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Theo xu hướng hiện nay, vấn đề bảo vệ môi trường trong giáo dục đại học ngày càng được quan tâm nhiều hơn. Thực tế là, các hoạt động đa dạng diễn ra trong trường đại học sẽ dẫn đến những tác động trực tiếp và gián tiếp nghiêm trọng đến môi trường. Sự suy giảm và ô nhiễm môi trường gây bởi các trường đại học dưới dạng tiêu thụ nguyên liệu, năng lượng và thải bỏ chất thải thông qua các hoạt động dạy học và nghiên cứu, cung cấp các dịch vụ hỗ trợ và từ các...

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  1. Kỷ yếu hội nghị Khoa học Môi trường và Công nghệ sinh học năm 2011 ISO 14001 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR UNIVERSITIES: A CASE STUDY AT HO CHI MINH CITY UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY IN VIETNAM Trần Thị Tường Vân1 và Lê Thị Hồng Trân2 1 Khoa Môi trường và Công nghệ sinh học, Trường đại học Kỹ thuật Công nghệ TP.HCM 2 Khoa Môi trường, Trường đại học Bách khoa – Đại học quốc gia TP.HCM TÓM TẮT Theo xu hƣớng hiện nay, vấn đề bảo vệ môi trƣờng trong giáo dục đại học ngày càng đƣợc quan tâm nhiều hơn. Thực tế là, các hoạt động đa dạng diễn ra trong trƣờng đại học sẽ dẫn đến những tác động trực tiếp và gián tiếp nghiêm trọng đến môi trƣờng. Sự suy giảm và ô nhiễm môi trƣờng gây bởi các trƣờng đại học dƣới dạng tiêu thụ nguyên liệu, năng lƣợng và thải bỏ chất thải thông qua các hoạt động dạy học và nghiên cứu, cung cấp các dịch vụ hỗ trợ và từ các khu cƣ trú. Ngoài ra, với sứ mệnh đào tạo của mình, trƣờng đại học còn có vai trò quan trọng trong công tác giáo dục nâng cao nhận thức về bảo vệ môi trƣờng cho cộng đồng. Một giải pháp quản lý môi trƣờng thích hợp là thiết lập hệ thống quản lý môi trƣờng (HTQLMT) và tiến đến đạt chứng nhận ISO 14001 cho trƣờng đại học. Bài báo đề cập đến nghiên cứu điển hình tại trƣờng đại học Kỹ thuật Công nghệ TP.HCM (HUTECH) – là đề tài đầu tiên trong nƣớc nghiên cứu xây dựng HTQLMT theo ISO 14001 cho nhóm đối tƣợng trƣờng đại học. Bài báo đã xác định các khía cạnh môi trƣờng đáng kể, các mục tiêu và chỉ tiêu môi trƣờng cho HUTECH. HTQLMT theo ISO 14001 cũng đƣợc thiết lập, bao gồm mô hình HTQLMT, sổ tay môi trƣờng, một số thủ tục và các biện pháp hỗ trợ. Từ khoá: ISO 14001, hệ thống quản lý môi trường (HTQLMT), trường đại học Kỹ thuật Công nghệ TP.HCM (HUTECH). INTRODUCTION Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology (HUTECH), located in Binh Thanh District, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, was established in 1995. HUTECH offers courses in 35 disciplines at four levels including university, college, intermediate and vocational training with a total enrollment of over 10,000. In fact, the various complex activities taking place in campus have some serious direct and indirect impacts on the environment. The universitiy causes environmental pollution and degradation in form of energy and material consumption via activities and operations in teaching and research and provision of support services. Nevertheless, HUTECH‘s existing environmental management practices only focus on cleaning and solid waste collection. The university has partially classified solid waste at source for recycling. Usually the cleaning team is in charge of collecting recyclable solid waste including old newspapers, old reports, old theses..., but this work is not officially written in the job description. While the problem of wastewater and solid waste generated from laboratories (of which most are hazardous waste) is still not solved completely by classifying and treating separately. Solid waste from laboratory operations and from other areas is collected together. Wastewater from labs is not collected and treated separately but is discharged directly into the main drainage system. In addition, most of labs also do not have equipments to control air pollution except some ceiling and wall ventilation fans. The university has no specialized environmental management personnel but several units in charge of the fields related to the environment. Materials and Equipment department takes care of campus hygiene and waste collection (Cleaning team); supervises electricity and water saving; and inspects labour and fire safety. Medical staff plays a certain role in the work of disease prevention. Politics – Student work department combines with unions such as youth union and student union to organize extra-curricular activities such as green summer campaign, special days for environment, 101
