and culture of the people of must focus on agriculture outreach programme that uses warming. – AFP the ifugao province. there is that is less dependent on Google Earth and Maps to no rice shortage in ifugao, and fossil fuels, favors the use of enable conservationists to raise Frog with no lungs the rice terraces alone could locally available resources and awareness of their activities found in Indonesia sustain the province’s need explores the use of natural with endangered species across April 10 – Researchers have for two months. – Philippine processes such as crop rotation the globe. the programme discovered a frog in a remote Daily Inquirer and use of organic fertilizers. will allow organizations part of indonesia that has no – to highlight their work by lungs and breathes through Change in farming plotting points that can be its skin, a discovery that could can feed world Malaysia rejects coal accessed to provide written, provide insight into what April 16 – Sixty countries project in Borneo audio and video information drives evolution in certain spe- backed the international rainforest in what is known as a “layer”. cies. david Bickford, an evo- Assessment of Agricultural April 14 – Malaysia has these can then be seen by lutionary biologist at the na- Science and technology for rejected a $408 million millions of users. organiza- tional University of Singapore, development [iAAStd] that coal-fired power plant near a tions working with the Google states that the world produces protected rainforest in Sabah, Earth outreach Programme enough food for everyone, yet on the island of Borneo. the include Wildscreen, a charity more than 800 million people Sabah cabinet has decided that raises awareness of the go hungry. the report called that they would rather not world’s biodiversity. Wild- for radical changes in world risk the welfare and health of screen is currently working the community in the area with the ARKive project, a and any adverse impact on the collection of thousands of environment. the govern- films and photographs of ment also announced the need endangered species, to create to look for more environ- “layers” that highlight critically mentally friendly sources of endangered species. – tele- Indonesia’s lung-less frog. energy. the project could Photo courtesy of the Associated Press have adversely affected Sabah’s nature-based tourism industry. the government of Sabah is putting increased emphasis on the state’s natural attractions Rice is a staple crop that is including world-class diving, under pressure across the biodiverse tropical rainforests developing world. photo courtesy of that house the orangutan and Romeo Gacad/AFp/Getty Images other endangered species, and Mt. Kinabalu, Southeast Asia’s farming to avert increas- highest peak. – ing regional food shortages, Philippine schoolchildren in an environmental parade escalating prices and growing environmental problems. the report - the first significant at- The Philippines includes said that the aquatic frog, tempt to involve governments, climate change in school Barbourula kalimantanensis, is nGos and industries from curriculum the first frog known to science rich and poor countries - took April 9 – the Philippine without lungs and joins a 400 scientists four years to government has directed the short list of amphibians with complete. the present system department of Education, this unusual trait, including a of food production and the other state agencies and the few species of salamanders and way food is traded around the private sector to prepare lesson a worm-like creature known as world has led to a highly un- guides on global environmen- a caecilian. the frog is known equal distribution of benefits tal issues for public school to be “evolutionarily unique”, and serious adverse ecological teachers in elementary and and scientists surmised that effects and is now contribut- secondary schools. Education the frog had evolved to adapt ing to climate change. Science Secretary Jesli Lapus empha- to its difficult surroundings, in and technology should be sized the importance of “inter- which it has to navigate cold, targeted towards raising yields governmental cooperation” in rapidly moving streams that but also protecting soils, water reducing the effects of climate are rich in oxygen. – Associated and forests. investment in ag- Danum Valley. photo by Rhett A. Butler change. Experts have said the Press ASEAN BIODIVERSITY 9
  10. SPECIAL REPORTS Climate and The twin planetary environmental W By Dr. AHMED DJOGHLAF hen visiting Manila, the Philippines last June, i witnessed the devastating damage of the tropical Storm Fengshen that killed more than 1,300 people. in Hong Kong, tropical Storm Frank forced schools and the stock exchange to close owing to the huge waves in Victoria Harbour. A couple of weeks before, tropical cyclone nargis devastated Myanmar and brought back memories of the horror of the 2004 tsunami, as well as Hurricane Katrina. Last year alone, the United nations broke a record when it launched 13 appeals for humanitarian assistance. twelve of these were for climate-related disasters. 0 ApRIl - JUNE 2008 n
