Asean Biodiversity: Regional Coopration toward biodiversity Conservation

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Asean Biodiversity: Regional Coopration toward biodiversity Conservation

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Several steps are being taken by ASEAN Member Countries in a bid to put forward a unified and regional voice toward meeting their commitments to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), in particular the implementation of their National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAPs), and for the 9th Meeting of the Conference of Parties (COP9) in Bonn, Germany this May 2008.

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  1. Readers’ Corner Editor- in-Chief Southeast Asia’s Parks the magazine itself with its multi-color Monina T. Uriarte truly inspiring photos is very enjoyable to read. It was truly a very educational ex- I sure hope you will grant my Managing Editor perience for me when I read – honestly request for a subscription. Thanks so Bridget P. Botengan not all the articles as yet – two issues much. of the ASEAN Biodiversity magazine, Creative Artist especially the Geraldine Cruz Nanie S. Gonzales profiles of ASEAN Researcher protected areas Surigao City Writer-Researcher and the Focus Sahlee Bugna-Barrer section about spe- cies. Just looking Friends now becoming at the amazing environmentally conscious EDITORIAl BOARD photos inspires Thank you very much for regularly me to want to sending me a copy of your magazine. Rodrigo U. Fuentes go on a tour Most of my friends who see the magazine Executive Director of Southeast are amazed especially with the beautiful Ma. Consuelo D. Garcia Asia and see pictures. They always make it a point Director, Biodiversity for myself these beautiful places to come visit me to read my magazines Information Management and to experience the culture of other (which includes ASEAN Biodiversity) that Gregorius Wisnu Rosariastoko countries. Although I have yet to visit feature stories, issues and other articles Director, Networking, Partnership the other parks and beautiful places of about the environment and the natural and Resource Mobilization the Philippines, the articles I read in resources as they now want to become Rolando A. Inciong your magazine keeps me wanting to sort of “environmental conscious”. plan for future visits to our neighbor- I would like to visit your office in Head, Public Affairs Los Baños sometime as I am interested ing SEA countries. I have also read ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity (ACB) through the brief news about events in also getting a copy each of your cof- and other information in different parts fee table books on ASEAN Parks and Headquarters: of Asia and the world, and have come the one on plants. 3F ERDB Bldg. Forestry Campus to realize that there are very interesting and truly amazing facts that I have not Timh S. Valdez university of the Philippines los Baños heard of especially about biodiversity, NGO worker College, laguna, Philippines and which I rarely read about in some Quezon City, Philippines Telefax: +63-49.536-2865 of our national newspapers and com- E-mail: mercial magazines. Really inspiring! Website: In case you are wondering, I saw Good reference material two magazines being returned by a I am an employee of the regional office ACB Annex: borrower at the National Library, while of the Department of Environment Ninoy Aquino Parks and Wildlife Center I was checking out a book. It was the and Natural Resources in San Fernando North Avenue, Diliman, covers that gave me a second look. City, Pampanga Province. The informa- Quezon City 1156 After going through it, I wrote down tion we get from the magazines and Philippines your office address in Quezon City. also the pictures from different parts of Tel: +63-2.928-3210 Southeast Asia are very good reference Email: Joselito Gonzales materials for our office especially since Manila, Philippines our division is in charge of preparing or Printed by: Dolmar Press, Inc. developing information, education and communication materials (IEC) such as No. of Copies: 7,000 Enjoyable reading brochures, flyers, and for exhibits. We I would like to subscribe to your have very few copies of ASEAN Biodi- Disclaimer: Views or opinions expressed herein newsmagazine, which I was informed versity in our office so we were wonder- do not necessarily represent any official view is given out free? I saw a copy of the ing if we could get a free subscription of the European union nor the Association of magazine from a friend who said he of the magazine. Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Secretariat. got it during an exhibit at the Ninoy May we also be sent back issue as Aquino Parks and Wildlife Center in well as the new issues, if there are any, The authors are responsible for any data or Quezon City. I then went to your an- as the issues we have here are for the information presented in their articles. nex office and was given some avail- year 2006. able copies. I may not have read all letters, articles, suggestions and photos are the issues given me but I can say that Erminda Castaneda-Castro welcome and should be addressed to: the articles are quite interesting and San Fernando, Pampanga The Editor-in-Chief ASEAN Biodiversity ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity College, laguna Disclaimer: This publication has been developed with the assistance of the European union. The contents of this publication is the sole responsibility of the ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity and does not reflect E-mail: the views of the European union.  • july-DECEMBER 2007
  2. Contents Volume 7, Number 1  January-March 2008 5 19 37 43 52 about you and us ASEAN Member Countries From the Desk Discusses Biodiversity ASEAN Member Countries Strategies and Action Plans ................... 44 and ACB Take Action for COP9 ........... 4 Surfing the Web...of Life.............................. 46 Biodiversity News ........................................................ 5 Experts Discuss Biodiversity and Climate Change sPECIaL REPoRts in Southeast Asia .................................................... 47 State of ASEAN Biodiversity ..................... 7 Workshop and Tour The ACB: Conserving Enhance understanding Biodiversity for Humanity........................... 11 of Ecotourism Management .................... 48 National Biodiversity Strategy Developing Management and Action Plans of ASEAN Effectiveness Tools for Protected Member Countries: An Overview.... 14 Analysis of the NBSAPs ............................ 24 39 Areas in Southeast Asia ............................... 49 Conserving Biodiversity Voluntary Guidelines in Reviewing Pulau Kukup Through Data Sharing ...................................... 50 National Biodiversity Strategy johor National Park ............................................. 39 AWGNCB Guides ACB in Developing and Action Plans .................................................. 31 2008-2009 Workplan ........................................ 51 booKMaRKs PRoFILEs ACB and SCBD Strengthen Ties PoLICy bRIEF Endau Rompin to Protect Southeast Asia’s Community Conserved Areas: johor National Park ............................................. 35 Rich Biodiversity........................................................ 43 Perspectives from the Bottom-up..... 52 ASEAN BIODIVERSITy • 