  2. Kỷ yếu hội nghị Khoa học Môi trường và Công nghệ sinh học năm 2011 etc. Faculty of Environment and Biotechnology develops more types of environmental communication such as Environment and Human contest, Greentech club, Environment and Human general subject, etc. That was also the general condition of most universities in Vietnam at present. In our country, the issue of environmental protection in higher education is not paid adequate attention. There is no specialized environmental management personnel in universities, and of course, an environmental management system (EMS) has not been established. None of the domestic universities has already implemented ISO 14001 standard. Number of researches and documentation on this topic is still very small. Meanwhile, in the world, the integration of environmental aspects and sustainable development in higher education have been carried out very early, a lot of studies and documentation on this issue have been made. Many universities have committed themselves to associate the concept of environment and sustainability into lecture halls and in all their activities. The number of universities around the world who have been established an EMS and get ISO 14001 certification is significantly increasing. There are many studies about EMS of university (Delakowitz et al., 2000; Noeke, 2000; University of Missouri Rolla, 2000; Dahle et al., 2001; EPA, 2001; Michael, 2002; University of North Carolina, 2003; University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 2004; Savely et al., 2006; and Lraeme et al., 2007). The ISO 14001 standard has been implemented by a large number of universities in Europe and USA, such as the University of Gävle in Sweden, the Glamorgan University in UK, the University of Applied Science Hochschule Zittau / Görlitz in Germany, the University of Missouri Rolla and the University of Texas in USA. This number is much larger if it is included universities that have an EMS, or integrate environmental issues and sustainability into training. Michael Shriberg (2002) found that The University of Michigan Housing Division‘s (Housing) study on creating an EMS based on sustainability develops a rationale for organizational alignment with sustainability and assesses leading edge practices. The study recommends altering Housing‘s current mission statements as well as creating a freestanding sustainability mission statement. The study includes sustainability assessments of 11 operational and decision-making areas. The assessments extend beyond traditional environmental audits by developing sustainability visions, prioritized recommendations and indicators for each area. The study, which forms the basis of Housing‘s current environmental initiatives, concludes that sustainability management of university. Peter Viebahn (2001) indicated that an environmental management model for universities: from environmental guidelines to staff involvement. This model had applied at the University of Osnabrück, the basis for a university-related EMS has been developed for the first time in Germany, the use of which is also possible by other universities. Beginning autumn 1999, this EMS had gradually been implemented at the University of Osnabrück. In addition, Barnes and Jerman (2002) have developed an EMS for a multiple-university consortium in South Carolina‘s three research universities — Clemson, Medical University of South Carolina and the University of South Carolina. Mason I.G et al. (2002) showed that implementation of a zero waste program at a university campus. A zero waste program was established at a university campus in response to grassroots student concern over environmental management issues. The implementation procedure consisted of initial discussions with academic and local authority staff at a university environmental forum, the formation of a working group, the preparation of a funding proposal and the establishment of an externally funded research, educational and promotional program led by an academic staff member. Support from senior management existed in the form of a written environmental policy and a signed commitment to environmental responsibility in tertiary education and university funding support followed the success of the initial funding application. Moreover, Habib M et al. (2008) stated that an integrated approach to achieving campus sustainability has been applied. Universities can nowadays be regarded as ‗small cities‘ due to their large size, population, and the various complex activities taking place in campuses, which have 102