  11. Biodiversity challenges of the 21st Century Hardly a week goes by without cli- highest death toll since records The number of natural mate change making the headlines. the began. Human Development Report issued by • tropical cyclones blasted indo- disasters linked to the the United nations development Pro- nesia, the Philippines and Viet gramme (UndP) in december 2007 nam. As a result, 66 million climate has increased contains a catalogue of so-called “cli- people were made homeless in fourfold since 960. mate shocks” that have hit the world. For Southeast Asia. example: • Hurricanes devastated the ca- Eleven out of the past • Europe had its most intense heat ribbean and central America, wave for 50 years and Spain suf- killing more than 1,600 Mayan 2 years have been fered its worst drought in more people in Guatemala. the hottest since than a century. • droughts and flooding have • the severe drought that affected affected 22 African countries, meteorological data Australia was the worst in more driving 14 millions out of their than a century. home. were first recorded • Japan had its greatest number of the number of natural disasters in 850. tropical cyclones in a single year. linked to the climate has increased four- • Monsoons displaced 14 million fold since 1960. Eleven out of the past people in india, seven million 12 years have been the hottest since me- in Bangladesh and three mil- teorological data were first recorded in lion in china, which has seen 1850. A study by the United States na- the heaviest rainfall and second tional Aeronautics and Space Adminis- ASEAN BIODIVERSITY 
  12. SPECIAL REPORTS While it is true that natural disasters have always been part of life on Earth, the frequency, gravity and impact of these natural phenomena and, in particular, those relating to climate have, over the last few years, attained such proportions that the concept of peace and international security has to be viewed afresh from a different angle. tration (nASA) has shown that, during quire urgent and unprecedented efforts ment by the international community the last 30 years, world temperatures and interventions. the cost of inaction at the highest level to address the cli- have been the highest in 12,000 years. has been evaluated by the Stern Review mate-change crisis. Upon his appoint- While it is true that natural disas- Report on the Economics of climate ment as Secretary General of the United ters have always been part of life on change at more than 5,000 billion nations, Mr. Ban Ki-Moon decided to Earth, the frequency, gravity and im- dollars. thanks to the leadership of make climate change as one of its high- pact of these natural phenomena and, Germany, a Stern-like report on the est priorities. He designated three spe- in particular, those relating to climate cost of inaction for the loss of biodi- cial envoys on climate change. in April have, over the last few years, attained versity is being prepared. 2007, and for the first time in its histo- such proportions that the concept of ry, the United nations Security council peace and international security has to Climate change: A real and devoted a special meeting to address the be viewed afresh from a different angle. global challenge issue of climate change and security. in c indeed, the issue of environmental pro- limate change is real, and rep- July, the General Assembly convened— tection has become part and parcel of resents a global challenge not also for the first time—a high level dia- world peace and security. only for humankind, but for logue on climate change. in September, the Fourth Assessment Report of every form of life on Earth. it is for this a Summit of the General Assembly on the intergovernmental Panel on cli- reason that Mrs. Gro Harlem Brundt- climate change was convened with the mate change, prepared by 2,500 ex- land, in addressing the United nations participation of more than 70 Heads of perts from 130 countries, is unequivo- General Assembly in May 2007, follow- State and government. in december, cal: current atmospheric concentrations ing her appointment as Special Envoy the 14,000 participants attending the of greenhouse gases are greater than at of the Secretary-General on climate climate conference in Bali agreed on a any time in the last 650,000 years. cli- change stated, “It is irresponsible, reck- road map for the post-Kyoto commit- mate change is real, and human activ- less and deeply immoral to question the ment. Six Heads of State and govern- ity is its main driving force. the report seriousness of the situation. The time for ment took part at this historic event. specifies that even if greenhouse-gas diagnosis is over and the time for action two days earlier, in oslo, the no- concentrations were to stabilize now, is now.” She stressed the importance of bel Peace Prize was awarded to Mr. Al anthropogenic global warming and 2007 as a year when the wheels have to Gore, the former Vice-President of the sea-level rise would continue for cen- be set in motion. United States of America, and to the turies due to the complexity of the Mrs. Brundtland’s call for action has intergovernmental Panel on climate world’s climate and the interconnectiv- been heard and 2007 will be remem- change (iPcc). in so doing, the presti- ity of ecosystems. Such conclusions re- bered as the year of renewed commit- gious norwegian nobel committee has 2 ApRIl - JUNE 2008 n