  3. about you and us From the Desk S EvERAL steps are being taken by ASEAN Member Countries in a bid to put forward a unified and regional voice toward meeting E. Sajise, outgoing Regional Director for Southeast Asia of Bioversity International (formerly International Plant Genetic Re- their commitments to the Convention on sources Institute), will lead the discussion on Biological Diversity (CBD), in particular the agricultural biodiversity; Dr. Jan Steffen of implementation of their National Biodiver- the UNESCO-Indonesia, will discuss issues sity Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAPs), on marine, coastal and island biodiversity; and for the 9th Meeting of the Conference and Ms. Catherine Monagle of the United of Parties (COP9) in Bonn, Germany this Nations University, will facilitate the dis- May 2008. cussions on Article 8(j), access and benefit Early this year, government representatives sharing, and protected areas. Dr. Sarat Babu and resource persons from the 10 ASEAN Gidda, Secretary for Asia and the Pacific of Member Countries joined their counterparts from other the CBD Secretariat based in Canada, is the key facilita- Asian countries for the first of a series of regional workshops tor and resource persons. to strengthen their capacities to develop, implement and The COP is an international body composed of more update their NBSAPs. The Regional Workshop on Capac- than 150 countries who have signed the agreements made ity Building on NBSAP was conducted with support and in the Rio Declaration on the Conservation of Biologi- assistance from the ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity (ACB), cal Diversity held in 1990 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The the CBD, and the Singapore National Parks Board. Declaration, which was emphasized in CBD’s Agenda The countries shared their experiences and lessons 21, recognized the importance of biological diversity to learned as well as the tools and best practices developed the countries’ economic, social, cultural, and political at the national and sub-national levels. From these learn- activities. ings, the workshop came out with outputs that would The COP9 will discuss a variety of topics and concerns contribute to the in-depth review of progress towards the relevant to biological diversity. These include agricultural Strategic Plan of the CBD that will be undertaken at the diversity, global strategy for plant conservation, invasive alien COP9 Meeting. species, forest biodiversity, incentive measures, ecosystems The regional workshop helped prepare the countries to approach, progress in the implementation of the Strategic use consolidated guidance that may be adopted by COP Plan, progress towards the 2010 target and relevant Mil- 9 for the development, implementation and updating of lennium Development Goals, and the Sustainable Financial NBSAPs; discuss best practices for effective mainstreaming Mechanism. (Story on page 31). and main challenges for implementation; exchange solutions In a related development, ACB and the Secretariat of and approaches to overcome these challenges; and identify the CBD have collaborated to help enhance the capabil- strategic priorities and next steps. (Story on page 14.) ity of AMCs to comply with their commitments to the Prior to the COP9 meeting, ACB will convene a Pre- international CBD and to beef up their efforts to protect COP9 workshop in Manila on 1-2 May 2008. In this the region’s rich but dwindling biodiversity resources. workshop, AMCs are expected to have a common under- The Memorandum of Cooperation signed in January this standing of biodiversity issues in the Southeast Asia region year by ACB Executive Director Rodrigo U. Fuentes and in relation to the CoP9 agenda. Agricultural biodiversity; SCBD Executive Secretary Dr. Ahmed Djoghlaf stipulates forest, marine, coastal and island biodiversity; access and the joint implementation of programmes in SEA through benefit sharing; incentive measures; programme of work biodiversity research, capacity building and training, on protected areas; biodiversity and climate change; Ar- public education and awareness, policy development and ticle 8(j) and related provisions; scientific and technical coordination, and technical and scientific cooperation. cooperation; and the clearing house mechanism (CHM) (Story on page 43). are among the CoP9 topics that are highly relevant to the Director Fuentes said the signing of the Memorandum region. (Story on page 24). of Cooperation comes at a propitious time as ASEAN For the Pre-COP9 workshop, ACB has invited emi- countries prepare to meet their commitments to the 2010 nent scientists and experts as resource persons. Dr. Percy global biodiversity challenge.  • jANuARy-MARCH 2008
  4. about you and us A 21-month process challenge facing all biodiver- launched toward sity businesses is the lack of new climate change accepted indicators to measure agreement positive and negative contribu- March 31 – The gathering tions to biodiversity conservation. of representatives from 163 – Environment News Service countries launched a 21-month process aimed at concluding a Thai temple fights off new climate change agreement encroaching tide by December 2009 to succeed March 30 – Over 30 years, the the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, which sea around Khun Samut Chin requires 37 industrialized nations village has engulfed more than to reduce greenhouse gas emis- one kilometer of land, mostly sions by an average of 5 percent because fishermen have cut below 1990 levels between down mangrove forests - the 2008 and 2012. The next pact Earth’s natural sea barrier. Tour- is aimed at providing for further cuts starting in 2013. Developing countries, led by rapidly growing (Courtesy of Rich Clabaugh) China, demand that the bulk of the considerable costs and species and allow the spread Protecting the actions be assumed by rich na- of disease to be tracked; and biodiversity of tions that grew their economies raise biodiversity conscious- the Coral Triangle in past decades by polluting the ness. The immense amount of January 24 – International environment. They also want aid information in the encyclopedia efforts are underway to protect and technology to increase en- is being drawn from a variety the ecological health of a 2.3- ergy efficiency. Wealthy nations, Waves attack the Khun Samut of sources, including several million-square-mile expanse of the meanwhile, such as the united temple existing specialist databases such Indo-Pacific Ocean known as the States and japan, say a global as AmphibiaWeb and FishBase. Coral Triangle. Sometimes called pact will only be fair if it calls ism development, sand mining – BBC News the ocean’s version of the Ama- for up-and-coming polluters in and damming rivers upstream zon Basin, the Triangle bursts the developing world to take on have also taken their toll in an Farmers may have with the highest biodiversity of emissions reduction commitments area naturally prone to coastal Golden Rice by 2011 any reef system on Earth. Some as well. – Associated Press erosion. Khun Samut temple January 31 – The Philippines- 75% of all the known reef-build- is the only building left in the based International Rice Research ing corals – 500 to 600 species Biodiversity Thai village that has disap- Institute (IRRI) is expected to in all – call the Triangle home. conservation pays off peared beneath the rising and release genetically modified The Triangle also supports 3,000 March 31 – A report titled advancing sea. The community (GMO) Golden Rice to farmers species of reef fish; represents “Building Biodiversity Business” has realized their errors and are as early as 2011, possibly help- the livelihood of some 2.5 million from the IuCN-World Conserva- trying to replant the mangroves, ing to save millions of children fishermen in the region; and is tion union and Shell International but the situation may soon be threatened with blindness or the maternity ward for Pacific ltd. calls for policy reforms to out of their hands as global premature death due to Vitamin and Indian Ocean tuna. It also increase the commercial rewards warming sends sea levels rising A deficiency. IRRI has been represents an important source for conserving biodiversity. There and powerful storms lashing the conducting its first field trials of raw materials needed to are numerous pro-biodiversity coast. – AFP in the Philippines this year. It reseed reefs inside and outside business opportunities that can would be 10 years since the the region damaged by bleach- generate significant profits as First look at vast invention in 2001 of Golden ing. Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua well as benefits for nature. ‘book of life’ Rice, which scientists have said New Guinea, the Philippines, the These include biosprospecting, February 26 – Scheduled for may prove that the controversial Solomon Islands, and Timor-leste organic agriculture, sustainable completion in 2017, the first biotechnology can help feed the – the six Coral Triangle nations timber, and ecoturism. A key 30,000 pages of a vast encyclo- poor and needy if applied with – agreed to develop an action pedia aimed at cataloguing every care and caution. GMO rice has plan for sustainable manage- one of our planet’s 1.8 million yet to be grown commercially. ment of the Triangle. The plan species have been unveiled. Widely produced transgenic should be ready by May and fully The Encyclopedia of life (EOl) products, such as GMO soy, corn approved in 2009 at a summit - described as the “ultimate field or cotton, are mostly pest- or to be held in conjunction with guide” - is to encompass all herbicide-resistant. These are the World Oceans Conference in six kingdoms of life, and even beneficial to farmers, but not Manado, Sulawesi. – Christian viruses - which many research- necessarily to consumers. Golden Science Monitor ers do not consider to be living Rice - which includes three new organisms. The database could genes, including two from daf- Global crop varieties help scientists assess the impact fodils - is yellowish and contains enter Arctic seed vault (Photo courtesy South African Tourism) of climate change on animals beta-carotene, a substance that January 23 – At the end of Tourists meet rhinos in South and plants; foster strategies for human bodies convert to Vitamin january, more than 200,000 Africa’s Kruger National Park. slowing the spread of invasive A. – Reuter News Service crop varieties from Asia, Africa, ASEAN BIODIVERSITy • 