  3. Kỷ yếu hội nghị Khoa học Môi trường và Công nghệ sinh học năm 2011 some serious direct and indirect impacts on the environment. The environmental pollution and degradation caused by universities in form of energy and material consumption via activities and operations in teaching and research, provision of support services and in residential areas could be considerably reduced by an effective choice of organizational and technical measures. Although many environmental protection measures can be seen at some universities, but a more systematic and sustainable approach to reducing the negative impacts of those activities and making the campuses more sustainable, is generally lacking. Therefore, this study proposes a framework of a more suitable approach to achieving campus sustainability that could remedy the limitations of the current environmental management practices in universities and ensure more sustainability through the integration of three strategies, namely: university EMS; public participation and social responsibility; and promoting sustainability in teaching and research. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to orient an ISO 14001 EMS for HUTECH in order to improve the environmental protection at university. From that point, the result of this study has been formed the basis of more researches into establishing an EMS according to ISO 14001 for other domestic universities later on. METHODS The study is based on the following methods:  A domestic and foreign literature review concerning the establishment of an university EMS (ISO 14001).  A survey of the reality of environmental management at HUTECH.  To take advice from expert in EMS (ISO 14001).  To analyse, synthesise and compare the surveyed data and documentation.  PDCA methodology was developed by Deming: the Deming Cycle with 4 steps (Plan -Do- Check-Act) is applied to ISO 14001 EMS.  Risk Assessment Matrix (Tran, 2008) was used to identify the significant environmental aspects in HUTECH: + To indentify risk + To indentify risk frequency (F) effect (E) Rarely: 1 time per Little: below the month (1 point) standard (1 point) Sometimes: 1 times per Medium: meet the week (2 points) standard (2 points) Regularly: every day Major: exceed the +3To assess risk (R) ( points) standard (3 points) Risk (R) = Frequency (F) x Effect (E) R = 1 - 4 points: no need to concern R = 5 - 9 points: significant environmental aspect to be controlled and improved RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Proposal ISO 14001 EMS model for HUTECH The proposal ISO 14001 EMS model for HUTECH consisting of three phases is based on the EMS model developed at the University of South Carolina (Susanne et al., 2006) as shown in Table 1. Table 1. ISO 14001 EMS implementation model for HUTECH ISO 14001 EMS implementation model Explanation for HUTECH Phase I - Gaining top management support + Necessary first step to implementation - Defining an accountability + Include individuals throughout the institution in general structure categories and by specific name. + Incorporate these elements into institutional committee 103
  4. Kỷ yếu hội nghị Khoa học Môi trường và Công nghệ sinh học năm 2011 meetings and other routine meetings as standing agenda items rather than set up other meetings, when possible. - Identifying legal requirements + Having a procedure in place provides assurance that a process exists for tracking, implementing and updating legal requirements and best practices. Many colleges and universities use a compliance calendar tool. - Reviewing operations and + Examples include hazardous waste handling, energy identifying activities that may usage, etc. Activities are used to determine significant aspects (‗‗activities, products or services that can interact affect the environment with the environment‘‘ ). + An ‗‗environmental mission statement‘‘. - Developing an environmental policy Phase - Creating environmental + Environmental aspects determined in previous II programs with objectives and step/element are used to develop environmental programs, targets and monitoring and goals and numerical targets within the goals for the measuring environmental institution. operations + After identifying environmental activities, aspects, objectives and targets, an institution is able to determine what to monitor and measure. - Establishing a document + Documentation regarding the EMS and the associated control system and documentation procedures are typically kept online, with the only current versions designated, as such. Printed versions are marked uncontrolled. An electronic system is very beneficial in reducing volumes of paperwork. Time frames for storage of environmental records should be established. - Creating and implementing + Many types of environmental and EMS procedures are required environmental procedures needed to have a formal EMS in place such as those to minimize deviation from the environmental policy, objectives and targets, to identify ‗‗operating criteria,‘‘ to control significant environmental aspects, to ‗‗identify potential for and respond to emergency situations, and for preventing and mitigating the environmental impacts that may be associated with them,‘‘ to correct environmental non-conformances, and to manage and store environmental records. + Environmental emergency procedures, should include how to handle environmental releases. + In performing routing inspections and