  13. SPECIAL REPORTS Ice from the great lakes melting, blowing into shore. recognized, for the second time in its meier of Germany recently stated, “In a the risk of the waters overflowing. Since history, the environmental dimension few decades, the relationship between the more than 50% of the major cities of of the concept of peace and security. environment, resources and conflict may the world are situated in coastal areas the security implications of envi- seem almost as obvious as the connection and because more than 3 billion people ronmental degradation were recognized we see today between human rights, de- live less than 100 kilometers from the by the committee in 2004, when, for mocracy and peace. There is a ‘cold war’ coast, sea-level rise will have disastrous the first time in history, it awarded the at the North Pole that we have to prevent. consequences on the world’s popula- nobel Peace Prize to an environmental- Climate change is a threat to worldwide tion. At the Bali climate conference in ist, namely Professor Wangari Maathai. peace and security.” 2007, the President of the Maldives re- on that historic occasion, Mr. ole According to the Fourth Assessment minded the international community danbolt Mjøs, the chairman of this Report of iPcc, global warming and of the statement made 20 years before, prestigious institution, noted: “This the melting of snow and glaciers in the in october 1987 at the United nations year, the Norwegian Nobel Committee has twentieth century caused a 10- to 20- General Assembly, describing Maldives evidently broadened its definition of peace centimeter increase in sea levels and will as “a nation in danger”, with some 65% still further. Environmental protection has lead to an increase of 88 centimeters be- of its land mass barely a meter above sea become yet another path to peace.” fore the end of the century. According level. in accepting the nobel Peace Prize, to the United States’ national Aeronau- Prof. Maathai stated: “There can be no tics and Space Administration (nASA), Scarcity of water and peace without equitable development and in 2007 Greenland saw record levels of climate change t there can be no development without sus- ice melting—estimated at approximate- oday four out of 10 people in tainable management of the environment ly one million square kilometers, twice the world live in countries with in a democratic and peaceful space. I hope the size of France, and corresponding to a severe shortage of potable wa- that this prize will help many people see one billion tons. there is a danger there- ter. While a citizen in the developed the link between peace, development and fore that global warming will jeopardize world can count on an average of 135 environment.” the existence of the 160,000 glaciers liters of water a day, an African citizen indeed, sustainable development is in the world. the melting of snow on has to survive with only 14 liters and the new name for peace and security. the Himalayas caused the proliferation in namibia, for example, with 5 liters nobel Laureate Wangari Maathai has of the number of lakes situated in high a day. As a result of climate change and tirelessly worked to highlight the link altitude. in nepal, they are estimated at increasing human demands on ecosys- between peace and the environment. As 2,323, of which 20% constitute a threat tems, total available water in the niger, Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Stein- to neighboring communities because of Lake chad and Senegal basins has de- ASEAN BIODIVERSITY 
  14. SPECIAL REPORTS creased by 40 – 60% over the past 100 eral Assembly of the WHo confirmed by desertification. it is threatening the years. in 2025, two thirds of humanity, that global warming has already begun lives of more than 135 million people. i.e. more than 5.5 billion people will ex- to impact on patterns of water-borne According to some estimates more than perience a similar situation. and parasite illness in areas vulnerable 6 million hectares of arable land are cov- According to a ciA (central intel- to drought and flooding. it is estimated ered by this phenomenon, which affects ligence Agency of the United States) that climate change has already, directly the poorest of the poor. According to report, the shortage of water will in the or indirectly, killed more than one mil- iPcc, more than 100 million people