Asean Biodiversity: Conserving AHPs Through Regional Cooperation

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Asean Biodiversity: Conserving AHPs Through Regional Cooperation

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This issue features some articles and reports about ASEAN Heritage Parks and other protected areas, their importance to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity resources of Southeast Asia (SEA), and the issues and threats that need to be addressed.

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  1. Editor- in-Chief Winning formula and hard-nosed academics alike to get Monina T. Uriarte I’ve been a netizen for some time interested in biodiversity. Personally, now and I turn to Yahoo and Google every time I get a new copy, the scent Managing Editor each time I want to learn more about of its pages, the feast of colors it of- Bridget P. Botengan almost anything under the sun and fers, and the expectation of discovery to get vicarious experience, and new learning it evokes, among other things, from all combine to resurrect the Creative Artist the adventures detailed in delicious feeling that I used Nanie S. Gonzales the blogs of fellow nature to get as a child when (to lovers. But you better keep us from chasing drag- Writer-Researcher believe it when I say that onflies, catching tadpoles Sahlee Bugna-Barrer ASEAN Biodiversity is from the carabao pond, or “disrupting” that habit. For climbing starapple trees too one thing, your magazine much) my mom bought, EDITORIAl BOARD is not only a compact and borrowed or rented for us one-stop shop for readers kids komiks or when (after wishing to know who’s who a week-long absence due Rodrigo U. Fuentes to his teaching assignment and what’s going on where Executive Director in the region’s biodiversity in a faraway school) father Ma. Consuelo D. Garcia affairs; it is also a trea- brought home a new book -- Director, BIM sure trove of ideas for pilferage, if you and I always won wars with Rolando A. Inciong may, for people like me who are tasked my sisters as to who would read the Head, Public Affairs to look for environment and natural komiks or the book first. resource conservation areas “worth dying for.” Charles P. Castro ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity (ACB) As a publications student myself, Freelance ENRM Consultant I think your magazine struck a win- 88 Amistad Road, Camp 7 ning formula in terms of reader appeal Baguio City, Philippines Headquarters: and content for enticing lay people 3F ERDB Bldg. Forestry Campus university of the Philippines los Baños College, laguna, Philippines The Next Issue Telefax: +63-49.536-2865 E-mail: Website: ACB Annex: For the first issue of 2008 – January-March, Ninoy Aquino Parks and Wildlife Center we will highlight articles relating to the Na- North Avenue, Diliman, tional Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans Quezon City 1156 (NBSAPs) of each ASEAN Member Country. For Philippines some AMCs especially those without biodiver- Email: sity laws, NBSAPs are important frameworks that would guide their biodiversity conservation Printed by: Dolmar Press, Inc. activities. In Article 6 (General Measures for No. of Copies: 2,000 Conservation and Sustainable use) of the Con- vention on Biological Diversity), it states that each Contracting Party Disclaimer: Views or opinions expressed shall “develop national strategies , plans and programmes for the conservation herein do not necessarily represent any official and sustainable use of biological diversity or adapt for this purpose existing view of the European union nor the Association strategies, plans or programmes which reflect, inter alia, the measures set out of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in this Convention relevant to the Contracting Party concerned.” Secretariat. The authors are responsible for any data or information presented in their Other articles to be included are: State of biodiversity in the ASEAN; how articles. ACB addresses and intends to address biodiversity issues in Southeast Asia; and the regular features on profiles of ASEAN Heritage Sites and other pro- letters, articles, suggestions and photos are welcome and should be addressed to: tected areas. The Editor-in-Chief ASEAN Biodiversity ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity College, laguna Disclaimer: This publication has been developed with the assistance of the European union. The contents of this publication is the sole responsibility of the ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity and does not reflect E-mail: the views of the European union.  • july-DECEMBER 2007
  2. Volume 6, Numbers 3 & 4  July-December 2007 11 17 18 43 55 lampi Marine National Park ................... 46 From the Desk Hoang lien Sa Pa Conserving AHPs Through National Park .................................................................. 49 Regional Cooperation .............................................. 4 Biodiversity News ........................................................ 5 31 Establishing Regional Standards Habitat Demonstration Sites ................. 33 in Protected Area Management ........ 53 Programme of Work The Kinabalu Action Plan............................ 35 Community Conserved Areas on Protected Areas: ACB’s Biodiversity and Indigenous Peoples Progress and Prospects ...................................... 8 Information Management: Take the Spotlight ................................................. 54 ASEAN Heritage Parks Moving Information Forward ................. 37 Surfing the Web...of Life.............................. 55 Country Reports............................................. 11-27 Scaling up: Protecting the Global Roadshows Help Increase ASEAN Guidelines on Competence Centre of Marine Biodiversity ACB Visibility in ASEAN ............................... 56 Standards for Proteced Area Jobs: in the Coral Triangle ........................................... 38 Workshop Discusses Peatland A Tool for Developing Capacity Sulu-Sulawesi Seascape: Conversion and Biodiversity.................... 58 Building Programme for Securing Globally Important Determining Risks from AHP Staff............................................................................. 28 Marine Ecosystems............................................... 40 GMOs and lMOs Status of Marine Protected What are GMOs and how do Areas in Southeast Asia ............................... 31 they affect biodiversity?.............................. 59 Integrating Fisheries and Habitat Bukit Barisan Selatan Sharing Data to Save Management in the uNEP/GEF National Park .................................................................. 42 Biodiversity in Southeast Asia ........... 60 ASEAN BIODIVERSITy • 
  3. From the Desk Conserving AHPs Through Regional Cooperation T his issue features some articles and reports about ASEAN Heritage Parks and other protected areas, their importance to the con- cooperation is necessary to conserve and manage the ASEAN Heritage Parks for the development and implementation of regional conservation and servation and sustainable use of biodiversity management action plans as well as regional resources of Southeast Asia (SEA), and the mechanisms complementary to national efforts issues and threats that need to be addressed. to implement conservation measures.” With These Heritage Parks embody the aspirations the signing of the 2003 ASEAN Declaration of the peoples of Brunei Darussalam, Cambo- on Heritage Parks on 18 December 2003, dia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, the number of AHPs declared was increased the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet from 11 to 27. (Please see the list of AHPs Nam to conserve their natural heritages that below). represent the bounty and diversity of living Furthermore, in light of the global pro- organisms of their nations. The abundant and diverse grammes and directions adopted during the 5th World biological resources protected through the AHPs ensure Parks Congress in South Africa in 2003 and also in the continuous flow of goods and ecosystems services for compliance with the Programme of Work (PoW) on PAs the present and future generations, not only of the region of the 7th Conference of Parties (COP) of the CBD, the but globally as well. AMCs through the heads of the PAs and other authori- The ASEAN Declaration on Heritage Parks and Re- ties saw the need to review the AHP Programme and serves was signed on 29 November 1984 by six ASEAN re-assess their programmes of activities. Member Countries (AMCs) - (Brunei Darussalam, In- The 2nd ASEAN Heritage Parks Conference was thus donesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand), conducted back-to back with the 4th Regional Confer- and 11 sites in four countries were first listed. Then in ence for Protected Areas in Southeast Asia on 23 – 27 2003, the Governments of the the 10 AMCs revised April 2007 in Sabah, Malaysia. During the Conference, the 1984 Declaration as they all agreed that “common Turn to page 61 THE ASEAN HERITAGE PARKS BRUNEI DARUSSAlAM MAlAySIA SINGAPoRE n Tasek Merimbun National Park n Kinabalu National Park n Sungei Buloh Wetland Reserve n Mulu National Park CAMBoDIA n Taman Negara National Park THAIlAND n Preah Monivong (Bokor) National n Ao-Phangnga – Mu Koh Surin – Park MyANMAR Mu Koh Similan Marine National n Virachey National Park n Alaungdaw Kathapa National Park Parks n Inlay lake Wildlife Sanctuary n Kaeng Krachan Forest Complex INDoNESIA n Indawgyi lake Wildlife Sanctuary n Khao yai National Park n leuser National Park n Khakaborazi National Park n Tarutao National Park n Kerinci Seblat National Park n lampi Marine National Park n lorentz National Park n Meinmahla Kyun Wildlife Sanctuary VIET NAM n Ba Be National Park lAo PDR PHIlIPPINES n Chu Mom Ray National Park n Nam Ha Protected Area n Mt. Apo National Park n Hoang lien Sa Pa National Park n Mts. Iglit-Baco National Park n Kon Ka Kinh National Park  • july-DECEMBER 2007