after various incidents, issues that need resolving (non-conformances) will be noted, thus it is important to have procedures in place to resolve these issues that may have an environmental impact. - Training and communication + Training must be tailored to institution and different stakeholders at the institution to increase support and buy in. + A communications log may be used to track communications, particularly external communications with regulators. In most cases, established communication plans and methods may be used. Phase - Auditing by internal and external + Internal audits are important but usually biased. It is III parties critical to obtain third party audits, however, they can be expensive. A more economical route is to arrange for subject matter expert peer reviews from other colleges and universities. Proposal ISO 14001 EMS for HUTECH Structure and responsibility 104
  5. Kỷ yếu hội nghị Khoa học Môi trường và Công nghệ sinh học năm 2011 The following EMS structure for HUTECH (Figure 1) is based on the requirements of ISO 14001 and the current organizational structure. PRESIDENT ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT REPRESENTATION VICE PRESIDENT VICE PRESIDENT VICE PRESIDENT Learning by doing Planning - Finance Politics – Student Center work Materials - Equipment Administration Organization- Training inspection Basic Science Dept Science management-Staff Planning – Finance Politics – Student Learning by doing Training Dept Equipmen Dept Materials – Facuties Deans of Director work Dept fostering Chief Chief Chief Chief Center Dean Chief Chief Chief Dept Dept Figure 1. Organisation chart of HUTECH EMS 1. President - To define the environmental policy. - To appoint the environmental management representation. - To provide finance and other necessary resources to establish and maintain the EMS effectively. - To approve the environmental handbook, environmental goals, environmental targets, environmental management programs and other documentation of the EMS. - To command and decide in emergency situations. - To preside over the management review meeting, giving the final decision to maintain and improve the EMS. 2. Environmental management representation - To establish, to implement and to maintain the ISO 14001 EMS. - To produce the environmental hanbook, environmental goals, environmental targets and to submit them for the president‘s approval. - To produce the environmental management programs in co-operation with the heads of the units. - To assign specific tasks to involved units and individuals. -To write general procedures of the EMS, to manage related environmental documents and records. - To coordinate with other units in order to consider and evaluate environmental aspects of the units. - To organize the measurement and inspection of environmental goals and targets. - To receive and to handle internal and external information on the environment. - To plan the annual EMS internal audit for the whole campus. - To report on the EMS performance and to propose opportunities for the EMS improvement. - To provide facilities for the management review meetings. 3. Heads of departments and faculties - To support all activities of the environmental management representation. 105
  6. Kỷ yếu hội nghị Khoa học Môi trường và Công nghệ sinh học năm 2011 - To assign tasks to staff of the unit in order to ensure the implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of the EMS. - To identify and evaluate environmental aspects. - To define the environmental goals and targets of the unit. - To bear full responsibility for achieving the environmental goals and targets of the unit. - To deploy the activities, to measure, to tackle and to prevent. Environmental policy A reasonable environmental policy (Table 2) will ensure the effectiveness of the HUTECH EMS. Significant environmental aspect Based on emission source statistics at HUTECH, documents on environmental protection of universities in the world and in consultation with environmental management staff at HUTECH, the study has identified a list of environmental aspects (Table 3) corresponding to the training activities of HUTECH. From that point, five significant environmental aspects of HUTECH are determined by risk assessment matrix method. Environmental goals and targets: For each significant environmental aspect, the study sets environmental goals and targets with an estimated completion time in the condition of practical activities at HUTECH and legal requirements in force, as shown in Table 4. Environmental Procedures Besides, the study also puts forward several required environmental procedures for HUTECH EMS, including Identifying significant environmental aspects procedure, Identifying legal and other requirements procedure, Communication procedure, Solid waste and hazardous