in near future constitute one of the major lion people globally since 2000. More Africa alone will become climate-change sources of tension and armed conflict than half of those deaths have occurred refugees. the recently released report of in the world. the report further states in the Asia-Pacific area, the world’s the United nations Environment Pro- that more than 30 countries receive most populous region. those figures do gramme (UnEP) on the environment more than a third of their consump- not include deaths linked to urban air situation in Sudan demonstrates that tion of drinking water from outside of pollution, which kills about 800,000 the darfur conflict is one of the conse- their borders. Such a forecast takes on worldwide each year. Singapore saw quences of climate change. during the its true meaning when we consider that mean annual temperatures increase by last four years, 200,000 persons have out of the 268 international river ba- 2.7 degrees Fahrenheit between 1978 been killed and 2.2 million displaced in sins, shared by 145 countries and feed- and 1998, while the number of dengue darfur. ing 40% of the world population, more fever cases jumped tenfold during the A report issued in April 2007 by top than 158 are not governed by any form same period. i have been informed by retired American military leaders con- of joint cooperation mechanism be- the director of Public Heath that 20 cluded that climate change poses a “se- tween neighboring countries. in some cases of dengue fever were recorded last rious threat to America’s national security cases, more than 16 countries share this year in Singapore. and the U.S. will likely be dragged into natural resource. that is the case, for Malaria has recently reached Bhutan fights over water and other shortages”. example, with the congo and the niger and new areas in Papua new Guinea the report warned that in the next 40 rivers, as well as the nile. for the first time. Experts predict that to 50 years there will be wars over water, the scarcity of water and climate global warming could lead to a return increased hunger instability from wors- change will have far-reaching implica- of malaria in Britain. today, malaria ac- ening diseases and rising sea levels, and tions for human health. the World counts for the death of 1.5 to 2.7 mil- global warming-induced refugees. the Health organization (WHo) is cat- lion people each year, mainly in Africa. report concluded that, “chaos that results egorical on this point: climate change Every 30 seconds a child dies from ma- can be an incubator of civil strife, geno- is one of the main causes of the high laria. Scientific studies have proven the cide and the growth of terrorism.” increase in the number of new infec- strong link between the proliferation of But climate change is not only a tious diseases. Since 1960, more than cholera cases and the increase in tem- security issue; it is also a moral issue. 35 infectious diseases have been re- perature of the affected regions. those who have contributed the least to corded. the number of deaths result- the scarcity of drinking water will climate change will be the most at risk. ing from new or old infectious diseases have disastrous consequences on the ac- Even though it produces on average less has doubled since 1980. the last Gen- celeration of desertification particularly than one ton of co2 emissions per cap- in Africa where it has attained alarming ita, representing only 3 percent of world proportions. today, more than 1.2 bil- emissions, Africa will suffer the most. lion people in 110 countries are affected  ApRIl - JUNE 2008 n
  15. SPECIAL REPORTS Loss of biological diversity During the last 50 years, one fourth of the i f climate change is the new threat to peace and human security, the loss world’s top soil, one-fifth of agricultural land and of biodiversity is also another major threat to peace and security as it under- one-third of its forests have been depleted. mines the capacity of the ecosystems to continue providing their goods and ser- vices and sustaining life on Earth. the findings of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, which is the Some 13 million hectares of forests, an have already decreased by 30 percent result of four years of work by more area four times the size of Belgium, are in the last 20 years. Around 20 percent than 1,395 experts from 95 countries, being lost every year. tropical forests of domestic animal breeds are at risk are also very explicit. the Assessment are home to more than 80 percent of of extinction, with a breed lost each concluded that the pressures on the the earth’s plants and animals. Eight month. Some 190 have become extinct planet’s natural functions caused by square kilometers of tropical forests in the past 15 years and 1,500 more are human activity have reached such a may contain 1500 plants species and deemed at risk of extinction. high level that the ability of ecosystems 750 tree species. in Singapore, there