  4. Protect deep sea fective way to reduce as much the crested lark, which declined ecosystems! as 10% of global greenhouse by 95%, and the lapwing, whose December 29 – A study by gas emissions according to a numbers more than halved. Roberto Danovaro of the Poly- report coordinated by the Global Seven are regular nesting birds technic university of Marche, in Environment Center. Peatlands in the uK, and include the lesser Italy shows that the function- are wetland ecosystems that spotted woodpecker, which has ing of deep sea ecosystems Photo by Elizabeth Kemp, courtesy of WWF-Canon accumulate plant material over suffered an 81% decline, the is closely dependent upon the time to form layers of peat soil grey partridge, a 79% decline, number of species inhabiting the as long as the government keeps up to 20 meters thick and store and turtle dove, whose numbers ocean floor. There is little data its remaining forests intact an average of 10 times more are down by 62%. Intensifica- on the effects of biodiversity and beefs up its anti-poaching carbon per hectare than other tion of farming is thought to be loss on the ocean floor, despite efforts. The number of tigers ecosystems. Peatlands are also the main cause of the decline. the fact that the deep sea across Asia has decreased from home to a large share of the – Environment News Network covers 65% of the Earth and 100,000 more than 150 years world’s freshwater resources and is the most important ecosys- ago to only about 5,000 today. are critical in the conservation Traditional medicinal tem for the cycling of carbon, Threats come from habitat loss of endangered species. However, plants fast disappearing nitrogen, and phosphorus of the and poachers who sell the skins destruction of peatlands emits December 19 – Poor collection biosphere. The deep sea also and body parts of tigers to more than 3 billion tons of controls are threatening the supports the largest “biomass” booming medicinal and souvenir carbon dioxide—equivalent to survival of many plant species of living things, including a markets mostly in China. The 10% of global emissions from used in traditional and modern large proportion of undiscovered WCS stated that Thailand hosts fossil fuels. The new report is medicines. Some estimate that species. The study examined the some of the biggest tiger traf- the first-ever assessment of the 15,000 of the 50,000 — 70,000 biodiversity of nematode worms fickers in the region, and there relationship between peatlands, plant species used for medicinal and several independent indica- is no chance for tigers to come biodiversity and climate change purposes and mostly collected tors of ecosystem functioning back until those traffickers are on a global level. The authors from the wild may be threatened, and efficiency at 116 deep-sea put behind bars. – WWF urge the integration of wetlands as a direct result of unsustain- sites. Nematodes are the most conservation into climate change able collection practices. To ad- abundant animals on earth and Barcoding an adaptation and mitigation dress the problem, the new Inter- account for more than 90% of entire Ecosystem strategies since investments in national Standard for Sustainable all life at the bottom of the sea. December 27 – Moorea, an peatland protection and restora- Wild Collection of Medicinal and The study found that sites with island in the South Pacific, is tion can be up to 100 times Aromatic Plants (ISSC-MAP) has a higher diversity of nematodes home of the uC Berkeley Richard more cost-effective than other been produced by the IuCN-SSC support exponentially higher rates B. Gump South Pacific Research carbon sequestration measures. Medicinal Plant Specialist Group, of ecosystem processes and an Station and France’s Centre – Worldwatch Institute TRAFFIC (the wildlife monitoring increased efficiency with which de Recherches Insulaires et network), WWF Germany and those processes are performed. Observatoire de l’Environnement Study reveals severe the German Federal Agency for Efficiency reflects the ability (CRIOBE), and will be the site of decline of Europe’s Nature Conservation (BfN), with of an ecosystem to exploit the an ambitious project to create a common birds support from IuCN-Canada. The available energy in the form of comprehensive inventory of all December 26 – The State of document is designed to help the food sources. The study shows non-microbial life on the island. Europe’s Common Birds 2007 people involved in the harvest, the need to preserve biodiversity, Supported by a $5.2 million grant says that almost half (45%) management, trade, manufac- especially deep-sea biodiversity, from the Gordon and Betty Moore of Europe’s common birds has ture and sale of wild-collected because otherwise the negative Foundation, the Moorea Biocode declined over a 26-year period. medicinal and aromatic plant consequences could be unprec- Project is the first effort to cata- The report’s analysis of 124 of resources to understand and edented. It is important to care log and barcode an entire tropical Europe’s common birds, published comply with the conditions under about species that are far and ecosystem, from the bottom by the European Bird Census which sustainable collection of essentially invisible. – Cell Press of the ocean to the top of the Council, RSPB and Birdlife these resources can take place. mountains. The researchers are International, has revealed that – WWF Thailand can support constructing a library of genetic 56 species of Europe’s birds more tigers markers and physical identifiers declined across 20 European Urban farming needed to December 28 – Thailand’s parks for every species of plant, animal countries between 1980 and adapt to climate change and wildlife reserves could hold and fungi on the island, and will 2005. Of the 10 common birds December 19 – The World up to 2,000 wild tigers if the make the database publicly avail- showing the greatest declines, Meteorological Organization urged government steps up efforts to able as a resource for ecologists five are farmland birds such as Asian nations to invest more in control poaching. The country’s and evolutionary biologists around urban and indoor farming to help Western Forest Complex, cover- the world. Additional information feed the hundreds of millions of ing 18,000 km2 of protected about the Moorea Biocode Project people in their growing cities. jungle habitat, currently holds is available at http://moorea. Climate change has affected 720 tigers, according to a – UC the production cycle making it study by Thailand’s Department Berkeley Newswire necessary to improve sea- of National Park, Wildlife, and sonal prediction, early warning Plant Conservation and the New Don’t forget peatlands systems, and monitoring for york-based Wildlife Conservation in climate mitigation Photo courtesy of RSPB regional droughts, to help farm- Society (WCS). However, the December 26 – Protecting Numbers of the Grey Partridge ers decide which crops to grow. area could support more tigers peatland areas can be a cost-ef- have fallen by 79% since 1980. There is also growing interest ASEAN BIODIVERSITy • 