  5. about you and us latin America and the Middle 400 medicinal plants East — drawn from vast seed at risk of extinction collections maintained by the January 19 – The Botanic Consultative Group on Inter- Gardens Conservation International national Agricultural Research identified 400 medicinal plants (CGIAR) — was shipped to a that are at risk of extinction due remote island near the Arctic to over-collection and deforesta- Circle, where these will be tion. These include yew trees, the stored in the Svalbard Global bark of which forms the basis for Seed Vault (SGSV), a facility one of the world’s most widely capable of preserving their vital- used cancer drugs, paclitaxel. ity for thousands of years. The Hoodia, which originally comes seeds will be safeguarded in the from Namibia, is a possible ingre- facility, which was created as dient in weight loss drugs and is (Courtesy of Dr Andrew H. Baird) a repository of last resort for on the verge of extinction. Half of An active outbreak of crown of thorns starfish. humanity’s agricultural heritage. the world’s species of magnolias, These will be shipped to the which contains the chemical Starfish invasion biotech companies acknowledge village of longyearbyen on honokiol and which has been used threatens world’s that opposition to genetically Norway’s Svalbard archipelago, in traditional Chinese medicine richest coral reefs modified crops remains strong in where the vault has been to treat cancers and slow down January 14 – Outbreaks of some countries, especially in Eu- constructed on a mountain deep the onset of heart disease is also the notorious crown of thorns rope, but the success of genetic inside the Arctic permafrost. under threat. Five billion people starfish now threaten the “Coral modification that has turned The vault was built by the Nor- are said to still rely on traditional Triangle,” the richest centre of out corn that resists pests and wegian government as a service plant-based medicine as their coral reef biodiversity on Earth, is immune to weedkiller, along to the global community. A primary form of health care and according to recent surveys by with similar modifications in Rome-based international NGO, over 50% of prescription drugs the Bronx Zoo-based Wildlife soybeans and other crops, has The Global Crop Diversity Trust, are derived from chemicals first Conservation Society and ARC helped wear down opposition in will fund its operation. The identified in plants. The loss of Centre of Excellence for Coral recent years. And given global vault will open on 26 February the world’s medicinal plants could Reef Studies. The starfish — a climate concerns and the needs 2008. – SeedQuest destabilize the future of global predator that feeds on corals by of a hungry populace, biotech healthcare. – BBC News spreading its stomach over them companies believe a drought-tol- and using digestive enzymes to erant corn could further help win Green courts for liquefy tissue—were discovered in over opponents. Still, opponents environmental cases large numbers in reefs in Halma- of biotech crops predict a range January 15 – The Philippine Su- hera, Indonesia, at the heart of of environmental hazards, poten- preme Court will designate special the Coral Triangle, which lies tial human health problems and courts to speed up a backlog of between Indonesia, Malaysia, the further concentration of the food environmental cases and ensure Philippines, Papua New Guinea system in the hands of large polluters are penalized for breaking and the Solomon Islands. It is corporations. – Reuters the law. The decision came as ex- considered the genetic fountain- perts from the Asia-Pacific region head for coral diversity found on began a conference in Bangkok Australia’s Great Barrier Reef, Rafflesia speciosa aimed at improving enforcement of Ningaloo and other reefs in the environment laws. Illegal mining, region. Reef assemblages are Rare flower found logging and overfishing are serious fortunately still in good shape in a Philippines Park problems in the Philippines but and there is a chance to reverse buffer zone few violators are punished either the damages. – January 23 – A very rare para- because they pay off officials or sitic flowering plant, Rafflesia because overworked judges tend Biotech companies race speciosa, which is a member of to prioritize civil and criminal for drought-tolerant crops the family of the world’s largest cases over environmental disputes. January 14 – Biotech compa- Singapore opens “green” flower, has been discovered in Water pollution, poor sanita- nies are in a race to develop airport terminal the 169-hectare Mt. Kanlaon tion and air pollution cost the new strains of corn and other January 9 – Singapore opened Natural Park buffer zone. The Philippines around 14 billion pesos crops that can thrive when wa- a new “green” airport terminal, species is the first record of (uS$350 million) a year, according ter is in short supply. This line which features energy-saving this unique genus on the island to a recent study by the World of research has been underway skylights, a butterfly garden of Negros. Among the seven Bank. About 150 courts would for years, but it has taken on and over 200 species of foliage recorded Rafflesia species in the be designated as environmental added urgency as scientists spread over enough floor space Philippines, Rafflesia speciosa courts and guidelines for hearing predict a trend of worsening to cover 50 soccer fields. The has the largest flower that can the cases would then be issued. drought and hotter temperatures uS$1.22 billion terminal is attain a maximum diameter of It is hoped that the new courts around the globe. Water short- designed to run on lower energy two feet. The one found in the would trigger more cases against ages are already costing billions costs mainly via natural lighting Park’s buffer zone was about polluters and raise awareness of of dollars a year in crop short- from the 919 skylights and by 30 centimeters. – The Visayan environmental laws in the country. falls around the world, and are positioning air-conditioners nearer Daily Star – Reuters likely to grow more costly. The to floor-level. – Reuters  • jANuARy-MARCH 2008
  6. sPECIaL REPoRts T n By RODRIGO U. FUENTES HE ASEAN region is significant to global diversity because Executive Director ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity 20% of all known species live deep in its mountains, jungles, rivers, lakes and seas, despite occupying only 3% of the earth’s total surface. It includes three mega-diversity countries (Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines); several biogeographical units (e. g., Malesia, Wallacea, Sundaland, Indo- Burma and the Central Indo-Pacific); and numerous centres of concentration of restricted-range bird, plant and insect species. ASEAN has one-third of the 284,000-square kilometer coral reefs, which are among the most diverse in the world. ASEAN BIODIVERSITy • 