this unprecedented loss of biodi- to satisfy the needs of future genera- are more species of trees than in all of versity was confirmed by the fourth tions is seriously, and perhaps irretriev- north America. Although 95 percent of edition of the Global Environment ably, compromised. Since the end of Singapore’s original forests have gone, outlook launched in october 2007 by the Second World War, more land has there are still 840 flowering species in UnEP. the authoritative assessment been converted to agricultural use than the 163-hectare Bukit timah nature of the state of the environment of our in the two previous centuries. Since Reserve. Some 35 percent of mangroves planet by the world environmental au- the appearance of man on Earth, im- have been destroyed in the last 20 years. thority of the United nations system, pacts on the natural functions of our in the caribbean, the average hard-cor- since the launch in 1987 of the Brundt- planet have never been as destructive al cover has fallen from 50 percent to land report, was prepared by more than as in the last 50 years, leading to an 10 percent over the last three decades. 500 experts and peer-reviewed by more unprecedented extinction of biological in Singapore, 5 percent of the original than 1,000 experts. it reiterates that we, diversity. during the last 50 years, one areas occupied by mangrove forests still human beings, are witnessing and are fourth of the world’s top soil, one-fifth exist, and it has been estimated that 60 responsible for a reduction in distribu- of agricultural land and one-third of its percent of Singapore’s reefs have been tion and functioning land, freshwater forests have been depleted. lost. However 30 percent of the hard and marine biodiversity, more rapid than during the last century, the extinc- corals of the world can still be found in at any time in human history. the “eco- tion rate of species increased a thousand Singapore. Approximately 35 percent of logical footprint” of humankind now ex- times. twenty percent of known bird world crops depend on pollinators such tends 20 percent beyond the biological species have already disappeared. Forty- as bees. However, their populations capacity of the planet. For some experts, one percent of mammals are in decline we are at the eve of the sixth global mass and 28 percent are under direct threat. ASEAN BIODIVERSITY 5
  16. SPECIAL REPORTS extinction of species and the first to be generated by human beings. this unprecedented loss of biodi- versity is being compounded by climate change. the Fourth iPcc Assessment Report indicates that up to 30 percent of all known species are likely to be at increased risk of extinction before the end of this century. As a result of climate change, in sub-Saharan Africa, between 25 and 40 percent of mammals in na- tional parks will become endangered while as many as 2 percent of the species currently classified as critically endan- gered, will become extinct. in the Suc- culent Karoo and Fynbos ecosystems in southern Africa, more than 50 percent of habitat is expected to be lost by 2050. the iPcc report predicts that up to 50 percent of the biodiversity of Asia is at risk due to climate change while as much as 88 percent of reefs may be lost over the next 30 years. Further- more, as many as 1,522 plant species in china and 2,835 plants in indo-Burma could become extinct. climate change is threatening the rich biodiversity heritage of the region that sustains 30 percent of the world’s coral reefs and mangroves, produces 40 percent of the world’s fish catch, and is considered one of the world’s centres for tropical ma- rine biodiversity. therefore, climate change and the loss of biodiversity are the two major planetary threats facing mankind. in fact, i would argue that loss of biologi- cal diversity is one the most serious ef- fects, and at the same time driver, of climate change. the relationship be- tween biodiversity and climate change is a two-way street. Yes, climate change is an important driver of biodiversity loss. At the same time, however, the loss of biodiversity and the deterioration of natural habitats also contribute to cli- mate change. Forests account for as much as 80 percent of the total above-ground ter- restrial carbon, while peatlands, which only cover 3 percent of the world’s ter- restrial surface, store 30 percent of all global soil carbon or the equivalent of 75 percent of all atmospheric carbon. As such, healthy forests and wetland systems have the potential to capture a significant portion of projected emissions. 6 ApRIl - JUNE 2008 n