waste management procedure, Monitor and measure procedure, Nonconformance and corrective and preventive action procedure, Record keeping procedure and Management review procedure. Table 2. Environmental policy of HUTECH Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology has the mission of multidisciplinary and multi -sector training to provide qualified manpower for the industrialization and modernization in Vietnam generally and Southern Vietnam areas particularly. In fact, the activities taking place in campus bring about the consumption of energy, materials and chemicals as well as the emission of corresponding waste, especially wastewater and hazardous waste generated in laboratories. Therefore, we realise that the environmental management must be is one of the important issues for our operation. Our basic approach is to minimize the harmful impacts on the environment and to integrate the issues of environment and sustainable development into communication activities, in the pursuit of a sustainable society. We determine to set up the ISO 14001 environmental management system and commit as follows: 1. To comply with environmental legal requirements in Vietnam and other requirements. 2. To save power, water and materials, as well as to reduce environmental pollution. 3. To aim to keep the environment clean: - To make sure that the parameters of exhaust, wastewater and noise reach Vietnamese standards; - To manage solid and hazardous waste; - To ensure the work environment clean and airy. 4. To promote environmental education activities. 5. To improve the EMS continuously. Our environmental policy shall be communicated to all employees and made available to the public and the stakeholders. 106
  7. Kỷ yếu hội nghị Khoa học Môi trường và Công nghệ sinh học năm 2011 Table 3. Evaluation of HUTECH environmental aspects Environmental aspect Status Quantity Environmental impact Environmental aspect evaluation (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) F E Risk Significant =F* environmental E aspect  Consumed electricity Normal 775,040 KWh/yr 31 3  40,377 m3/yr Consumed water Normal 31 3  Office stationery Normal - 31 3  Lab chemicals Normal - 21 2  Consumed petrol (for dynamo) Ab-normal 210 L/yr 11 1    37,000 m3/yr Domestic wastewater Normal 31 3    2,500 m3/yr Wastewater from labs Normal 23 6 Significant    Domestic solid waste Normal 1,200 ton/yr 32 6 Significant  Used papers Normal 975 kg/yr 31 3     Hazardous solid waste from labs Normal 45,000 kg/yr 23 6 Significant   Hazardous chemical gases from labs Normal - 23 6 Significant   Exhaust from dynamo Ab-normal - 11 1   Noise from dynamo Ab-normal - 11 1   Exhaust from printing and photocopier shop Normal - 31 3   Noise from printing and photocopier shop Normal - 31 3   Fire risk Urgent - 14 4   Electricity risk Urgent - 14 4   Labs risk Urgent - 14 4  Environmental education Normal - 23 6 Significant Note: Risk = F.E > 4: significant environmental aspect (1): Air pollution; (2): Water pollution; (3): Soil pollution; (4): Noise; (5): Resource exhaustion; (6): Human health; (7): Others 107
  8. Kỷ yếu hội nghị Khoa học Môi trường và Công nghệ sinh học năm 2011 Table 4. HUTECH environmental goals and targets Environmen- Environmental Environmental target Completion tal aspect goal time Hazardous To reduce, collect To ventilate labs in order to comply with the To Jun 2010 chemical gases and treat chemical labor sanitation standards, issued together with from labs gases the Minister of Health's Decision No. 3733/2002/QD-BYT ; To collect and treat chemical gases from lab hoods in order to comply with TCVN 5937:2005 (Air quality – Ambient air quality standards) and TCVN 5938:2005 (Air quality – Maximum allowable concentration of harzardous substances in ambient air) Wastewater To collect and treat To collect and treat labs wastewater in order to To Jun 2010 from labs labs wastewater comply with TCVN 5945:2005 (Industrial water – Discharge standards) separately Domestic solid To manage To classify domestic solid waste at source; To To Jun 2010 waste domestic solid build a hygienic waste transfer station on the campus; To contract with the ―Rac Dan Lap‖ - waste a local unit, for the collection of classified waste Hazardous To manage labs To classify hazardous solid waste at source; To To Jun 2010 solid waste hazardous solid contract with an unit in hazardous waste from labs waste treatment and disposal for the collection of classified hazardous waste; To register hazardous waste source at the Ho Chi Minh City Department of Natural resources and Environment To add the subject ―Environment and Human‖ Environmental To promote To Dec 2010 education environmental to the curriculum as a general course for other education for the majors; To incorporate sustainability into whole campus research activities of