  7. sPECIaL REPoRts World Rank of ASEAN Member Countries ASEAN Heritage Parks and Protected Areas in Total Diversity and Endemism Currently, there are 1,523 protected areas (PAs) of high Country Rank (Biodiversity) Rank (Endemism) biodiversity value that have been set aside and demarcated Indonesia 3 2 to ensure the protection of the region’s natural heritage. Out of this number of PAs, only 27 have been designated Malaysia 14 8 as ASEAN Heritage Parks (AHPs). The AHP Programme Philippines 17 15 Source: ASEAN Report to WSSD, 2002 IUCN-Classified Protected Areas Species Richness of ASEAN by Taxa Recorded Listed World % of World Taxon ASEAN Totals Total Birds 2,400 9,700 25 Mammals 945 4,680 20 Amphibians 655 4,780 14 Reptiles 1,650 7,870 21 Freshwater Fish 1,995 10,000 20 Butterflies 2,730 15,000 18 Dragonflies 1,350 6,000 22 Flowering Plants 45,000 250,000 18 Source: ASoE Report, 2006 Total Endemic Species Brunei Darussalam 613 Source: ACB database, 2007/ASOE, 2006 Cambodia 13 Indonesia 8,784 was launched to generate greater awareness, pride, ap- Lao PDR 161 preciation, enjoyment and conservation of ASEAN’s rich Malaysia 7,052 natural heritage through the creation of and support for a regional network of representative PAs and to generate Myanmar 2,599 greater collaboration between ASEAN countries. The Philippines 7,564 AHPs are sites that have been selected as representative Singapore 12 of the region’s biodiversity. The ASEAN Declaration on Thailand 931 Heritage Parks was signed in December 2003. Vietnam 842 There are also a number of World Heritage Sites Source: ASoE Report, 2006 (WHS) in the region that have been selected as globally ASEAN countries share many species that are biologically distinct from the rest of the world because these countries World Heritage Sites and ASEAN Heritage Parks share common land or water borders. Species No. of Countries Asian Elephant 7 Tiger 6+ (formerly in Singapore) Leopard 7 Wild cattle 6 Sambur deer 9 Barking deer 9 Macaques 10 Gibbons 8 Hornbills 10 Green peacock 6 Sunbear 9 Palm Civet 10 Source: ASEAN Greatest Parks, 2004/ASOE, 2006 Source: ASEAN Greatest Parks, 2004  • jANuARy-MARCH 2008
  8. sPECIaL REPoRts outstanding sites. These WHS are special and unusual, Major Threats to ASEAN Biodiversity while AHPs are typical though generally the best example Habitats and forests are constantly threatened by of their ecosystem types. Some AHPs are World Heritage degradation because of such factors as increase of human Sites, although there are a few WHS in the region that population, agricultural expansion, commercial logging, are not in the AHP list. poor land-use practices, and forest fires. Deforestation in the region has been calculated at 2,751 square kilometers ASEAN Biodiversity Under Threat per year (2000-2005). This translates into 1.35% per year, The rich biodiversity of the region however is heavily compared to the global deforestation rate of 0.20%. under threat. Out of 64,800 known species in the ASEAN, 2% or 1,312 are endangered. Seven of the world’s 25 rec- ognized biodiversity hotspots are in the ASEAN. Hotspots are areas that are biologically rich but are also under the greatest threat of destruction. If the rate of deforestation continues, the region will lose up to ¾ of its forests, and up to 42% of its biodiversity by 2100. Majority (80%) of coral reefs are also at risk due to destructive fishing practices and coral bleaching. The ASEAN must act fast to protect its dwindling biodiversity resources. Three plant and eight animal species have been listed as ‘extinct’ in Southeast Asia (IUCN). Though extinction of species is part of the cycle of life, the rapid rate at which species are being endangered point to increasing deterio- Extinctions per thousand species per millenium Coral reefs in the region are said to have the highest levels of biodiversity in the world. However, 80% has been exposed to destructive fishing practices and coral bleaching, and 55% is considered to be at high or very high risk (ASOE, 2006). Other threats include over-harvesting, bushmeat hunting, and illegal trade of wildlife for food or as pets (Southeast Asia is a major hub of wildlife trade). Pollution, introduc- tion of alien species, desertification and land degradation and climate change also adversely affect biodiversity and Source: Millenium Ecosystem Assessment ecosystems in the region. The underlying causes of these ration of ecosystems and rapid deterioration of ecological threats include population growth, poverty, increased mi- services that support life itself. The loss of many of these gration to urban areas, trade pressures, political instability, regional populations is likely to result in global extinc- inadequate law enforcement, poor protection standards tions because of the high proportion of endemic species and lack of awareness of the significance of biodiversity (Navjot, 2004). conservation (ASEAN Report to WSSD, 2002). Bru Cam Ind Lao Mal Mya Phi Sin Tha Vie Species list 4,466 2,147 17,378 2,553 15,653 8,232 11,262 1,657 8,783 4,344 Endangered species 130 75 349 56 358 157 151 37 282 120 % endangered 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 2 3 3 Source: ASoE Report, 2006 ASEAN BIODIVERSITy • 
  9. sPECIaL REPoRt REPoRts ASEAN Response ecosystem-based protected areas management. The ASEAN response to address threats to biodiversity 3. Facilitate access and fair and equitable sharing of includes the development of action plans (such as the benefits arising from the region’s biological and Hanoi Action Plan and the ventianne Action Plan) and genetic resources, by effectively implementing the the establishment of organizations, specifically the ASEAN ASEAN Framework Agreement on Access to, and Centre for Biodiversity, to strengthen conservation efforts Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising in the region. from the Utilization of Genetic and Biological The Hanoi Action Plan (1999-2004) had three key Resources. strategies for biodiversity conservation, which are to: 4. Set in place measures to minimize impacts of trans- 1. Strengthen the ASEAN Regional Center for Bio- boundary movement of living modified organisms diversity Conservation by establishing networks of in accordance with the ASEAN Guidelines on Risk relevant institutions and implementing collaborative Assessment of Agricultural GMOs. training and research activities. 5. Promote national and regional cooperation to address 2. Promote regional coordination for the protection of measures related to the cluster of multilateral envi- the ASEAN Heritage Parks and Reserves. ronmental agreements addressing biological diversity 3. Formulate and adopt an ASEAN Protocol on access such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, to genetic resources. CITES, and the Ramsar Convention. 6. Establish a functional regional database or network The vientianne Action Plan (2004-2010), on the of national databases containing an inventory of the other hand, has eight measures for nature conservation biological resources of the ASEAN Region. and biodiversity: 7. Enhance the role and capacity of the ASEAN Centre 1. Significantly reduce the current rate of loss of bio- for Biodiversity to function as an effective regional logical diversity by 2010 (WSSD target). centre of excellence in promoting biodiversity con- 2. Promote further listing and coordinated manage- servation and management. ment of ASEAN Heritage Parks as a platform for 8. Address issues pertaining to invasive alien species. The ASEAN region is significant to global biodiversity because it contains 40% of all species on Earth despite covering only 3% of the world’s surface. It includes three mega-diversity countries (Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines), several biogeographical units (e. g., Malesia, Wallacea, Sundaland, Indo-Burma and the Central Indo-Pacific), and numerous centers of concentration of restricted-range bird, plant and insect species. Saving the ASEAN Dream is a testament to the richness of the region’s biodiversity, as well as an illustration of numerous threats to local resources. Saving the ASEAN Dream provides information on the significance of biodiversity, the wealth of habitats, species and ecosystems of the SEA, and various threats to the environment. The video also highlights the formation of the ASEAN Heritage Parks (AHPs) Programme and the need for trans-boundary cooperation. It includes video vignettes on the wonders and dangers faced by specific species, habitats and AHPs. It was produced by the ASEAN Regional Centre for Biodiversity Conservation (now the ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity) with the support of the European union. Available in DVD and VCD format. To get a copy, log on to 10 • jANuARy-MARCH 2008