  5. in indoor and urban agriculture servationists to estimate the researchers modeled changes to secure food supplies. Of the distribution of birds may vastly to the elevational limits of the 10 countries most affected by underestimate the actual popula- ranges of more than 8,400 extreme weather in 2006, seven tion size of threatened species species of land birds using were Asian -- Afghanistan, China, and those with specific habitats, 60 scenarios. The scenarios India, Indonesia, North Korea, the according to a study published in consisted of various combinations Philippines and Vietnam. These Conservation Biology. The study of surface warming projections countries will likely face more found that species ranges tend from the 2007 IPCC report, weather, climate and water prob- to get overestimated, and this habitat loss estimates from the 1,000th rare whale lems in the future. – Reuters trend is particularly pronounced 2005 Millennium Ecosystem shark identified for birds that are threatened, Assessment (an evaluation of the in Mozambique rely on specialized diets or have planet’s ecosystems by 1,360 November 28 – The 1,000th small habitats. This suggests experts around the world), and whale shark, a rare and threat- that many threatened species several possibilities of shifts in ened species, has been discov- of birds may be even rarer and elevational range limits. Increas- ered by researchers of ECOCEAN, are in greater danger of going ing habitat loss exacerbates a global programme that tracks extinct. – University of California the effects of climate change individual whale sharks around - San Diego because organisms seeking more the world’s oceans using a Web- suitable conditions will be less based photo-ID library (www. Sea turtles can recover More than 1 billion likely to find intact habitats. A which catalogues December 18 – A study in the trees planted in 2007 worst case scenario of 6.40 C each whale’s unique spots. Par- journal Global Ecology and Bioge- December 10 – The United warming was used, but even ticipation in the ECOCEAN library ography states that the conser- Nations announced that it had with an intermediate 2.80 C has increased dramatically in vation of sea turtle nesting sites reached its goal of planting 1 warming, 400 to 550 land-bird recent years. It took three years is paying off for the endangered billion trees in 2007 through extinctions are expected. – Stan- to identify the 500th shark but reptiles. Researchers from IuCN its Billion Tree Campaign. The ford University only one additional year to reach and Conservation International campaign is a sign of the 1,000. ECOCEAN’s Web site tells found that green turtles (Chelonia response to climate change, the readers how to photograph a mydas) nesting on four beaches penultimate challenge for the whale shark, warning swimmers in the Pacific and two beaches current generation. Half of the to stay at least three meters (10 in the Atlantic have increased by participants in the uN plantings feet) from the shark for fear of 4 – 14% annually over the past were private citizens or house- upsetting it. It also explains how two to three decades as a result holds planting as many as three to photograph the left and right of beach protection efforts. This trees, while the private sector side spot patterns above the pec- shows that green turtle popula- planted roughly 13%. – World- toral fins, which create a unique tions can be recovered in spite watch Institute Asian nations face “bodyprint,” for identification. of drastic population declines in “unprecedented” The data will help determine the past. long-term protection of Bird extinctions to rise water crisis their numbers, movements and habitats and reduction of survival with climate change November 29 – The Asian identify critical breeding and threats are working, and endan- December 6 – Rising tem- Development Bank released feeding grounds that need to be gered species can be recovered. peratures have forced habitats the “Asian Water Development protected. This will build a better – and species to move to higher Outlook,” which warned that understanding of this threatened elevations, and soon there will developing countries in Asia species and help save the largest Acid seas threaten be nowhere else to go. Habitats could face an “unprecedented” fish in the ocean from extinction. coral reefs will simply vanish, and species water crisis within a decade – Reuters December 18 – New research will go extinct. By 2100, climate due to mismanagement of water claims that in less than 50 change could cause up to 30% resources. The effects of climate years, oceans may be too acidic of land-bird species to go extinct change, rapid industrialization for coral reefs to grow because worldwide. These are the results and population growth on water of carbon emissions from the of a study of extinction rates resources could lead to health burning of fossil fuels by hu- that incorporated climate change and social issues that could cost mans. And unless still rising car- scenarios set forth in the reports billions of dollars annually. The bon dioxide emissions fall in the of the Intergovernmental Panel report, written by a team of near future, existing reefs could on Climate Change (IPCC). The water specialists, covers Bangla- all be dying by 2100. The first desh, Cambodia, China, Fiji, India, Fish vanishing from casualties will include Australia’s Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Pakistan, Southeast Asian oceans Great Barrier Reef, the world’s the Philippines, Samoa, Sri lanka November 10 – Southeast largest coral expanse, and the and Vietnam. The ADB report Asia’s oceans are fast run- Caribbean reefs. – Reuters recommends major changes in ning out of fish, putting the water governance practices, livelihoods of up to 100 million Threatened birds may and learning from successful people at risk and increasing the be rarer than geographic models such as in Singapore and need for governments to support range maps suggest Cambodia which had improved the maintenance of fish stocks. December 10 – Geographic monitoring of water consumption. Fisheries in the region had range maps that allow con- – Reuters expanded dramatically in recent  • july-DECEMBER 2007
  6. decades and Indonesia, Thailand, atmosphere will rise much faster Vietnam and the Philippines are and the climate could warm more now in the top 12 fish-producing rapidly. – Reuters countries in the world. Increasing numbers of fishers and more ef- Pact to end ficient fishing gear are increasing deforestation launched in the capacity of fishing fleets but the Amazon severely depleting fish stocks. october 18 – WWF-Brazil joined Although Southeast Asian fisher- eight other Brazilian non-govern- ies are serviced by a plethora of mental organizations to launch a regional bodies and agreements, pact to reduce deforestation in the Philippines bans fishing “Mutual feedbacks maintain both few have acted effectively on Brazilian Amazon to zero by 2015. to revive biggest reef genetic and species diversity in illegal fishing and shared stock The pact proposes to reduce de- october 2 – The Philippines has a plant community”, which is management. – Reuters forestation by adopting a system tightened laws banning fishing one of the first studies to show of reduction targets through eco- and collecting of species on the that genetic diversity and species UN expert seeks nomic mechanisms, mainly based 27,400-hectare Apo Reef to help diversity depend on each other. moratorium on biofuels on the payment for environmental it recover from near destruc- The study offers clues to how october 26 – The United Nations services. Scientists estimate that tion. located off the coast of these losses relate to one anoth- Special Rapporteur on the right to approximately 17% of the Brazilian Mindoro, Apo Reef was severely er -- information that is essential food called for a five-year mora- Amazon rainforest has already damaged by heavy fishing, and as scientists and land managers torium on biofuels, saying it was been destroyed. High deforestation by dynamite and cyanide, which strive to protect the remaining a “crime against humanity” to rates are leading to an accelerated left only a third of coral cover natural variation. – Environmental convert food crops to fuel. Fears depletion of biodiversity and are a by the early 1990s. A ban on News Network over climate change have boosted significant source of greenhouse fishing in 1994 has helped the demand for alternative fuels, gas emissions. The new pact is restore some of the reef so that More than 15,000 but the rise of biofuel has been pushing for a 25% deforestation around half is now alive. Now species face extinction criticized by some who say it rate drop in the first year com- the reef has been declared a September 12 – The World Con- uses land needed for food. A pared to the 1,400,000 hectares ‘no-take zone’ to allow the reef servation union announced that moratorium would allow scientists of forest lost in 2005-2006, and and the various species around 16,306 species are threatened to develop ways to make biofuels an overall reduction in deforesta- it ample time to recover from with extinction, and are now in- from other crops, without divert- tion of 6,873,780 hectares in years of fishing. The marine park cluded in the IuCN Red list. The ing land from food production. seven years. – WWF would be opened for tourists result came after an assessment – Reuters to help generate funds for its of 41,415 species all over the Chinese seabird protection as well as provide an world. Critically endangered spe- on verge of extinction alternative livelihood for hundreds cies include the Western lowland October 9 - Taiwanese and of fishermen in the area. Some Gorilla, which is declining due mainland Chinese conservation- endangered species are returning to the Ebola virus and commer- ists are joining hands to save an to the reefs, such as scalloped cial hunting. The yangtze River endangered sea bird by urging hammerhead sharks, manta and dolphin is possibly extinct due fishermen to stop collecting eagle rays, whale shark and to developments in the yangtze and eating the birds’ eggs. The sperm whales, which indicate river system including changes in oceans soaking Chinese crested tern (white with biodiversity levels. – Reuters river flows due to dams, pollu- up less Co2 a black-and-white