lecturers and students; To enhance communication activities on the environmental topics Proposal support solutions for the EMS at HUTECH The following framework (Figure 2) is proposal integrated measures to support the EMS of HUTECH. Energy, water and Domestic wastewater collection Campus in materials and treatment general Waste Domestic solid waste efficiency management management and treatment Environmen Pollution prevention Support and reduction tal Exhaust collection and solutions education Campus labs treatment Environmen Wastewater collection and tal treatment Solid waste law management compliance Environmen Laboratory tal planning organizati onal Figure 2. Framework of the proposed support solutions for HUTECH EMS structure 108
  9. Kỷ yếu hội nghị Khoa học Môi trường và Công nghệ sinh học năm 2011 Energy, water and materials efficiency Additional cleaner production sollutions should be carried out at HUTECH for energy, water and materials saving: + Energy efficiency - To replace old fluorescent bulbs with energy - saving bulbs. - To install electronic ballasts. - To take natural light by using glass widespreadly in building. - To fit up thermal insulation system for roof. - To install additional ventilation fans for some places, especially for labs. - To use lights, fans, air conditioners, office equipment and laboratory equipment effectively (turn off equipments when not in use). - To maintain regular air conditioner maintenance. - To comply with the Vietnamese construction regulation QCXDVN 09:2005 on "Energy efficient construction‖ and related legal documents for new buildings. + Water efficiency - To repair plumbing problems, to install new valves for preventing leakage. - To set up water circulation for cooling equipments in labs. + Materials efficiency - To save office stationery (to salvage used papers for printing, etc.). - To manage lab chemicals in accordance with the programmed process in computer and in papers. Waste management and treatment For campus in general + Domestic wastewater collection and treatment - To separate domestic wastewater collection system from rainwater collection system. -To build a domestic wastewater treatment system to comply with QCVN 14:2008/BTNMT (National technical regulation on domestic wastewater) before to discharge wastewater into the city sewers or to reuse wastewater in toilet flushing, irrigation and fire fighting purposes. + Domestic solid waste management Domestic solid waste generated from offices, classrooms and campus include surplus food, carton, papers, package, can, leaves, etc and also a small amount of hazardous waste such as batteries, fluorescent lights, medical waste, etc. Waste classification at source should be performed by using four-compartment dustbins. Each partition is used for each type of waste, including papers, package (nylon, plastic, glass, metal, etc), organic garbage and inorganic garbage. Organic waste and inorganic waste will be collected by the local unit. Scrap papers and package for the purpose of recycling and reusing will be sold to create revenue for environmental protection activities at campus. For campus labs + Pollution prevention and reduction To eliminate or to reduce pollution at source is executed by using alternative chemicals with less hazardousness and low toxicity, recovering, reusing chemicals such as solvents, precious metals, etc. + Exhaust collection and treatment Primary labs emission is a source of chemical vapor such as acid (HNO3, H2SO4, etc.), solvent, etc from fume hoods. Laboratory should be installed one piping system to collect chemical vapor from hoods to one treatment system based on the adsorption principle. In addition, some gases such as SO2, NH3,... produced from reactions as well as chemical vapor in labs should be reduced by ceiling and wall ventilation fans and a following complete ventilation system. + Wastewater collection and treatment Labs wastewater could be classified into three main types, including experiment fluid (wastewater generated in the process of experiment), tool washing wastewater and domestic wastewater. 109
  10. Kỷ yếu hội nghị Khoa học Môi trường và Công nghệ sinh học năm 2011 - The experiment fluid often contains acids, bases with low concentration: H2SO4, HCl, NaOH ... and metal ions: Fe, Al, Mg, Ca; organic compounds, inorganic salts. - The tool washing wastewater contains only a small amount of chemicals, but many detergents (surface-active substances) with relatively high flow. Each type of labs wastewater has different characteristics and flow, therefore, to separate them is required for following appropriate treatment measures. The first step: To separate wastewater - To prepare containers for experiment fluid: containers must be labelled, such as used for what experiment, etc. - To install another pipeline to separate