  10. sPECIaL REPoRts Conserving O UR world is undergoing a drastic environmental transformation, and this concern is gaining increas- ing importance in Southeast Asia. The region that provides habitats for some of the Earth’s most amazing bio- diversity is also home to a number of the world’s developing economies, where the environment is often sacrificed to gain financial momentum. The dangers that threaten the region’s rich natural and cultural heritages underline the urgency felt by agencies involved in biodiversity conservation, including the ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity (ACB). ASEAN BIODIVERSITy • 11
  11. sPECIaL REPoRt REPoRts The ASEAN Response Responding to the need for con- certed action to protect and conserve the region’s dwindling biodiversity resources, the Association of South- east Asian Nations (ASEAN), with funding support from the European Union (EU), established the ASEAN Regional Centre for Biodiversity Conservation (ARCBC) Project, then hosted by the Department of Envi- ronment and Natural Resources of the Government of the Philippines. From 1999 to 2004, ARCBC suc- cessfully established the bridge that fostered strong collaboration among ASEAN Member Countries (AMCs) and between ASEAN and EU partner institutions, and gained recognition tion, and maintaining the regional region through National Contact in the regional and global arena for biodiversity database. Points (NCPs) or national agencies biodiversity conservation. The Centre’s key units include in the ASEAN Member Countries In 2005, the EU and the ASEAN Networking, Partnership and Resource responsible for environmental and signed a financing agreement to fund Mobilization; Programme Develop- biodiversity concerns. a new institution that would carry on ment and Implementation; and Bio- the work of ARCBC to further enhance diversity Information Management. ACB Projects and Activities the AMCs’ collaborative capacity to ACB pursues its objectives through the The ACB has initiated or collabo- fulfill their obligations to relevant following components: institutional rated with regional and international biodiversity treaties and conventions. development of ACB; policy develop- organizations on a number of activities On 27 September 2005, during the 9th ment and coordination; human and to facilitate biodiversity conservation informal ASEAN Ministerial Meeting, institutional capacity development; efforts in the region, and to assist the Environment Ministers of Brunei digital knowledge management; public AMCs in fulfilling their commitments Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, and leadership awareness of biodiver- to the Program of Work on Protected Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, the sity values; and sustainable financing Areas of the CBD. These projects Philippines, Thailand, Singapore, and mechanisms. and activities include workshops, vietnam signed an agreement establish- To contribute to the achievement capacity-building, training, confer- ing ARCBC’s successor, the ASEAN of socially responsible access, equitable ences/workshops, digital knowledge Centre for Biodiversity. sharing, utilization and conservation management, public and leadership As an intergovernmental regional of natural ecosystems and biodiversity, awareness of biodiversity values, and centre of excellence, ACB facilitates ACB builds strategic networks and sustainable financing. cooperation and coordination among partnerships geared to mobilize re- the members of ASEAN, and with sources towards optimally augmenting Capacity-Building Training, relevant national governments, regional effective programmes on biodiversity Conferences and Workshops and international organizations on conservation. • Study Tour on Ecotourism in the conservation and sustainable use A Governing Board provides policy Singapore and Malaysia (22-28 of biological diversity, guided by fair guidance and operational supervision March 2008) and equitable sharing of benefits aris- for ACB. The Board is composed • Regional Workshop on Recre- ing from the use of such biodiversity of the ASEAN Senior Officials on ation, Tourism and Ecotourism in the ASEAN region. ACB aims to the Environment (ASOEN) and the (17-21 March 2008, in Gunung contribute in reducing the current Secretary-General of the ASEAN. Ledang, Malaysia) rate of loss of biological diversity Technical oversight is provided by • Regional Workshop on the by enhancing regional cooperation, the ASEAN Working Group on Na- Development of Management capacitating stakeholders, promoting ture Conservation and Biodiversity Effectiveness Evaluation Tools awareness for biodiversity conserva- (AWGNCB). ACB operates in the for ASEAN Member Countries 1 • jANuARy-MARCH 2008
  12. sPECIaL REPoRts sPECIaL REPoRt (3 - 7 March 2008, in Hanoi, 4: Governance Assessment and vietnam) Categories of PAs (24 – 27 April • International Conference-Work- 2007, Sabah, Malaysia) shop on Biodiversity and Cli- • CBS 3: Gap Analysis for Ter- mate change in Southeast Asia restrial Protected Areas (10 – 12 (19-20 February 2008, in Ma- April 2007, Singapore) nila, Philippines) • CBS 2: Management Effective- • Southeast East Asian Workshop ness Assessment (MEA) (21 – 23 on Risk Assessment of GMOs/ March 2007, Khao Yai National LMOs and Enforcement of Park, Thailand) Biosafety Regulations (04 to • CBS 1: Communications and 06 December 2007, in Kuala Community Relations (31- Lumpur, Malaysia) January – 01 February 2007, • Regional Workshop on Com- Bangkok, Thailand) munity Conserved Areas (CCAs) (27-30 November 2007, Pala- Digital Knowledge Management wan, Philippines) • Assessment of global data- • Technical Workshop on Mini- bases. mizing Impacts of Palm Oil and • Conduct of Workshop on Bio- Biofuel Production in Southeast diversity Data and Informa- Public and Leadership Awareness Asia on Peatlands, Biodiversity tion Harmonization (12-15 of Biodiversity Values and Climate Change (31 Octo- November 2007 in vientiane, Public awareness initiatives focus ber – 01 November 2007, Kuala Lao PDR). on publications, roadshows, exhibits Lumpur, Malaysia) • Study visits to data centers of and other ACB collaterals such as the • Regional Orientation Workshop Lao PDR and Thailand. quarterly ASEAN Biodiversity Maga- on Job Standards for Protected • Participation in events that dis- zine, the ACB Info Kit, Profile and Areas (25 – 28 September 2007, cussed data sharing and exchange Folders, the ASEAN Guidelines on Thailand) mechanisms Competence Standards for Protected • 2nd AHP Conference and 4th • Partnership agreement with Area Jobs; and the “Saving the ASEAN Regional Conference on PAs in SCBD to share information and Dream” vCD/DvDs. SEA (23-27 April 2007, Sabah, exchange data. Malaysia) • Enhancement of ACB data- Sustainable Financing • Capacity Building Series (CBS) base. Efforts to strengthen the finan- cial sustainability of ACB focused on: making the ASEAN Biodiversity Fund operational; developing the SFM (Sustainable Financing Mechanism) Model Assessment Report based on environmental funding organizations; and developing the SFM Stakeholder Dialogue Report More long-term activities are planned to reach the 2010 target of reducing biodiversity loss particularly in the ASEAN region. Hopefully the ACB momentum will continue to har- ness more stakeholders in biodiversity conservation programmes and generate increased funding to sustain initiatives to sustain the rich natural heritages as well as the uniquely diverse cultures which are tied to biodiversity conserva- tion, of the ASEAN region. ASEAN BIODIVERSITy • 1