crest) migrates tion, over-fishing, use of electric october 20 – A 10-year to eastern Chinese coasts The link between genetic shocks to fish, and heavy river study by researchers from the between May and September. and species diversity traffic. – IUCN university of East Anglia has A Chinese survey conducted September 26 – Human ac- shown that the uptake of CO2 over recent successive breeding tivities are eliminating biological Demand decimates by the North Atlantic ocean seasons found that the number diversity at an unprecedented Myanmar wildlife halved between the mid-1990s of crested terns had fallen to 50 rate, which is critical when one September 8 – Besides rows of and 2002-2005. There is also birds, about half the population considers that variation in plants fruit, vegetables and cheap plas- evidence of a slowdown in the found three years ago, according and animals gives us a rich and tic sandals, the Mong la market uptake of CO2 by the Southern to Birdlife International. The robust assemblage of foods, med- in Myanmar offers a grisly array ocean. The scientists based their group warns that the crested icines, industrial materials and of animal parts, as well as many findings on data collected by tern could become extinct in five recreation activities. Diversity live specimens. Bear paws and merchant ships fitted with equip- years if protection efforts are within a species is necessary to gall bladders, elephant tusks and ment to automatically measure not stepped up. – Associated maintain diversity among species, chunks of hide, tiger and leopard the levels of carbon dioxide in Press and at the same time, diversity skins, as well as big cat teeth the water. The oceans are one among species is necessary and deer horn are all openly on of two major carbon “sinks” to maintain diversity within a display next to crudely welded for CO2 emissions, the other species. And if any one type is cages of live macaques, cobras, being the land biosphere, which removed from the system, the Burmese Star Tortoises and pan- together absorb about half of all cycle can break down, and the golins. These creatures, some of CO2 emitted into the atmosphere. community becomes dominated which are critically endangered, If the oceans soak up less by a single species. These re- are destined for exotic animal CO2, it means CO2 levels in the sults are found in a paper called restaurants in China. Food stalls ASEAN BIODIVERSITy • 
  7. in the market openly advertise have declared 2008 the year extinction. Cloning animals dishes of pangolin or black bear. of the Frog to highlight the involves taking the nuclei of Wildlife experts believe that most campaign to save threatened cells from adults and fusing of the specimens come from amphibians from extinction. The them into other egg cells that Myanmar’s still vast tracts of World Association of Zoos and are implanted into a surrogate virgin forest, and some come Aquariums (WAZA) said that mother. Malaysian agricultural from as far as India. – Reuters up to half of amphibian species and veterinary experts will join could be wiped out in coming scientists in domestic and for- Asian farm animals Holstein-Friesian cows, egg-laying years through habitat loss and eign universities on the five-year face extinction White leghorn chickens, and climate change. WAZA also set project. The cloning procedure September 3 – “The State fast-growing large White pigs, is up an Amphibian Ark captive would first be carried out on of the World’s Animal Genetic causing the loss of an average of breeding programme, which will green turtles, which are abun- Resources” compiled by the Food one livestock breed every month. bring priority amphibian species dant in Malaysia’s northeastern and Agriculture Organization, The black-and-white Holstein- into dedicated facilities at zoos, state of Terengganu, where (FAO), which surveyed farm Friesian dairy cow, for example, aquariums, and other institutions the leatherbacks nest. Rantau animals in 169 countries, is now found in 128 countries around the world for safekeeping Abang in Terengganu used to showed that many breeds and in all regions of the world. and breeding. The IuCN- World be the nesting home of one of of African, Asian, and latin An astonishing 90% of cattle Conservation union, which is the seven largest leatherback American livestock are at risk in industrialized countries come taking part in the Amphibian populations in the world but its of extinction. Since nearly 70% from only six very tightly defined Ark programme, said that 1,856 population has declined by more of the world’s remaining unique breeds. Setting up genebanks is of the 5,743 known amphibian than 99% percent since the livestock breeds are found in a first important step towards species were threatened with 1960s. leatherbacks (Dermo- developing countries, scientists a long-term insurance policy for extinction. – Reuters chelys coriacea) get their name called for the rapid establishment livestock. Individual countries from their leathery carapace, of genebanks to conserve the are already conserving their Malaysia to clone and have distinctive long front sperm and ovaries of key animals unique animal genetic resources. threatened turtles flippers. Threats include the loss critical for the global population’s – Reuters July 12 – Malaysia is launching of nesting and feeding places, future survival. The report says a $9 million project to try to excessive egg-collection, fatal that an over-reliance on just a 2008 is the year clone some of its threatened entangling in fishing nets, pol- few breeds of farm animal spe- of the Frog leatherback Turtles in a last- lution and coastal development. cies, such as high-milk-yielding August 31 – Conservationists ditch bid to save them from – Reuters Southeast Asia (SEA) is significant to global biodiversity because it contains 40% of all species on Earth despite covering only 3% of the world’s surface. It includes three mega-diversity countries (Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines), several biogeographical units (e. g., Malesia, Wallacea, Sundaland, Indo-Burma and the Central Indo-Pacific), and numerous centres of concentration of restricted-range bird, plant and insect species. Saving the ASEAN Dream is a testament to the richness of the region’s biodiversity, as well as an illustration of numerous threats to local resources. Saving the ASEAN Dream provides information on the significance of biodiversity, the wealth of habitats, species and ecosystems of the SEA, and various threats to the environment. The video also highlights the formation of the ASEAN Heritage Parks (AHPs) Programme and the need for trans-boundary cooperation. It includes video vignettes on the wonders and dangers faced by specific species, habitats and AHPs. It was produced by the ASEAN Regional Centre for Biodiversity Conservation (now the ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity) with the support of the European union. Available in DVD and VCD format. To get a copy, log on to  • july-DECEMBER 2007
  8. PROGRAMME OF WORK ON PROTECTED AREAS: Progress and Prospects n By PETER SHADIE, CBD Secretariat as enforcement is difficult and much of the lowest appropriate level has led the world’s oceans lie outside national to decentralization in many parts of P ROTECTED areas (PAs) are jurisdictions. the world, with variable results. The an extremely important part Based on a survey of management key to success is a strong institution at of programmess to conserve effectiveness of a sample of nearly 200 all levels, with security of tenure and biodiversity and ecosystems, espe- PAs in 34 countries, only 12% was authority at the lower levels essential cially for sensitive habitats. Recent found to have implemented an ap- to providing incentives for sustainable assessments have shown that at the proved management plan. The assess- management. global and regional scales, the cur- ment concluded that PA design, legal As part of the preparatory pro- rent PAs, while essential, are not establishment, boundary demarcation, cess that led to the adoption of the sufficient for the conservation of the resource inventory, and objective set- Programme of Work (PoW) in 2004, full range of biodiversity. PAs need ting were relatively well addressed. the World Parks Congress (WPC) to be better located, designed, and The design and management of was held in September 2003, which managed to deal with problems like PAs will need to consider the impacts is considered as the “largest gathering lack of representativeness, impacts of of climate change. Changes in climate of PA experts.” Its outputs include human settlements within protected will increase the risk of extinctions the Durban Accord and Action Plan areas, illegal harvesting of plants and of certain species and change the that contains a vision statement for animals, unsustainable tourism, effects nature of ecosystems. Current species PAs in the 20th Century and broad of invasive alien species, and vulner- conservation plans may incorporate implementation mechanisms. At the ability to global change. adaptation and mitigation aspects for WPC, the Convention on Biologi- Marine and freshwater ecosystems this threat. cal Diversity (CBD) Secretariat also are even less protected than terrestrial Governance approaches to support expressed the need to undertake the systems, leading to increasing efforts biodiversity conservation and sustain- following: identify and fill gaps in to expand PAs in these biomes. Ef- able use are required at all levels, with the existing global PA system; insti- forts to expand marine PAs are also supportive laws and policies developed tute mechanisms to ensure necessary spurred by strong evidence of positive by central governments providing participation and equitable sharing synergies between conservation within the security of tenure and authority of PA benefits; and create enabling PAs and sustainable use right outside essential for sustainable management conditions for PA management such their boundaries. However, marine PA at lower levels. The principle that as a well-managed system, appropri- management poses special challenges, biodiversity should be managed at ate institutional and human capacity, ASEAN BIODIVERSITy • 