tool washing wastewater from domestic wastewater. The second step: To treat wastewater - For experiment fluid: To contract one capable unit of treating this kind of fluid for periodly collection. - For washing wastewater: To build a wastewater treatment system on the campus, which is based on treatment technologies for wastewater containing mercury, cyanide, fluoride, alkaline, heavy metals, chromic acid, solvent, etc, for the compliance with TCVN 5945:2005 (Industrial water – Discharge standards). + Solid waste management Most solid waste from labs containing hazardous chemicals should be consequently classified from domestic garbage as follows: + To use two types of dustbin in labs: - The first is to contain domestic garbage, including food scraps, packaging of all kinds, etc (waste classification at source on the whole campus). - The second is to contain labs waste, such as absorbent papers, washcloth, bottles, glass fragments, etc. + Domestic garbage is collected daily by the cleaning team while labs waste is stored in specific tanks and then collected weekly by a contracted unit. + Laboratory planning - To build one laboratory zone in campus reserved for all departments having labs. - To establish one laboratory complex outsite the campus reserved for various universities. Environmental education - To organize training courses on the saving of resources (energy, water and materials), the waste classification, the labs pollution preventing and reduction, and the EMS for the involved subjects (staff and students - pupils). - To organize symposia on these topic for researchers and lecturers, instead of the one-way training form. - To organize forums and workshops on the theme of environment and sustainable development for students. - To hold contests with content of the environment in such forms: drawing, writing, telling, fun quizze, art, fashion, etc. - To publish digests of the environment (internal circulation). - To set up more environmental clubs. - To set up volunteer teams for the environment, participating in waste management on the campus and in other areas. - To promote communication activities in order to raise the community awareness of environmental protection with the participation of the whole campus: green summer campaign, channels, rivers, streets, markets cleaning campaigns, etc. Environmental law compliance - To register hazardous waste source at the Ho Chi Minh City Department of Natural resources and Environment. - To comply with the law on environmental impact assessment, environmental protection commitment and environmental protection project. 110
  11. Kỷ yếu hội nghị Khoa học Môi trường và Công nghệ sinh học năm 2011 - To construct environmental protection regulations of the university based on observance of the national environmental protection law, the related decrees of the Government, etc. - To construct standards on sanitariness and environmental protection of the university based on the national standards, the national and local technical regulations. Environmental organizational structure - To arrange at least one employee or department responsible for environmental management. - To set up one environmental management committee with the personnel from other departments: medical department, materials and equipment department, environment and biotechnology faculty and other specialized faculties. When an environmental problem appears at university, the committee will create an effective coordination between departments. - To establish an EMS and to be certified to ISO 14001. CONCLUSIONS This paper results in an ISO 14001 EMS orientation for HUTECH with several support solutions and represents the first study about this topic in Ho Chi Minh City as well as in Vietnam. The ISO 14001 standard is known with the purpose of prescribing and implementing environmental goals, policies, and responsibilities, as well as regular auditing of its elements. It is an approach to deal with environmental problems that give responsibility to a university to implement environmental practices and regulations to ensure that environmental issues are managed consistently and systematically. By the ISO 14001 EMS at university, many benefits will be achieved concurrently. The first benefit is waste reduction and energy saving. The second is to mobilize all the individuals in the university, from the management, staffs and all students to participate in environmental management. The third is also very considerable, originated in the social mission of the university. University is to train excellent human resource for society, to connect research and practice together, to advance new inventor and relationship to change the world. So, environmental media at university brings the most realistic effect. The further benefit is that the university‗s image and reputation will be enhanced. This research aims to establish the "green university" model in accordance with practical conditions of Vietnam. In summary, the study can be a source of data for future researches on the object of university. