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Bình đẳng giới trong lãnh đạo chính trị ở Việt Nam - Nhìn từ góc độ cấu trúc

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Bình đẳng giới trong lãnh đạo chính trị ở Việt Nam - Nhìn từ góc độ cấu trúc

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Bài viết xem xét những yếu tố mang tính cấu trúc có tác động đến bình đẳng giới trong lãnh đạo chính trị ở Việt Nam, bao gồm: trình độ phát triển kinh tế - xã hội, lao động và việc làm, giáo dục và đào tạo của đất nước. Các vấn đề này đều bao chứa những yếu tố rào cản, bên cạnh thuận lợi, đối với sự tiến bộ của phụ nữ trong lãnh đạo chính trị.

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Nội dung Text: Bình đẳng giới trong lãnh đạo chính trị ở Việt Nam - Nhìn từ góc độ cấu trúc

Nghidn ciiu<br /> Gia d i n h va Gi6i<br /> sg 3 -2012<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Binh dang gloii trong lanh dao chinh tri of Viel Nam -<br /> Nhin tir goc do cau Hiic<br /> <br /> Le Thj Thuc<br /> Vi6n Xa hSi hpc. Hoc vien Ctiinh Iri - Hanh chinh qu6c gia H6 Chi Mmh<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Tom t a t Bai viet xem xet nhttng yeu to' mang tfnh cau triic co<br /> tac dong den binh ddng gi6i trong lanh dao chinh tri 6 Viet Nam,<br /> bao gom: trinh do phat trien kmh te - xa hoi, lao dong va viec<br /> lam, giao due va dao tao cua dd't nU5c. Cac van de nay deu bao<br /> chtta nhiing yeu to'rao can, ben canh thuan ldi, doi vdi sU tien bo<br /> cua phu nfl trong lanh dao chinh tri. Ve mat ly thuyet, vi&c phan<br /> tich cac yeu to' nay co the giup hinh dung dupe nhflng tac dong<br /> t5i nguon ttng vien ntt co kha nang dam nhan cac vi trf lanh dao<br /> chinh tri trong bo may lanh dao cua da't nu6c. Song theo tac gia,<br /> cac van de ve cau true can dUdc lUu tam giai quyet dong thcJi v6i<br /> su quan tam de'n nhflng van de thugc ve the che, chinh sach va<br /> van hoa.<br /> <br /> Tuf khoa: Binh dang gi6i trong chinh tri; Phu nfl va chinh tri;<br /> Sp tham gia lanh dao chinh tri cua phu mi.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Dat van de<br /> Viet Nam dang c* trong giai doan chuye'n d6i lir ca che quan l^ tdp trung<br /> sang ccf che' thi trucfng djnh hucfng xa hpi chii nghTa, tucmg tu nhu 6 Trung<br /> QuP'c va mpt s6n\idc Trung va DPng Au. Qua trinh chuydn ddi vai U-6 gidi<br /> a Vipt Nam cung cd nhilu diem tucmg ddng vdi nhiing gi da va dang diln<br /> ra CS cac xa hdi dd, bao gdm ca nhirng bien ddi trong ddi sd'ng chinh tri.<br /> 28 Nghl&n ciiXi Gia dinh vi Gidi. Quyd'n 22, so 3, tr. 27-41<br /> <br /> <br /> nhu dupc chi ra trong mpt sd nghifin ciiu thdi gian gdn ddy (Baaker. 1994;<br /> F.dwards, 2008; Inglchart and Norris, 2003; Rueschemeyer, 1998; Stefano<br /> and Pinnclli. 2004; Su. 2006). Tuy vdy, thdng lin phan dnh nhihig diiu<br /> kicn CO ban d3n de'n su thay ddi v6 su tham gia chinh trudng ctia phu nQ<br /> Viet Nam cho de'n nay vdn cdn rd't thi^u. Ro rdng Id khdng thd giai thich<br /> dupc ve thuc trang ciia Viet Nam nfi'u chi cdn cii vao nhihig bdng chiing<br /> riit ra lii cdc nghifin ciiu trong nhOng xa hdi khdc, mdc dii nhung bdng<br /> chiing dd cd thd cd nhidu didm tudng tu, thdm chi rd't gidng vdi nhirng gi<br /> difin ra trong \a hdi Vifit Nam.<br /> <br /> 1. Khung ly thuyet tiep can<br /> Mpt trong nhutig khung ly thuyfi't phd bifi'n hien nay khi nghifin ciiu chu<br /> dd phu nu trong lanh dao chi'nh trj Id each nhin nhdn vd cdc rdo can theo<br /> ba nhdm yfi'u td: cdu true, thd chfi', vd vdn hda (xem thfim Ingleharl and<br /> Norris 2003). Bdi vifi't ndy tdp trung vdo nhdm ydu td ddu tifin khi xem xet<br /> vdn dd su tham gia lanh dao chinh tri cua phu nO Viet Nam. Trong bai vidt.