  9. sound policy, legal framework, and PA targets and indicators and had • Competition for access to finite adequate financial support. increased initiatives to establish PAs land and resources in the face of The Conference of the Parties in large intact areas. Some countries rapid socioeconomic growth; (CoP) to the CBD, at its seventh still need to implement national gap • Degradation and over-exploita- meeting in 2004, adopted the PoW analyses and evaluate management ef- tion of natural resources through for PAs with the overall objective of fectiveness of their PA systems. Parties a range of change factors and establishing and maintaining, by 2010 to the CBD also reported partial action threats; for terrestrial areas and by 2012 for on protecting freshwater systems and • Significant gaps in the protec- marine areas, a “comprehensive, effec- addressing the need for capacity build- tion of key ecosystems, habitats tively managed and ecologically repre- ing. Targets for 2008 include: and species specially in marine sentative systems of protected areas” that, • Establishment of EIA processes environment; collectively, will significantly reduce and guidelines for projects with • Increasing pressure from tour- the rate of loss of global biodiversity. potential impacts on PAs. ism; Implementation of the PoW for PAs • Assessment of threats and de- • Trade in wildlife; is expected to contribute to the three velopment of mitigation strate- • Lack of human and financial objectives of the Convention, its gies. capacity to effectively manage strategic plan, the 2010 biodiversity • Increased marine representation existing PAs; target, and the poverty alleviation and in PA systems. • Inadequate considerations to sustainable development targets of the • Integration of PAs into broader livelihood issues resulting in Millennium Development Goals. variable and sometimes hostile The PoW elements are: 1) Direct relations between local com- actions for planning, selecting, estab- munities and PAs; lishing, strengthening, and managing The region already • Poor awareness and appreciation PA systems and sites; 2) Governance, of the values and benefits of participation, equity and benefit shar- has an excellent PAs; and ing; 3) Enabling activities; and 4) Stan- framework for cooperation • Increasing international attention dards, assessment, and monitoring. that should be built upon. and transboundary efforts. Element 1 primarily deals with Approaches to PA management in what PA systems need to conserve and National efforts and the region should be adapted to reach where; Elements 2 and 3 cover how working with partners PoW targets. Suggested focus areas to implement PA systems effectively, include optimizing regional approaches including issues such as the policy will ultimately drive the to building ASEAN Heritage Sites; environment, governance, participa- successful implementation developing the ASEAN as a global tion, finance, and capacity building; of action for PAs. showcase for marine PA establish- and Element 4 covers the steps needed ment and conservation; and creating for assessing and monitoring the ef- conditions that enable a variety of PA fectiveness of actions taken under governance mechanisms to support Elements 1-3. Each Element has one landscapes. participatory management. or more goals, which are outcome- • Implementation of sustainable The region already has an excellent oriented statements of the ultimate financing plans. framework for cooperation that should purpose intended. Each Goal is ac- • Partial action on broadened be built upon. National efforts and companied by a more specific Target, governance types, as well as working with partners will ultimately which in most cases sets a specific the development and imple- drive the successful implementation date by which the desired outcome mentation of management ef- of action for PAs. There is however, is to be accomplished. Each Target fectiveness systems and enabling a real opportunity to promote action is accompanied by a set of suggested frameworks for participatory PA regionally by sharing capacity and Activities of the Parties. management. learning; developing joint awareness Progress on the implementation of In Southeast Asia where 16.4% of raising; sharing data and information; the PoW was discussed in a workshop the region has been protected, there fostering better links with the tourism during the 8th CoP Meeting on 17 are many areas important for biodi- sector and other private sector interests; – 18 March 2006 in Curitiba, Brazil. versity or natural values that have not optimizing intergovernmental support The workshop revealed that by 2006, yet been established. Other challenges from ASEAN countries; and showcas- most countries had established national include the following: ing the region internationally. 10 • july-DECEMBER 2007
  10. COuNTRy REPORTS A ASEAN Heritage Parks (AHPs) are “protected erations. In the ASEAN Declaration on Heritage areas of high conservation importance, preserv- Parks signed on 18 December 2003, the ASEAN ing in total a complete spectrum of representa- Member Countries (AMC) agreed that “common tive ecosystems of the ASEAN region.” These AHPs cooperation is necessary to conserve and manage the embody the aspirations of the peoples of Brunei AHPs for the development and implementation of Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Ma- regional conservation and management action plans as laysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand well as regional mechanisms complementary to national and Vietnam to conserve the natural heritage that efforts to implement conservation measures.” protects the bounty and the diversity of living or- The following pages (12 to 27) show the sum- ganisms of their nations. These bounty and diversity marized country reports that were presented by further represent the continuous flow of goods and representatives of Protected Area authorities from ecosystems services for the present and future gen- each AMC during the 2007 AHP Conference. ASEAN BIODIVERSITy • 11
  11. SPECIAL REPORT BRUNEI DARUSSALAM TASEK MERIMBUN HERITAGE PARK Established in 1978, the Tasek Merimbun Heritage Park covers around 7,800 hectares and has a tropical equatorial climate. Its terrain is characterized mainly by swamplands, with some lowlands and undulating hills. Forest cover consists of mixed- dipterocarp forest, peat-swamp forest Nepenthes ampullaria and freshwater forest. At least 800 species of plants have been recorded, and this number may increase after more studies are conducted. The Park also has four species of pitcher plants (Nepenthes ampullaria, N. mirabilis, N. bical- carata and N. gracilis), one species of agar wood or Gaharu (Aqualaria beccariana) and one species of ramin (Gonystylus maingayi). Gaharu is the Proboscis monkey Sealing wax or lipstick palm most threatened species, as it is con- sistently gathered illegally. the Dusun people. Activities revolve Dusun people consider many wild around research, nature education, animals as sacred. Illegal logging Biodiversity Conservation seminars and workshops, motivational is not a major concern in Brunei and Management courses, and training programmes. Darussalam because logging is only Tasek Merimbun has been super- Awareness of the Park has been cre- for local consumption. vised by the Natural History Section ated through various efforts, including of the Brunei Museums Department a Memorandum of Understanding since 1999, and receives funding from (MoU) between Radio Televisyen Significant species the national government. The Parks has Brunei (RTB) and Radio Televisyen in Tasek Merimbun no rangers, but Park laws are enforced Malaysia (RTM) to produce a special • Biggest (Tetracanthagyna plagiata) by the Police Reserve Unit. documentary film in 2006 on the and smallest species of dragonflies (Nannophya pygmaea) Tasek Merimbun has become a park. RTB and Singapore MediaCorp • 8 species of Hornbills popular venue for recreation, education also created a documentary on Tasek • Clouded leopard and research. The exhibition hall has Merimbun’s natural heritage. • Slow loris displays on the local natural history, • Tarsier archaeological discoveries within the Issues and Challenges • Sun Bear Park, and the traditional lifestyle of Intrusion into the Park is mainly • Great Argus Pheasant • Bornean Gibbon associated with the extraction of agar • White-collared Bat wood or gaharu. The Police Reserve • White-bellied Sea Eagle Biodiversity Resources Unit has to be reinforced since the of Tasek Merimbun • Vordermann’s Flying Squirrel lack of patrols has resulted in heavy • yellow-throated Marten • 50 species of freshwater fish exploitation of the Agar wood where • Malay Weasel • 68 species of mammals • Otter Civet every single tree has been marked • 148 species of birds • Banded Palm Civet • 54 species of herpetofauna or felled for its very precious scent- • Banded linsang • 181 species of lepidoptera ing nuggets. Otherwise, the Park • Reticulated Python • 54 species of dragon and damsel flies has few pressures. There is very • Estuarine Crocodile little hunting of wildlife, since the 1 • july-DECEMBER 2007