  17. SPECIAL REPORTS Until recently, forests covered 47 tory. in 1820, London became the first “In the Kanji characters used in both percent of the Earth’s land surface. Since modern city with a population of more Chinese and Japanese, ‘crisis’ is written then, they have totally disappeared in 25 than one million. Sixteen other cities with two symbols, the first meaning ‘dan- countries and, in a further 29 countries, joined the list in 1900. today the list ger’, the second ‘opportunity’. By facing and 90 percent of forest cover has been lost. includes 411 cities. the population of removing the danger of the climate crisis, Each year about 13 million hectares of the world’s cities has now reached 3.2 we have the opportunity to gain the moral the world’s forests are lost due to defor- billion people. it has increased nearly authority and vision to vastly increase our estation. deforestation is currently esti- fourfold since 1950. By 2030, two- own capacity to solve other crises that have mated to be responsible for 20 percent third of humanity will live in cities. if been too long ignored.” of annual human-induced co2 emis- not managed adequately, the growth of the convention on Biological di- sions. Some 45 percent of the ASEAn the urban population may accelerate the versity (cBd) provides the adequate region is covered by forests. However, unprecedented loss of biodiversity of framework to respond to these crises. in 10 million hectares have been lost dur- our planet. Although cities occupy only July 2007, Al Gore challenged the citi- ing the last decade owing to forest fires. 2.8 percent of the Earth’s surface, urban zens of world, stating that: With the current rate of deforestation, dwellers use 75 percent of the planet’s “Our home Earth is in danger. What three quarters of the forest cover of the natural resources. More than this, how- is at risk of being destroyed is not the region will disappear along with 42 per- ever, is the fact that nearly half of the planet itself, but the conditions that have cent of its biodiversity by 2100. this world’s major cities are located within made it hospitable for human beings. The will have far-reaching implications on 50 kilometers of the coast, and coastal climate crisis offers us the chance to expe- the livelihood of the 500 million people population densities are 2.6 times great- rience what a few generations in history of the region and the biodiversity of the er than in inland areas. Some would have had the privilege of experiencing: a planet. even say that the battle for life on Earth generational mission, a compelling moral the region covers a land area of will be won or lost in cities. purpose, a shared cause, and the thrill of 447 million hectares representing a it is for this reason that at the ini- being forced by circumstances to put aside mere 3 percent of the Earth’s surface, tiative of the Mayor of curitiba, Brazil, the pettiness and conflict of politics and but contains 20 percent of the world’s the host of the eighth meeting of the to embrace genuine moral and spiritual biodiversity. it harbors 18 percent conference of the Parties, 34 mayors challenges.” of all recorded flowering plants, and and their representatives adopted in the Summit of the ASEAn Heads 21 percent of all recorded freshwater March 2007 the “Curitiba Declara- of State and government to be held in species. the region has seven of the tion on Cities and Biodiversity”. in May 2010 provides a unique opportunity for 25 recognized biodiversity hotspots. 2008, the 150 representatives of may- the leaders of the region to embrace the However, out of the 64,800 known ors from around the world adopted the genuine moral and spiritual challenge species of the region, 1,312 are en- Bonn call for Local Action on Biodi- of protecting life on Earth. the Sum- dangered. the ASEAn region has one versity. As a result, 5,000 participants mit will be held while the leaders of the third of the 284,000 square metres of representing 191 Parties and their part- world will be meeting first at the United coral reef in the world, but 80 percent ners adopted an initiative on cities and nations General Assembly in new York of it is at risk. the threats to biodiver- biodiversity aimed at adopting a plan in September 2010, then in nagoya in sity are also compounded by acceler- of action on cities and biodiversity at october to assess progress achieved in ated urbanization. their next meeting to be held in octo- reducing the rate of loss of biodiversity ber 2010 in nagoya, Aichi Prefecture, and shaping the way ahead for the post “Homo Urbanus” Japan. 2010 biodiversity targets. t he year 2007 marked a paradigm the ASEAn region, its people and shift and will be remembered as Multilateral cooperation leaders will have a significant contribu- a major milestone. For the first toward 200 tion to make. We in the Secretariat of i time in history, the world’s urban dwell- t has been said that what is lost in the convention on Biological diversity ers exceeded the rural population. the one country is lost to the world. look forward to joining forces with the majority of the world’s population is Hence, each country has a vested ASEAn centre for Biodiversity or AcB, now living in urban areas, mainly in poor interested in mitigating climate change. our collaborative centre, to assist the countries; poor in terms of money, but More