  13. sPECIaL REPoRts Introduction of the provisions of the Convention and Article 6 (General Measures for Con- their effectiveness in meeting the objectives servation and Sustainable Use) of the of the Convention. The latter encour- Convention on Biological Diversity, states ages Parties to integrate consideration of that each Contracting Party shall: the conservation and sustainable use of • Develop national strategies, plans or biological resources into national deci- programmes for the conservation and sion-making. sustainable use of biological diversity Article 6 creates an obligation for na- or adapt for this purpose existing tional biodiversity planning. A national strategies, plans or programmes which strategy will reflect how the country in- shall reflect, inter alia, the measures tends to fulfill the objectives of the set out in this Convention relevant to Convention in light of specific national the Contracting Party concerned circumstances, and the related action plans • Integrate, as far as possible and as will constitute the sequence of steps to appropriate, the conservation and be taken to meet these goals. sustainable use of biological diversity The requirement to integrate consider- into relevant sectoral or cross-sectoral ation of the conservation and sustainable plans, programmes and policies. use of biological resources into national decision-making, and mainstream issues Article 26 and Article 10 (a) are closely across all sectors of the national economy linked to Article 6. The first calls for and policy-making framework, are the Parties to present, through their national complex challenges at the heart of the reports, information on measures which Convention. have been taken for the implementation Source: 1 • jANuARy-MARCH 2008
  14. sPECIaL REPoRts CAMBODIA Priorities The Cambodian Na- tional Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP), which was adopted in 2002, recommends a sectoral ap- proach to managing biodiversity. The document comprises 17 thematic areas and 98 priority actions and provides a framework for mainstreaming bio- diversity at various levels to ensure the health of natural systems through which poverty reduction and improved quality of life for Cambodians can be achieved. An Inter-Ministerial National Biodiversity Steering Com- mittee, composed of representatives of Preah Monivong (Bokor) National Park Federal Ministries, was established in 2001 to develop the NBSAP. Thematic sustainable use of biological tion at all levels, was not operational at experts, non-government organizations resources. the time of the writing of the NBSAP (NGOs) and universities participated 2. Promote the implementation due to lack of funding. Prioritized in preparatory workshops. Other of community-based natural actions include the development of stakeholders (provincial and urban resource management. biodiversity awareness programmes, governments, private property owners, 3. Clarify ministerial jurisdictions, in collaboration with ministries, businesses, indigenous and local com- reduce responsibility overlap NGOs and the university; a national munities, international conservation and promote inter-ministerial biodiversity research, training and organizations) were consulted during coordination. information facility; environmental the development of the NBSAP. and biodiversity integration in school The main strategic goals of the Strategic objectives include indi- curricula; capacity-building for gov- NBSAP are to: cators to guide the primary actors ernment staff and relevant agencies; 1. Maintain biological diversity (relevant ministries and some NGOs) a biodiversity research programme and productivity of ecological during the course of implementation. at the Royal University of Phnom systems by protecting the vari- Actions are presented for each of the Penh; and training programmes on ous species of living organisms 17 themes that involve most sectors the management of natural resources in their natural and manmade of society. A guiding principle of the for communities. environments. NBSAP is that local communities be 2. Manage human activities and considered in biodiversity manage- Monitoring and Reporting utilize biological resources in a ment. Theme 17 on “Quality of Life The NBSAP is viewed to be an way that preserves for the long and Poverty Reduction” prioritizes ac- ongoing process that requires periodic term the basic natural resources, tions related to capacity-building for adjustments to new national, regional which are necessary for human women’s groups. and international contexts. Imple- livelihood and development. mentation of the Action Plan will be 3. Ensure that the benefits coming Communication decentralized with each participating from the sustainable use of biologi- To date, environmental education ministry, agency or NGO being ac- cal resources contribute to poverty has been limited and heavily dependent countable for actions listed under their reduction and improve the quality on NGO activities. Some activities responsibility. Mechanisms proposed of life for all Cambodians. have been undertaken through support for implementing the NBSAP include from international organizations, but the establishment of a permanent The priority actions are to: the Inter-Ministerial Steering Com- Inter-Ministerial Biodiversity Steering 1. Promote awareness and capacity mittee for Environmental Education, Committee and National Secretariat building for conservation and responsible for environmental educa- for Biodiversity; preparation of an ASEAN BIODIVERSITy • 1
  15. sPECIaL REPoRts annual national report on policies, effective communication strategy. In “initial and dissemination phase” was activities and plans aimed at imple- short, this action plan was considered scheduled to begin in 2003 with menting the Strategy; measures to ineffective. priority given to the dissemination allow and encourage non-government The second edition, published of the IBSAP documents as well as participation in the implementation of in 2003, covers the period 2003- to preparations for an institutional the Strategy; regular reporting on the 2020, and emphasizes an approach infrastructure and national policies indicators identified for each strategic for biodiversity management that related to the long-term management objective; reporting on the status of is decentralized, participatory, and of biodiversity. biodiversity at the country level; and transparent. It focuses on a “shift The “transitional phase (2004- revision of the strategy after an initial in the development paradigm, a new 2008)” aimed at emphasizing the cre- implementation phase of two years. social contract between government, ation and communication of national private sector, NGOs, communities and programmes and policies, paradigms Biodiversity and Socio-economic national, regional and local levels, and and actions supporting sustainable Development the strengthening of the preconditions biodiversity management as well as Sustainable development in tourism for sustainable and equitable biodiver- strengthening efforts to reduce the represents one of the main opportuni- sity management.” The output of this rate of biodiversity degradation. ties provided to Cambodia for rebuild- process comprises three documents: The “consolidation phase (2009- ing its economy. This sector is rapidly Indonesia Biodiversity Strategy and 2020)” will accelerate implementation expanding and dependent on the pro- Action Plan (IBSAP) National Docu- of the entire action plan with impor- tection and preservation of the natural ment, IBSAP Regional Document and tance attached to measurable reha- and socio-cultural environments. The the Directory of Indonesian Stake- bilitation, conservation and balanced establishment of a well-managed net- holders of Biodiversity. The formula- biodiversity utilization. Sustainable work of protected areas and cultural tion of the National Document was biodiversity management would have sites, involving local communities, coordinated by the National Develop- been developed at this point through can contribute significantly to tourism ment Planning Agency (BAPPENAS) good governance, effective law enforce- development. Priority actions include and involved consultation with civil ment and management practices based integrating biodiversity conservation society, academia, private sector and on traditional wisdom, local knowledge and environmental management in governments at national, provincial and and equitable benefit-sharing. policies, plans and guidelines related kabupaten levels. The document aims The four operational strategies to tourism, including EIA for tourism to become a point of reference for all developed to implement the IBSAP development projects; carrying out vil- institutions involved with biodiversity are: mainstreaming, capacity-building, lage-based tourism programmes; and management in Indonesia, including decentralization, and participation and integrating the conservation of cultural the private sector. movement. heritage and nature in the tourism The current document is divided The mainstreaming strategy aims to development programme. into time period and operational develop a national policy and a legal Source: SCBD Report strategies. The first phase termed the framework that incorporate the provi- INDONESIA Priorities Indonesia’s first Bio- diversity Action Plan (BAP) was published in 1993 prior to the ratification of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Although some NGOs were involved in the implementation of this docu- ment, its formulation was viewed as highly exclusive in nature, with a “top down” approach that limited public participation. Commitment was lack- ing among stakeholders, as was an Kerinci-Seblat National Park 1 • jANuARy-MARCH 2008
