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Basic Contour Hatching

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Basic Contour Hatching

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Tài liệu tham khảo bằng tiếng Anh về nghệ thiật hội họa - Basic Contour Hatching

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  1. BASIC Brenda Hoddinott F-08 BEGINNER: HATCHING In this lesson, you use contour hatching to depict the illusion of depth, by transforming a circular shape into a three-dimensional form. Contour hatching is a series of curved lines (called a set) drawn closely together to give the illusion of values, and is ideal for rendering the illusion of three dimensional form. This lesson is divided into the following three sections: ¾ INTRODUCTION: Related terms and words are defined, and two drawings are presented. The first is shaded with straight hatching lines, and looks very flat and two-dimensional. The second is shaded with curved hatching lines that follow the perceived contours of a form; hence, the form looks three-dimensional. ¾ USE YOUR NATURAL HAND MOVEMENTS: A critical aspect of achieving smooth shading with contour hatching is becoming aware of, and then utilizing your own natural hand movements. This section tells you how to find your most natural drawing motions. ¾ DRAW A FORM WITH CONTOUR HATCHING: This exercise takes you through the process of using contour hatching to transform a circular shape into a three-dimensional form. Suggested drawing supplies include good quality white drawing paper, HB and 2B graphite pencils, kneaded and vinyl erasers, a pencil sharpener, and a sandpaper block. This project is recommended for artists from age 10 to adult with basic drawing skills, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators of beginner-level students. 7 PAGES – 9 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2005 (Revised 2006)
  2. -2- INTRODUCTION In this lesson, you use curved lines to depict the illusion of depth by transforming a circular shape into a three-dimensional form. Curved lines are created when a straight line curves (or bends). Curved lines can be drawn thick or thin. Shape refers to the outward outline of a form or section of a pattern. Basic shapes include circles, squares and triangles. Form, as applied to drawing, is the illusion of the three- dimensional structure of a shape, created in a drawing with shading and/or perspective. Shading refers to the various shades of gray (values) in a drawing that make the subjects appear three- dimensional. Shading is also the process of adding values to a drawing so as to create the illusion of form and/or three-dimensional space. Values are the different shades of gray created when you draw by varying both the density of the shading lines, and the pressure used in holding various pencils. Compare the following two drawings. Each is the same shape, but one is shaded with straight hatching lines, and the other with curved hatching lines. Hatching is a series of lines (called a set) drawn closely together to give the illusion of values. Depending on the shading effects you want, you can make the individual lines in hatching sets far apart or close together. ILLUSTRATION 08-01 ILLUSTRATION 08-01 The circular shape in illustration 08- 01 looks very flat and two- dimensional. The circular shape in illustration 08-02 has been shaded with contour hatching. The curved hatching lines follow the contours of the perceived forms of the circular shape; hence the illusion of three-dimensional form is created. USE YOUR NATURAL HAND MOVEMENTS A critical aspect of achieving smooth shading with contour hatching is becoming aware of and then utilizing your own natural hand movements. To discover which are ideal for you, simply draw several sets of slightly curved lines. As you draw, take note of how you make these lines, how smooth the lines look, and how comfortable you feel while drawing them. Try many different ways of moving your pencil, rotating your paper, or changing the directions of your lines, until you find the motions that are the most natural for you. For example, one possibility consists of lines that curve upward from the lower right toward the upper right (marked 1 in Illustration 08-03). Another is from the upper right curving downward toward the lower right (marked 2). Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  3. -3- The motions indicated in sets 1 and 2, work best for me and, as you can tell by the awkwardness of the lines in numbers 3 to 8, others are very unnatural to me. Any of the stroking movements illustrated may be perfect for you, and of course you can also experiment with others. To take advantage of your natural hand movement, you need to continuously rotate your drawing paper as you draw. For example if I want my sets of lines (1 and 2) to curve in the opposite direction, I simply turn my paper upside-down to draw. ILLUSTRATION 08-03 DRAW A FORM WITH CONTOUR HATCHING In this exercise, curved hatching lines are used to transform a circular shape into a three- dimensional form. ILLUSTRATION 08-04 1. Lightly sketch a circular shape with your HB pencil. No need to make your shape exactly like mine, but try to come close. Mine looks like a cross between a kidney bean, a potato, and a cocoon! Keep your lines very light by pressing very gently with your pencil. The lines in this particular sketch seem dark; however, in reality the lines are so light that I can barely see them. I have made them darker in a computer program so you can see them. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  4. -4- ILLUSTRATION 08-05 2. Add a few curved lines to map the directions in which the hatching lines will curve. As you work, pretend you are wrapping string around a circular form. Always place a piece of clean paper under your hand as you draw. Each time you work on a new section, remember to move your paper so it’s always under your hand. This prevents you from smudging your drawing, and protects the paper from the oils in your skin. ILLUSTRATION 08-06 3. Use curved hatching lines to add shading to the lower section of the circular shape. The hatching lines follow the perceived contours of the surface of the form. The hatching lines are not long and continuous; rather they are of various lengths. Also, remember to use your natural hand movement to help you render smoothly flowing curved lines. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  5. -5- ILLUSTRATION 08-07 4. Continue adding shading that follows the contours of the surface of the form. If your shading isn’t as smooth as you would like, you can touch it up. To make lines lighter pat them with your kneaded eraser molded to a wedge shape. You can make sections darker by drawing more short curved hatching lines in between others. ILLUSTRATION 08-08 5. Switch to a freshly sharpened 2B pencil and add darker curved lines around the perimeter of the shape. This dark value will enhance the illusion of a three dimensional form. The dark curved lines need to feather gently toward the lighter values in the center sections; hence, the curved hatching lines are raggedy and of various lengths. Don’t forget to rotate your drawing paper! Use a sandpaper block to keep the point of your pencil sharpened. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  6. -6- 6. Use an HB pencil to fill in lots more curved hatching lines until the surface of the form appears to be a medium value. The transition between the dark and medium values is very smooth. The curved hatching lines are barely noticeable because they are really close together with hardly any of the white paper still showing through. 7. Touch up any sections you aren’t happy with. Remember, if the transition between your values isn’t as smooth as you like, you can improve it. Try using a freshly sharpened HB pencil to add a few more short curved hatching lines in between others. ILLUSTRATION 08-09 Practice drawing sets of contour hatching lines every chance you can find! With only half an hour a day of practice, there will be a significant improvement in your drawings very soon. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  7. -7- BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporate her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. These sites offer downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. These sites are respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
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