than ever, multilateral coopera- leaders of the region in rising to meet the very rich in terms of biodiversity. A new tion is required for addressing the en- biodiversity challenges for the benefit of era is born, the era of “Homo Urbanus”, vironmental challenges. never before present and future generations. the city dweller. the impact is expected in history have environmental issues to have far reaching implications on hu- received such intense consideration Dr. Ahmed Djoghlaf is the Assistant manity. from international organisations, gov- Secretary-General of the United Nations the growing urban world repre- ernments, and the general public. in his and Executive Secretary of the United sents one of the most dramatic changes acceptance speech for the nobel Peace Nations Convention on Biological experienced by humanity in recent his- Prize, Al Gore stated: Diversity ASEAN BIODIVERSITY 7
  18. SPECIAL REPORTS european Union Policies on Climate Change By JUAN ECHANOVE c limate change represents one of the greatest environmental, social and economic threats facing the planet. the European Union (EU) is committed to working constructively for a global agreement to control climate change, and has been taking serious steps to address its own greenhouse gas emissions since the early 1990s. the EU played a key role in the development of the two major treaties addressing the issue: the 1992 United nations Framework convention on climate change (UnFccc) and its Kyoto Protocol, established in 1997. in 2000, the European commission (Ec) launched the European climate change Programme (EccP) that has led to the adoption of a wide range of new policies and measures. these include the pioneering EU Emissions trading System, which has become the cornerstone of EU efforts to reduce emissions cost-effectively, and legislation to tackle emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases. 8 ApRIl - JUNE 2008 n
  19. To limit global warming to 2°C, global emissions of greenhouse gases will need to stop increasing within 0 to 5 years and then be cut to around half of 990 levels by 2050. The Targets E stablished in 1997, the Kyoto Protocol set an objective for the developed world as a whole to re- duce greenhouse gas emissions by an av- erage of 5.2 percent between 1990 and 2012. the 15 countries of the EU at that time went further and committed collectively to an 8 percent reduction in their emissions. Even though the Unit- ed States and Australia have not rati- fied the protocol and are therefore not formally contributing to the objective, the EU has gone ahead with concrete measures to achieve its emission targets, which take each member state’s level of economic and industrial development into account. to limit global warming to 2°c, global emissions of greenhouse gases will need to stop increasing within 10 to 15 years and then be cut to around half of 1990 levels by 2050. the EU is striving for a new global agreement to reach these goals. As a first step, it considers that industrialized countries should collectively cut their emissions of greenhouse gases to 30 percent be- low 1990 levels by 2020. developing countries, such as china and india, will also need to start limiting the growth in their emissions. to underline its de- termination and set an example for its partners to follow, the EU has agreed to cut its own greenhouse gas emissions by at least 20 percent by 2020 regardless of what other countries do. the EU plans to achieve this reduc- tion through actions foreseen in the new integrated energy and climate policy together with measures already in place. the EU leaders have decided ASEAN BIODIVERSITY 9
  20. SPECIAL REPORTS to: (1) save 20 percent of energy con- change targets. the choices we make Buildings account for 40 percent of the sumption compared with projections as consumers have a real impact on EU’s energy requirements. tightening for 2020 by improving energy efficien- greenhouse gas emissions from energy standards for buildings and their heat- cy; (2) increase to 20 percent by 2020 use and production. Virtually all EU ing and hot water systems can reduce the share of renewable energies in over- consumers are now free to buy their gas the amount of energy they use and re- all energy consumption, thus almost tri- or power from any supplier, including duce emissions generated by wasteful pling the current level; and (3) increase those that specialize in renewable ener- heating and cooling. tenfold — to at least 10 percent — the gy. Efficient markets are making energy share of biofuels in overall petrol and more affordable and helping remove Biofuels B diesel consumption by 2020, provided barriers to achieving lower greenhouse iofuels from agricultural crops that sustainable, ‘second-generation’ gas emissions. are currently the only available biofuels from non-food crops become the use of renewable energy will rise large-scale substitute for petrol commercially available. dramatically as a result. the use of