  16. sPECIaL REPoRts sions of relevant international conven- of Representative. tions that can be operational at the Biodiversity information systems in regional level, in conformity with local existence include the Indonesian Bio- conditions. National-level mainstream- diversity Information System (IBIS); ing of biodiversity management places Biodiversity Information Center and importance on the implementation of Nature Conservation Information the concept of community behavior Center; National Biodiversity Informa- and actions at the local, regional and tion Network (NBIN); and the CBD national levels. Clearing-House Mechanism. The decentralization strategy, based on local biodiversity management Monitoring and Reporting situations, recommends that the na- Monitoring of the IBSAP is to be tional-level policy and legal framework conducted annually, and evaluation should contain wide provisions for conducted prior to each national de- regions to formulate and implement velopment period in order to incorpo- local biodiversity action plans. rate results into national and regional The national action plan for the development plans. A mechanism conservation and sustainable use and Komodo dragon and framework for conducting these management of biodiversity aims to: activities would be developed by the 1. Develop the quality of life of and capacity-building for implemen- end of 2003. One mechanism is the Indonesian individuals and tation at all levels of government. establishment of performance indica- society; Some stakeholders opined that the tors to measure the success of actors 2. Strengthen resources that sup- introduction of new institutions was involved in biodiversity management, port the development of science, unnecessary and that focus should particularly relevant ministries and technology and the application rather be put on strengthening the local governments. of local wisdom; functions, tasks and authorities of These indicators would be for- 3. Reduce and stop the rate of existing institutions, particularly within mulated through public consultation, biodiversity degradation and the Ministry of Environment. as a part of the IBSAP dissemination extinction at the national, re- Although most programmes are and communication program, and gional and local levels within the implemented at the national level, subsequently adopted by national and 2003-2020 period, along with regions are also assigned responsibilities regional governments. Communities rehabilitation and sustainable for implementation. Activities include and the private sector are also encour- use efforts. the call for collaboration with the aged to independently monitor and 4. Empower institutional, policy business sector, mining companies, evaluate IBSAP implementation. and law enforcement arrange- NGOs, media, local communities, ments at the national, regional, universities, police and customs of- Biodiversity and Socio-Economic local, and customary level to be ficers, farmers’ organizations and Development effective and conducive for the lawyers’ associations. Despite pressure placed on busi- management of biodiversity; nesses to implement good biodiversity and Communication management practices, progress in 5. Achieve fair and balanced roles A large segment of Indonesian this area is still very weak. However, and interests of Indonesian so- society still has a low level of aware- an Indonesian traditional medicine ciety, as well as reduce conflict ness and understanding of the value company is attempting to alter this potentials among all relevant of biodiversity in their daily lives and trend by working with community sectors. for national development. Most stake- groups, farmers’ groups, universities holders are aware of the short-term and research institutions to conserve Biodiversity management is cur- productive value of certain resources medicinal plants by preserving the tra- rently implemented by many sectoral only. Awareness-raising activities, ditional uses of local medicinal plants. agencies, but coordination among including introduction to the IBSAP A nursery has been created for these them is poor. documents, were to begin at the outset plants and waste from production is An independent and multi-stake- of IBSAP implementation in 2003, being recycled for use as fodder and holder team was to convene in 2003 with focus on training for the Bupatis organic fertilizer. to address institutional arrangements and members of the regional House Source: SCBD Report ASEAN BIODIVERSITy • 1
  17. sPECIaL REPoRts LAO PDR states that the Science, Technology and Environment Agency (STEA), the processing plants, garment industries and hydroelectric power stations, Priorities Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry has changed significantly over the The NBSAP of Lao (MAF) and other relevant ministries, last decade from being state-owned PDR, completed in local government sectors, mass orga- enterprises to several small- and me- 2004, comprises a strat- nizations, internal and external private dium-scale private sector enterprises. egy to 2020 and an action plan to sector organizations running businesses Ecotourism is also being developed 2010. With poverty being the single in Lao PDR, international organiza- in the country, and would play a key most important problem facing the tions (regional and subregional), and role in biodiversity conservation and country today, the NBSAP is viewed NGOs, are the main target groups socio-economic development. as an important tool for biodiversity for the implementation of activities. conservation and sustainable develop- All sectors in the central and local Communication ment, poverty alleviation and improved levels are responsible for translating The Ministry of Education is quality of life. The NBSAP also sup- the requirements of the NBSAP into developing a biodiversity curriculum ports the long-term objectives set by the their respective action plans. for integration into various levels Socio-economic Development vision, The NBSAP stresses the impor- of the country’s educational system. especially those of the National Envi- tance of the ethnobiological knowl- Environmental education, including ronment Strategy and National Poverty edge of the local and indigenous biodiversity conservation issues, has Eradication Programme. However, the people and highlights actions that been incorporated into the curricula concept of the role that biodiversity promote the participation of these of common schools and vocational plays in socio-economic development groups in biodiversity research and colleges. The National University of is still very much in its infancy. management, and to ensure equitable Laos has improved its curriculum with The NBSAP’s main objectives benefit-sharing that may arise from biodiversity-related topics to meet are to: the use of traditional knowledge the growing demand for this type of 1. Identify important biological and practice. Actions to legally information. diversity components and im- safeguard the social and economic prove the knowledge base. benefits resulting from the use of Monitoring and Reporting 2. Manage biodiversity on a region- genetic material and products from Clear mechanisms for ensuring al basis, using natural boundaries Lao PDR are also covered in the implementation of the NBSAP at the to facilitate the integration of plan, as is capacity-building in the national, regional and international conservation and utilization- field of modern biotechnology. The levels; producing annual reports and oriented management. country’s industrial sector, primarily NBSAP revisions; and increasing the 3. Plan and implement a biodi- composed of cement factories, wood participation of local and private sector versity-specific human resource management program. 4. Increase awareness and encour- age participation of the public in sustainable management of biodiversity. 5. Adjust national legislation and regulations and harmonize these with Multi-lateral Environmen- tal Agreements (MEAs). 6. Secure the NBSAP implementa- tion. 7. Promote country needs driven international cooperation. The action plan lists activities to be implemented by 2010 for the above seven areas but does not assign accom- panying implementation responsibili- ties to stakeholders. Rather, the report Nam Ha Protected Area 1 • jANuARy-MARCH 2008