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors acknowledge the support of Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology, Vietnam in providing data for the study. REFERENCES Christopher A.L. Mouatt, 1997, Implementing ISO 9000 and ISO 14000, Quality Assurance and Environmental Management Systems, McGraw-Hill, USA. Christopher Sheldon, Mark Yoxon, 2006, Environmental Management Systems: Step-by-step guide to implementation and maintenance, third edition, Earthscan, USA. Dahle M., Neumayer E., 2001, Overcoming barriers to campus greening: A survey among higher educational institutions in London, UK, International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 2(2):139-60. Delakowitz B., Hoffmann A., 2000, The Hochschule Zittau/Gorlitz: Germany‘s first registered environmental management (EMAS) at an institution of higher education, International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 1(1):35-47. EPA, 2001, College and university environmental management system guide, Environmental Protection Agency [draft]. Gayle Woodside, Patrick Aurrichio & Jeanne Yturri, 1998, ISO 14001 Implementation Manual, McGraw-Hill, USA. Habib M. Alshuwaikhat, Ismaila Abubakar, 2008, An integrated approach to achieving campus sustainability: assessment of the current campus environmental management practices, Journal of Cleaner Production, 16(1):1777-1785. 111
  12. Kỷ yếu hội nghị Khoa học Môi trường và Công nghệ sinh học năm 2011 Herremans I., Allwright D.E., 2000, Environmental management systems in North American universities, What drives good performance? International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 1(2):168-181. ISO, 2004, ISO 14001:2004 Environmental Management Systems – Requirements with guidance for use, International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Genève. ISO, 2004, ISO 14004:2004 Environmental Management Systems – General guidelines on principles, systems and support techniques, International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Genève. ISO, Environmental Management: The ISO 14000 family of International Standards. Kaisu Sammalisto, Torbjo¨rn Brorson, 2006, Training and communication in the implementation of environmental management systems (ISO 14001) - a case study at the University of Ga¨vle, Sweden, Journal of Cleaner Production, 20(1):1-11. Le Thi Hong Tran, 2008, Environmental Risk Assessment, Science & Technology Publishing House, Vietnam. Le Thi Hong Tran, 2008, Implementing Environmental management systems (ISO 14001), Ho Chi Minh City National University Publishing House Inc., Vietnam. Lemoine R.B., 2001, University of Massachusetts Lowell environmental management system, Kansas City, Missouri. Lraeme D. Buchan, Ian F. Spellerberg, Winfried E.H. Blum, 2007, Education for Sustainability: International prospect for a higher education subject, International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 8(1):4-15. Michael Shriberg, 2002, Toward sustainable management - the University of Michigan Housing Division's approach, Journal of Cleaner Production, 10(1):41-45. Noeke J., 2000, Environmental management systems for Universities - A case study, International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 1(3):237-51. Peter Viebahn, 2002, An environmental management model for universities - from environmental guidelines to staff involvement, Journal of Cleaner Production, 10(1):3-12. Price J.T., 2005, Preaching what we practice: experiences from implementing ISO 14001 at the University of Glamorgan, International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 6(2):161- 78. P. Barnes, P. Jerman, 2002, Developing an environmental management system for a multiple- university consortium, Journal of Cleaner Production, 10(1):33-39. Savely S.M., Carson A.I., Delclos G.L., 2006, A survey of the implementation status of environmental management systems in U.S. colleges and universities, Journal of Cleaner Production, 20(1):1-10. Susanne M. Savely, Arch I. Carson, George L. Delclos, 2006, An environmental management system implementation model for U.S. colleges and universities, Journal of Cleaner Production, 20(1):1-11. University of Missouri Rolla, 2000, Environmental management for academia by academia, University of Missouri Rolla. University of North Carolina, 2003, Environmental management systems: do they improve performance? University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 2004, EH&S management system, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. 112



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