  12. SPECIAL REPORT CAMBODIA T HE protected area (PA) system of Cambodia is governed by several laws and legislation whose major goals Kampot, Kompong Speu, Koh Kong, and Sihanoukville, Bokor is generally mountainous with elevations ranging Issues and Concerns Though the PA system is known within the country, stakeholder par- include conservation of biodiversity; from 0 to 1,079 meters. The Park is ticipation in PA management is limited sustainable use of natural resources managed mainly for ecosystem protec- and should be enhanced. There are and keeping a balance ecosystem; tion and recreation. Dominant habitat insufficient policies and laws on PA world and regional biodiversity con- types are evergreen and semi-evergreen management. Technical and financial servation; education and recreation; forest with smaller areas of mixed supports should be strengthened and a and research. deciduous and deciduous dipterocarp national regional cooperation network The country has a total of 23 PAs, forest, grass, shrubs, and bamboo. It should be developed. covering a total area of 3,273,200 has a tropical monsoon climate with These concerns have to be ad- hectares or 18% of the country’s total two distinct seasons: dry and cool with dressed since Cambodia also plans to land area, which is 181,035 square heavy rainstorms. identify 30 potential PAs in partnership kilometers. These PAs are the responsi- with BirdLife International. There are bility of the Ministry of Environment, VIRACHEy NATIoNAl PARK also plans to extend the area coverage and are divided into four categories: Established as a National Park in of the Ream National Park (seascape) national parks (7); wildlife sanctuaries 1993, Virachey is a major watershed and expand forest protection activities (10); landscape (3); and multiple-use and catchment area, and has significant to Mondolkiry, Preah Vihear, and (3). Three of the PAs are RAMSAR cultural, ecosystem protection, and Kompongcham. sites, and two are ASEAN Heritage recreation values. It has a total land Parks: Preah Monivong (Bokor) and area of 332,500 hectares consisting of Virachey National Parks. Montana slopes, middle valley reaches, Measures for Addressing valley floors, western lowlands, isolated Threats to AHPs PREAH MoNIVoNG (BoKoR) granite outcrops, and wetlands within • Capacity building and public NATIoNAl PARK the northeastern provinces of Ratana- awareness Preah Monivong (Bokor) was es- kiri and Stung Treng. The climate in • law enforcement tablished as a National Park in 1993 the Park is tropical monsoon with two • Community development and covers 160,000 hectares. Found distinct seasons: dry and cool with • Cooperation and collaboration in the Southwest region provinces of heavy rainstorms. • Financial mechanism • Strengthening of PA management • legislation and policy for equitable sharing - Government policy: • Mechanism for effective participation of indigenous and local communities • Mechanism to ensure the participation of relevant stakeholders in the management of existing PAs • Appropriate policy, institutional and Preah Monivong (Bokor) National Park social-economic frameworks • Capacity needs assessment for PA management: • New innovative approaches and technology have to be identified, developed, and implemented for PA establishment and management • Strategies and plans to fulfill the financial requirement for PA management Amherstia Kouprey Tree frog ASEAN BIODIVERSITy • 1
  13. SPECIAL REPORT INDONESIA GUNUNG lEUSER NATIoNAl PARK Gunung Leuser National Park (GLNP), covering an area of 1,092,692 hectares, is located in the two provinces of North Sumatra (20%) and in Nang- groe Aceh Darussalam (80%). Due to its global biological significance, GLNP was established as a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO in 1981. The ASEAN Heritage status was also given to GLNP in 1984. The latest global recognition from UNESCO came orangutan Besitang river in 2004 with the establishment of Gunung Leuser along with Kerinci Seblat and Bukit Barisan as a Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra. Management Resources The GLNP is managed by a Technical Management Unit of the Directorate General Forest Protection and Nature Conservation, Ministry of Forestry. Funding for management implementation of GLNP regularly comes from central government, with Mt. Kerinci additional funding provided by the World Heritage Center and Issues and Challenges KERINCI SEBlAT the Spanish Government (through For many years, the area around NATIoNAl PARK UNESCO). the Park experienced a civil war and Kerinci Seblat National Park massive social unrest. This situation (KSNP) is located in Sumatera Is- ended when the central government land, Indonesia and covers 1,389,509 Biodiversity Resources of reached a mutual agreement with Gunung leuser National Park hectares. The Park is part of Bukit the Aceh Freedom Movement. As Barisan Mountain Range with el- • 350 species of birds such, from 2000-2004, substantial evations that range from 200 to 3, • 36 endemic Sundaland bird species management measures could not be 805 meters above sea level. Tropical • 65% of 129 species of mammals in Sumatra implemented, particularly since most mountain rainforests cover most of • 4000 flora species rangers were forced to abandon their • 3 species of Rafflesia posts. Strategic problems focus on • Tallest flower in the world logging in Aceh Tenggara, and land Biodiversity Resources of (Amorphophalus titanium) claims and encroachment in Besitang, Kerinci Seblat National Park Langkat district (from 5,000 to 10,000 • 4000 species of flora Key Fauna hectares). However, the total degraded • 80 species of mammals • Sumatran elephant • 376 species of birds areas are predicted at 22,000 hect- • Tiger • 9 species of primates • Rhinoceros ares. Other issues include the lack of • 56 species of amphibians • Orangutan technical capability and infrastructure, • 50 species of reptiles • Owa (Hylobates lar) limited operational funding support, as • endangered species such as • Kedih (Presbytis thomasi) well as lack of strong monitoring and Sumatran Tiger and Sumatran Rhino evaluation of Park performance. 1 • july-DECEMBER 2007
  14. SPECIAL REPORT the area. The Park stretches from loRENTZ NATIoNAl PARK the precipitous southern fall, plunging the southeast to the northwest in the Lorentz National Park was for- dramatically for thousands of meters. middle of Sumatera and is character- mally established in 1997, and covers Elevation ranges from 0 to 5000 meters ized by steep slopes in more than 70% 2,505,600 hectares of terrestrial and above sea level. of its area. KSNP makes up a large marine extensions. In 1999, the World proportion of the catchments areas Heritage Committee of UNESCO Conservation and Management of 23 major rivers in four provinces. listed Lorentz National Park as a Since the establishment of the The Park has four ecosystem types: World Heritage Site. Lorentz National Park, the government has provided lowland forest, hill forest, mountain Park provides a transect of the full funding to support its management. forest, and wetland. altitudinal range of the island of New Other organizations that support Guinea, ranging from tropical ice-cap the Park include The Wet Tropic Management Resources down to tropical marine environment Authority and WWF Indonesia. Park The KSNP is managed by the and includes important and rare activities include data collection for Technical Management Unit of Di- alpine and sub-alpine environments. management plans, conduct of stud- rectorate General Forest Protection The central mountain range, with its ies to support the development of and Nature Conservation, Ministry glaciated summit regions, glacial lakes, the local community, and boundary of Forestry. Funding for management glaciated pavements and huge rocky delineation. implementation regularly comes from and rainforest clad escarpments on the central government. From 1996 to Issues and Challenges 2002, additional funding was provided Some of the challenges faced by by the GEF – World Bank through Park management include limited pro- the ICDP