  18. sPECIaL REPoRts groups in implementation, have still not been developed at the time of the writing of the NBSAP. Biodiversity and Socio-Economic Development Nine of the country’s 17 rural provinces are engaged in activities to develop and promote ecotourism. This sector has an immense potential to alleviate poverty while conserving Lao PDR’s natural and cultural heritage. The United Nations Development Programme presented an award to Lao PDR in recognition of its first ecotourism project and contribution towards poverty alleviation. Pragmatic management is planned for this sec- Mulu National Park tor with carefully targeted support for enterprises that are sensitive to 9. review legislation to reflect nities in the conservation, management environmental and cultural needs. biological diversity needs, and utilization of biological diversity Source: SCBD Report 10. minimize impacts of human must be recognized and their rightful activities on biological diver- share of benefits should be ensured.” sity, Other plans are to: develop sectoral MALAYSIA 11. develop policies, regulations, laws and capacity building on and cross-sectoral policies, plans and incentives; conduct environmental Priorities biosafety, impact assessments by sectors; and Malaysia adopted its 12. enhance institutional and establish a national biodiversity centre “National Policy on public awareness, to coordinate programmes related to Biological Diversity” 13. promote international coopera- implementation; set priorities; monitor in 1998 and contains 15 strategic tion and collaboration, and manage information. Participa- themes with accompanying actions. 14. exchange information, and tion of NGOs and the private sector, The themes are to 15. establish funding mecha- particularly with information they 1. Improve the scientific knowl- nisms. can provide on appropriate technolo- edge base, gies, including biotechnology, is also 2. enhance sustainable utilization Malaysia hopes to transform the stressed. The Plan likewise promotes of the components of biological country into a world centre of excellence international cooperation that deals diversity, in conservation, research and utiliza- with such matters as germplasm 3. develop a centre of excellence tion of tropical biological diversity by exchange, technology transfer and in industrial research in tropical 2020. Biotechnology is a very lucrative information exchange, as well as biological diversity, sector and its development is accorded regional collaboration on transbound- 4. strengthen the institutional high priority. Floriculture also has great ary issues. The government has also framework for biological di- economic potential. The Action Plan planned to seek cooperation in regard versity management, includes the inventory of traditional to the repatriation of information, 5. strengthen and integrate con- knowledge on the use of species and particularly that which is not in the servation programmes, genetic diversity, economic valuation public domain. 6. integrate biological diversity of the goods and services of biological The Malaysian government stresses considerations into sectoral diversity and bioprospecting. Conse- the inclusion of biological diversity planning strategies, quently, Malaysia has given priority to issues in long- and medium-term 7. enhance skill, capabilities and the formulation of a regulatory biosafety development plans, such as the Five- competence, framework in the short term. Year Development Plans, the Outline 8. encourage private sector par- A guiding principle of the National Perspective Plans and the National ticipation, Policy is that the “role of local commu- Development Plans. Existing legisla- ASEAN BIODIVERSITy • 1
  19. sPECIaL REPoRts tion are mostly sector- based, and there are no specific laws on comprehensive PHILIPPINES gathered to strategize on national biodiversity conservation and related biodiversity conservation and man- Priorities socio-economic issues. agement. The Action Plan calls for The Philippines devel- The PBCPP members reached a review of the adequacy of current oped its Strategy for consensus on 206 priority areas for legislation and identification of areas Biological Diversity conservation, and identified the fol- where new legislation may be required, Conservation in 1994, followed by lowing five elements as strategic actions such as practice codes for collectors, the Philippine Biodiversity Assessment that fine-tune the six strategic actions intellectual property, ownership rights, and Action Plan in 1997. In light contained in the 1997 NBSAP, for biosafety, and invasive alien species. of new information, approaches and implementation: analysis for biodiversity conservation 1. Harmonize research with con- Communication provided through various initiatives, servation needs, Malaysia believes that reward the Philippine Biodiversity Conserva- 2. enhance and strengthen the mechanisms should be put in place tion Priority-setting Program (PBCPP) protected area system, to strengthen biodiversity education. was designed to review existing plans, 3. institutionalize innovative and Moreover, educational curricula and and the results essentially comprised appropriate biodiversity con- training programmes should be reori- the “second iteration” of the NBSAP servation approaches: the bio- ented to include specific references to completed in 2002. diversity corridors, the conservation and sustainable use The Philippines recognizes 4. institutionalize monitoring and of biological diversity. The role of that a new culture of partnership- evaluation systems of projects NGOs in promoting awareness should building and collaboration among and of biodiversity, and also be considered. Mechanisms for a wide range of stakeholders and 5. develop a national constituency information exchange at national and conservation practitioners is neces- for biodiversity conservation in international levels should be devel- sary for the implementation of the the Philippines oped or strengthened, and information second iteration to be successful. The Results of the PBCPP will serve centres and networks to disseminate document consolidates the most up- as a decision framework that policy- information should be available at to-date information gathered from makers, national and local govern- government, academic, industry, NGO 300 natural and social scientists ments, civil society, academics, donor and individual levels. from local and international organi- communities, local communities, and zations, NGOs, academics, people’s non-traditional stakeholders, such as Monitoring and Reporting organizations, donor communities the business community, can incorpo- The institutional framework for and the private sector. This process rate in their development programmes. NBSAP implementation requires was a breakthrough in that it was the Implementation success is illustrated, strengthening. The Action Plan sug- first time that experts in terrestrial, for example, by the inclusion of the gests the establishment of a committee, inland waters and marine ecosystems NBSAP in the Philippine Medium- composed of representatives of federal and other critical stakeholders had Term Development Plan (1999-2004) ministries, agencies and state govern- ments, to deal with matters related to implementation at federal, state and local levels. Biodiversity and Socio-Economic Development Indigenous plants and animals have long been used by the country in traditional medicine. Certain plants in Malaysia have proven effective in preventing malaria and counteracting the HIv virus. The country recognizes the enormous economic potential of medicinally useful plants and is taking steps to tap into this market. Source: SCBD Report Mts. Iglit-Baco National Park 0 • jANuARy-MARCH 2008



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