bio- and diesel fuel in transport. the EU is mass (wood), biogas and bio-waste in, supporting biofuels with the aim of re- The European Union Emission for example, power plants, is growing ducing greenhouse gas emissions, diver- Trading System in Europe. So will co-generation, where sifying fuel supply sources, offering new t he cornerstone of the EU’s strat- steam generated in electricity production income opportunities in rural areas and egy for fighting climate change is not wasted but used, for example, in developing long-term replacements for is the EU emission trading district heating systems. drawing heat fossil fuel. Biofuels contribute less than scheme (EU EtS), launched in 2005. from the ground (geothermal sources) one percent of the total European trans- it was the first international trading is also increasing, as well as the use of port fuel consumption, but this contri- system for co2 emissions and has be- solar energy. the biggest growth in elec- bution has risen progressively over the come the main driver behind the rapid tricity production will most likely come past decade. the EU has set the target expansion in carbon trading around the from wind generation through more that 10 percent of all fuel consumed world. Emission trading helps to ensure and increasingly efficient wind turbines. in Europe shall be biofuels by 2020. that emission cuts are achieved at the today the average ration of renewable Member States must set their own na- least cost. the EU EtS currently cov- energy in the European energy mix is tional indicative targets and use these to ers around 10,500 installations in the 6 percent, although in some countries, steer national policies and measures to energy and industrial sectors, which are like Sweden, Finland or Austria, already build a minimum share for biofuels on collectively responsible for close to half more than 20 percent of the energy is their domestic markets. Bioethanol is the EU’s emissions of co2. Under this coming from renewable sources. mainly produced by fermentation from scheme, the national authorities in each the easiest way to increase the secu- grains rich in sugar or starch. Biodiesel EU country allocate a certain number rity of supply and help the climate is to is mainly produced from oil crops, such of emission allowances to each installa- reduce demand for energy. this means as rapeseed and sunflower. Most biofu- tion. companies that keep their emis- using energy more efficiently so that less els in commercial production in Europe sions below the level of their allowances is wasted. this can be done through en- today are based on sugar beet and rape- can sell the allowances they do not need. ergy-saving technology or by changing seed. Biofuels are sold in Europe today those facing difficulty in keeping to our behavior. Above all, saving energy as blends with conventional fuels, often their allowances must either take mea- also makes economic sense: the EU’s under a ‘green’ label or brand from the sures to reduce their own emissions (for target of using 20 percent less energy major oil companies. in Europe, Ger- example, by investing in more efficient by 2020 will reduce spending on energy many led the production of biodiesel, technology or using less carbon-inten- by €100 billion a year. this target may followed by France and italy, while sive energy sources), or buy the extra al- sound hard to achieve, but in practice Spain is the leading bioethanol produc- lowances needed on the market. there is great scope for using energy er. the Ec expects most of the biofuels companies covered by the EU EtS much more efficiently, sometimes with consumed in Europe to be produced are also allowed to use emission credits little effort. For example, energy label- in the EU. imports will probably be a generated by emission-saving projects in ling, minimum efficiency standards and small portion of the biofuels consumed non-EU countries, like the Philippines. voluntary agreements by manufacturers in Europe. this is organized under the Kyoto Pro- of household appliances have already Whether produced in the EU or tocol’s clean development mechanism reduced the energy consumption in Eu- not, the EU wants to ensure that the (cdM). rope of an average new fridge or freezer production of biofuels is sustainable. by almost 50 percent since 1990. A lot the new EU Renewable Energy direc- Energy Policies of energy is wasted by inefficient appli- tive, approved in 2008, has defined the G reenhouse gas emissions come ances. the EU is therefore pushing for sustainability scheme for biofuels, which largely from energy use and still more energy efficient appliances by focuses on preventing biodiversity loss production. Energy policy is enforcing energy labelling and fixing and the conversion of land and forest. therefore crucial to meeting climate minimum performance requirements. What the Ec proposes is a target of pro- 20 ApRIl - JUNE 2008 n



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