program. fessional personnel; lack of appropriate infrastructure and other necessary sup- Management Activities porting facilities; incomplete boundary Management activities of KSNP delineation; and lack of distinct zones. are based on three principles: Protec- A Management Plan has yet to be tion, Conservation, and Utilization. developed that will provide details to Protection activities include routine the environmental management pro- patrols, law enforcement, intelligence grammes of the Park. Aside from the work, confiscations, and legal processes. Mt. lorentz weak institutional management, other Conservation focuses on transect threats include increasing road and walks, biodiversity monitoring, fix urban developments within the Park, point photography, camera trapping, mining, illegal fishing and logging, and researches, and habitat management. the introduction of species. Measures A priority activity, local community to protect archaeological resources, empowerment aims to develop the which can be found in caves and peat socio-economic condition of local bogs, also need to be strengthened communities to prevent extraction of since these provide evidence of the Park resources. Other priority actions evolution of the biota of Papua, and include ecotourism development and thus contribute to the World Heritage biodiversity cultivation. values of the Park. Tree kangaroo Issues and Problems Factors that affect KSNP manage- Biodiversity Resources of ment include the lack of conservation lorentz National Park awareness, economic and political • 123 mammal species out of crises in the country, and poor law Papua’s 172 enforcement. Direct threats to the • 411 species of birds • 2 endemic bird areas (EBA) Park resources include encroachment, • 45 restricted range birds illegal logging, poaching, theft of • 9 endemic bird species non-timber forest products, small • 150 species of amphibians scale illegal gold mining, and road and reptiles construction. Rainbow lorikeet ASEAN BIODIVERSITy • 1
  15. LAO PDR I N terms of habitat diversity, there are seven habitats in Lao PDR that are of high international con- Biodiversity Resources of lao PDR and wildlife within their jurisdiction. The DAFOs themselves must in turn cooperate with people living inside servation significance. These include • 8,100 species of flowering plants and on the periphery of the relevant the evergreen forest of the Sai Phou • 166 species of reptiles and forests. Luang and foothills; Central Indochina amphibians The NPA management strategies limestone karst; dry dipterocarp forests • 430 species of birds largely focus on participatory PA • 90 species of bats in the Mekong plain; Boliven plateau; management; co-management of PAs; • Over 100 species of large mammals northern highlands; Mekong River; • 87 families of fish land use planning and land allocation and other rivers and streams inside NPAs; integrated conservation The country’s national protected and development; and ecotourism. areas (NPAs) system was officially ity for the management of all categories established in 1993, by Decree No. of forests including those within the Issues and Threats to NPAs 164/PM. The total number of NPAs NPAs. Responsibility is delegated to Some of the recognized threats rose to 20 after two were added in the Department of Forestry (DOF), to NPAs include habitat degrada- 1995 and 1996. The system currently with the Department of Forestry Re- tion due to agricultural practices; covers 3.4 million hectares or 14% of source Conservation (DFRC) as the livestock grazing; wildlife and trade; the total land area of Lao PDR. technical unit. Other responsibilities non-timber forest products harvest- are with the Provincial Agriculture ing; illegal logging; and development Institutional Arrangement and Forestry Office (PAFO) and projects. for NPAs Management District Agriculture and Forestry The Ministry of Agriculture and Office (DAFO), which manage the NAM HA PRoTECTED AREA Forestry (MAF) has overall responsibil- conservation forests, aquatic animals The Nam Ha National Protected Area (NPA) was established in 1993 with the introduction of the Lao PDR protected area (PA) system. It is situ- ated in the extreme northwest of the country in Luang Namtha Province and stretches as far as the Chinese border. The NPA spans five districts and covers 222,400 hectares. The NPA’s evergreen and broadleaf forests harbors 288 spe- cies of birds and at least 38 species of mammals. In a biological prioritiza- tion of the country’s 20 PAs, Nam Ha ranked 3rd for birds and 5th for large mammals in a national species analysis. Overall, Nam Ha ranked third in the national management priority index based on biodiversity and watershed values, eco-tourism potential, and the level of pressure on the site. The NPA harbors the endangered Asian Elephant; four large cat species that includes the globally threatened tiger and Clouded Leopard; Sun Bear and Asiatic Black Bear, and six ungulate species including the vulnerable gaur Montane forest and Southern Serow. 1 • july-DECEMBER 2007
  16. MALAYSIA SABAH: KINABAlU NATIoNAl PARK Kinabalu Park was established in 1964 under the National Parks Ordi- nance of 1962, covering a land area of 75,370 hectares. It is located in Dis- tricts of Ranau, Kota Belud and Kota Marudu, all in the province of Sabah, in the island group of Borneo. Kinabalu Park has several major topographical features, including three main mountains: Kinabalu (4,095m), Tambuyukon (2,579m) and Templer (1133m). The flora of Kinabalu Park Mt. Kinabalu is diverse, estimated to contain be- tween 5000 – 6000 species in over (1999) disclosed that a total of 326 (2006 -2010). In April 2005, Malaysia’s 200 families and 1,000 genera. At bird species in 180 genera and 47 Ministry of Natural Resources com- least 90 species of lowland and 22 families have now been recorded within missioned an assessment of a total species of montane mammals have Kinabalu Park. Records also indicate of 18 parks (845,701 hectares) in been recorded. nine families of fishes and 61 species Malaysia. Of the figure, three parks The main issues concerning the of frogs and toads. About 200 butterfly in Sabah with a total area of 243,261 Park’s management are development species have been recorded and are hectares were assessed: Kinabalu Park, pressures, alien invasive species, illegal found mostly below 2000 meters on Tawau Hills Park and Crocker Range harvesting of Aqualaria sp., and envi- Kinabalu, and about 112 ‘macro’ moth Park. The methodology used was ronmental and tourism pressures. species commonest at 2000 meters and the Rapid Assessment and Prioritiza- above (Holloway, 1996). tion of Protected Area Management Biological Features (RAPPAM). Based on a faunal diversity within Status of Protected Areas Kinabalu Park, Payne (1996) revealed Sabah Parks will be revising the SARAWAK: that at least 90 species of lowland Master Plan for Kinabalu Park and MUlU NATIoNAl PARK mammals, including 21 species of bats, draw up new management plans for The 52,865-kilometer Park covers and 22 species of montane mammals Tunku Abdul Rahman Park and Tawau primary rainforest and is dominated have been recorded. A study by Biun Hills Park under the 9th Malaysia Plan by three mountains: Gunung Mulu Biodiversity Resources of Kinabalu National Park • 1000 orchid species including the famous slipper orchid (Paphiopedilum rothschildianum) • 608 fern species • 9 Nepenthes species, 3 of which are endemic to Kinabalu • 24 Rhododendron species of which 5 are endemic to Kinabalu • 78 Ficus species • 30 ginger species • 6 bamboo species • 52 palm species • 2 Rafflesia species Mt. Mulu ASEAN BIODIVERSITy • 1
  17. (2,376 m), Gunung Api (1,750 m), cies. Meranti (Shorea spp) and keruing and Gunung Benarat (1,585 m). The (Dipterocarpus spp) are common and Biodiversity Resources of Park has eight different types of forest frequently occur in association with Taman Negara National Park – including peat swamp, heath and the tall, buttressed tualang (Koompassia • 22 endemic species mixed dipterocarp, moss forest and excelsa), the tallest tree in Southeast • Seladang (Bos gaurus) • Elephant (Elephas maximus) stunted upper montane vegetation. Asia. The forest species in the higher • Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) The flora is rich with 1,500 species elevations consist mostly of oaks • Tiger (Panthera tigris) of flowering plants, 1,700 species of (Fagaceae spp.) and some conifers • leopard (Panthera pardus) mosses and liverworts and an estimated (Dacrydium spp., Podocarpus spp., and • Mouse Deer (Tragulus javanicus) 3,500 species of plants. There are 170 Agathis spp.), and the shrub layer has • Sun Bear (Helarctos malayanus) species of wild orchids and 10 species many rattans and dwarf palms (Arega • Sumatran rhinoceros (Didermoceros sumatrensis) of the carnivorous pitcher plants. spp. and Licuala spp.). At the summit • Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor Endemic calcareous species include of the highest hills, ericaceous species equinus) Monophyllae beccari, M. horsfieldii (Rhododendron and Vaccinium spp.) • Serow (Capricornis sumatraensis). and Cytandra spp. Fauna includes predominate. The riparian vegetation • Siamang (Hylobates siamang) 75 species of mammals, 262 species is characterized by medium-size trees • White-handed gibbon (H. lar) • langurs (Presbytis sp) of birds (including all eight species which include neram (Dipterocarpus • 250 species of non-migratory birds of hornbill found in Sarawak), 74 oblingifolius), mempening (Lithocarpus including: great argus pheasant species of frogs, 47 species of fish, wallinchianus), and berangan (Cas- (Argusianus argus), crested fireback 281 species of butterflies, 52 species tanopsis spp.). pheasant (Lophura ignita), Malaysian of reptiles, 458 species of ants and peacock pheasant (Polyplectron 20,00 species of invertebrates. Status of PAs in Peninsular Ma- malacense) • 3 endemic species: mountain laysia peacock pheasant (P. inopinatum), PENINSULAR MALAYSIA: Several measures have been un- hill prina (Prina atrogularis) and TAMAN NEGARA dertaken to maintain, restore and crested argus (Rheinardia ocellaia NATIoNAl PARK rehabilitate the ecological integrity nigrescens) Taman Negara National Park has of protected areas in Peninsular Ma- • 58 reptiles and 56 amphibians including viper (Trimeresurus hageni) a land area of 4343 square kilometers laysia. These measures include; (a) and soft-shelled turtle (Chitra (km2 ) or 434,351 hectares, and covers demarcating boundaries on the ground indica) three states in Peninsular Malaysia: using qualified land surveyors; (b) • 109 fish species, of which 15 Pahang (2,472 km2), Terengganu (828 highlighting issues related to PAs at species are endemic km2) and Kelantan (1043 km2). the National Biodiversity and Biotech- Taman Negara is generally hilly nology Council; (c) integrating PAs in ments at buffer zones are minimized; and mountainous, with the lowland various spatial plans so that PAs are and (d) ensuring mandatory EIA for area covering only about 10% of the recognized and protected, and develop- any development within PAs and areas Park. The centre of the Park is moun- adjacent to PAs under the Environ- tainous and lies on sedimentary rock, ment Quality Act. Local stakeholders and the remainder comprises granite are constantly consulted to provide and scattered outcrops of limestone. inputs into management plans. The highest point is Gunung Tahan The Master Plan on Capacity (2,187 meters above sea level) and Building and Strengthening of PA the lowest is Kuala Atok (about 75 System in Peninsular Malaysia (1996) m asl). Only 1% of the Park is above outlines 60 actions that have to be 1,524 meters. Gunung Tahan marks initiated or strengthened for the 39 the Pahang-Kelantan border. PAs managed by DWNP. The PA Division, which monitors and evaluates Biological Features activities in PAs, was established by the Forest types in Taman Negara Department as recommended in the include lowland dipterocarp, hill dip- Plan. The Department was restructured terocarp, riparian, forest, heath, and in 2003 to strengthen its capacity to lower and upper montane forests. manage and conserve biodiversity in Lowland rainforests consist of tall Peninsular Malaysia. evergreen trees and woody tree spe- Canopy walk 1 • july-DECEMBER 2007
  18. MYANMAR M YANMAR contains part of the three sub-regions of the Indo-Malayan Realm, specifically the (1) Indian sub-region covering about 6% of the country bordering with Bangladesh in the west and India in the northwest; (2) Indochinese sub- region covering the greater part of the country (91%) with a long common border with China; and (3) Sundaic sub-region with 3% of Myanmar ter- ritory bordering Thailand. Myanmar’s protected area (PA) percentage is the lowest in Asia, cover- Sambar deer ing only about 7.24% of the country’s total area. Based on the 1989 Landsat of PAs and weak law enforcement; TM imageries, the area of closed for- insufficient institutional and legislative ests was 43.34% and degraded forest provisions for biodiversity conserva- was 7.53% of the country’s total area. tion and PA management; and illegal The rate of depletion of actual forests, trade of forest products, wildlife and closed and degraded forests, from wildlife products. 1975 to 1989, was 220,000 hectares annually (Kyaw Tint, 1995). Manage- AlAUNGDAW KATHAPA ment of biodiversity in the country NATIoNAl PARK is largely ineffective and suffers from With an area of 159,761 hectares, inadequate scientific direction and the Park covers a range of vegetation weak enforcement. Teak flowers types including upper mixed decidu- Myanmar is one of the biodiversity ous forests up to 1,400 meters, dry hotspots of the world. The Indo-Burma Biological Resources upper mixed deciduous forests, lower hotspot, which includes Myanmar, is The forest types vary according mixed deciduous teak forests, indaing one of the eight in terms of biological to the ecological zone in which they dry dipterocarp forests and some pine diversity, one of top five in terms of occur. These are classified generally as forests on higher ridges. Common critically endangered wildlife, and one mangroves and estuarine forests in the timber species include teak, Xylia do- of the top two where international delta region; mixed deciduous forests labriformis, Pterocarpus macrocarpus, support to prevent species extinction and deciduous dipterocarp forests in Dalbergia oliveri, Shorea obtuse, and is most urgently needed (CI, 2001). regions with a pronounced dry season; S. siamensis. Wildlife species include Although Myanmar deserves highest wet evergreen forests in tropical areas elephant, tiger, leopard, clouded priority in terms of biodiversity con- with high rainfall; and dry torn forests leopard, black bear, gaur, banteng, servation, it is still slow in developing in places with low rainfall. sambar, barking deer, serow, goral, a protected area (PA) system. wild boar, wild dog and primates. Issues and Challenges At least 90 bird species have been Issues that affect biodiversity in recorded including the great hornbill, Biodiversity Resources of Myanmar Myanmar include land-use conflicts; oriental pied hornbill, redheaded gaps in knowledge about biodiversity trogon, hoopoe, endemic hooded • 300 mammal species that hinder proper conservation and treepie, winous-breasted starling, • 360 species of reptiles management; low PA percentage of hill, myna, velvet-fronted nuthatch, • 1,000 bird species • 7,000 plant species of which 2,000 the country; unbalanced representa- streak-eared bulbul, endemic white- are tree species tion of ecosystems in the protected throated babbler and white-bellied area network; ineffective management Yuhina. ASEAN BIODIVERSITy • 1
  19. roca), great hornbill (Buceros bicornis), State. Recorded wildlife includes 37 INDAWGyI lAKE WIlDlIFE lesser fish eagle (Ichthyophaga humilis), species of birds; 27 species of wetland SANCTUARy grey-headed fish eagle (Ichthyophaga birds; 14 species of migratory birds; Indawgyi Lake Wildlife Sanctuary ichthyaetus), black-necked stork (Ephip- and 40 species of freshwater fishes, was established in 1999 and covers piorynchus asiaticus), plus two new otters and turtles. Opportunities for an area of 299.32 square miles in the species for Myanmar: Himalayan study and recreation include the ob- Mohnyin Township of Kachin State. griffon vulture (Gyps himalayensis) servation of a world renowned wetland The Lake supports vast numbers of and chestnut-crowned bush warbler. ecosystem 2, 950 feet above sea level; waterfowl, and eight globally threat- Threats to these species are: increas- research on various types of birds; ened bird species: green peafowl (Pavo ing human settlements and agriculture study of endemic fish species such as muticus), white-winged duck (Cairina along most of the southern half of ngapweh (Chaudhuria caudata) and scutulata), masked finfoot (Heliopais the wetland and unregulated fishing ngaku-shinpa (Silurus bumanensis); personata), greater spotted eagle (Aquila throughout the Lake. and the traditional floating agriculture clanga), white-rumped vulture (Gyps practiced by lake dwellers. bengalensis), slender-billed vulture INlAy lAKE WIlDlIFE (Gyps tenuriostris), spot-billed pelican SANCTUARy KHAKABoRAZI (Pelecanus philippensis), and lesser Established in 1985, the Wildlife NATIoNAl PARK adjutant (Leptoptilos javanicus). The Sanctuary covers 642.32 square miles Khakaborazi National Park is five globally near-threatened species in the Nyaung Shwe, Pinlaung and located in the Naungmung township are: ferruginous pochard (Aythya ny- Peh Kon Townships of Southern Shan of Kachin state, the northernmost state of Myanmar. The Park was established in 1996 with an area of 1,472 square miles. Forest types in- clude evergreen, hill pine, and moist upper mixed deciduous forests. Rare species include takin, musk deer, blue sheep, black barking deer, and phet gyi (Muntiaus putaoensis). Khakaborazi was established to conserve the vast variety of flora and fauna endemic to Myanmar, including the rare orchids and medicinal plants found at the foot of the mountains. Conservation programmes include the institutional- ization of effective prohibitory actions Inlay lake against poaching and illegal trade of 0 • july-DECEMBER 2007



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