<br /> nhdm ydu td cdu triic dupc nhin nhdn vdi tu each Id cac thdnh td tao nfin<br /> ngudn cung ve nhdn su (nu) cho cdc vj trf lanh dao. Cdc lac gia trudc ddy<br /> da su dung nhidu tfin gpi khac nhau cho nhdm ydu td tac dpng ndy, mdc<br /> du trong thuc te la tuang dd'i thd'ng nhdt vd ndi dung chuydn tai. Qidng<br /> han, theo cdc tdc gia Ingleharl va Norris (2003), nhom ye'u id nay bao gdm<br /> trinh dp phdt trien kinh td- xa hpi (dja vj kinh lfi'- xa hpi ctia phu nir), trinh<br /> dp hpc vd'n CLia phu nil, vd ty le phu nii trong cdc nghd nghifip chuyen mdn<br /> vd quan ly. Shvedova (2005) lai gpi nhdm ydu td nay Id 'cdc trd ngai kinh<br /> td - xa hpi', bao gdm hiPn tupng 'nir hda' su nghdo ddi va thdt nghifip,<br /> ganh ndng kep cua phu nir trong vific thuc hifin cac bdn phdn gia dinh va<br /> cdng viec chuyfin mdn, vd hifin tuong mil chu ciing vdi kha ndng tidp cdn<br /> han chd cua phu nfl ldi cac co hdi gido due vd nghd nghifip.<br /> Nhiing ngudi theo quan difi'm giai thi'ch su tham gia ehinh trudng cua<br /> phu nii bang cdc ydu td mang tinh cdu true cho rdng hfi thd'ng xa hdi, bao<br /> gdm cdc ydu id vd nghd nghifip, giao due, dja vi kinh tc - xa hdi eua nam<br /> gidi vd phu nir, va trinh dp phal trifi'n kinh id- xa hpi, ed vai iro rd't quan<br /> trpng quyfi't djnh sd' lupng dng vifin cho cdc vi trf lanh dao eua cac cd quan<br /> ddn cir. Putnam (1976) gpi ^ rdng nhdm tru trdi chinh trj dupc lao ra mdt<br /> each khdng ddng ddu tCr nhimg ngudi ed hpe vd'n cao va thupc mdt sd<br /> nganh nghd nhd't djnh. Theo Malland (1998) sti phal tridn cua mpt dd't<br /> nude la didm khdi ddu ddn dfi'n mpi ydu td khidn lam tdng cdc ngudn luc<br /> chinh Iri eiia phu nO va Idm giam bdt nhChig rdo can trong hoal dpng chinh<br /> trj eua hp. Tdc gia ndy cho rdng khi trinh dp phdt tridn ciia mpt dd't nudc<br /> Le Thi Thuc 29<br /> <br /> tdng Ifin, nd se lu dpng keo theo sir tidn bp ciia phu nii vd didu kifin sdng,<br /> vd hanh vi sinh san, va ve nhihig thanh qua ma hp dat dupc trong gido due<br /> vd trong luc lupng lao dpng, cung nhu nhiing tifi'n bd vi cdc thdi dp va gid<br /> tri truydn thd'ng dd'i vdi vai tro ciia ngudi phu nil. Matland tin tudng manh<br /> me rdng trinh dd phdt trifi'n tang Ifin se Idm gia ldng sd lupng phu nir cd<br /> kinh nghiem vd kha ndng ndm giii cac vi iri lanh dao chinh thiic trong bd<br /> may chinh quydn. Tac gia Reynolds (1999) da do ludng va so sdnh trinh<br /> dp phdt trifi'n kinh td - xa hdi ciia cdc nudc trfin thd gidi thdng qua vific sir<br /> dung chi bao phal trifi'n cd tinh dfi'n yfi'u id gidi cua Lien hpp qud'c, vd chi<br /> ra rdng ed mdt md'i lien he manh me giiia trinh dp phdt tridn kinh td- xa<br /> hdi va ty lfi phu nii irong cdc nghi vifin qud'c gia.<br /> <br /> Nhidu nhd nghifin ciiu da kdl ludn rdng ly lfi phu nii trong cdc loai nghd<br /> nghifip chuyfin mdn, hanh chi'nh va quan ly la mpt ydu td' cd tde ddng<br /> manh me dfi'n sd lupng phu nO tham gia lanh dao chfnh trj. NhCitig kdt ludn<br /> nhu vdy thudng dupc nil ra tir cac nghifin ciiu so sdnh b cac ndn ddn chu<br /> phat tridn, nhu thd hifin trong cac nghifin ciixi cua Rule (1987; 1988),<br /> Nolris (1985: 1987). va Darey, Welsh va Clark (1994). Cdc lac gia nay cho<br /> rdng su tham gia ddng dao ciia phu nii trong cae linh vuc nhu ludt vd<br /> truydn thdng 6 cac xa hdi phdt tridn dd thudng mang de'n cho hp su linh<br /> hoat, cdc ngudn luc lai chi'nh, kinh nghiem, va mang ludi quan hfi xa hpi<br /> - nhutig ydu td cd the giiip hp khd nhieu trong viec tiep can cae vj tri lanh<br /> dao trong bd may chinh quydn.<br /> <br /> 2. Nhiimg nen tang mang tinh cau true co tac dong den binh dang gidi<br /> trong lanh dao chinh tri d Viet Nam<br /> 2.1. Trinh dp phat trien kinh te - xa hpi<br /> Trong hem hai thdp ky qua, Vifit Nam da trai qua nhiing bifi'n ddi manh<br /> me ttr kieu vdn hdnh theo co che tap trung quan lifiu sang ca chd thj irudng<br /> djnh hudng xa hdi ehu nghTa. Kd tir khi bdl ddu cdng cupc Ddi mdi do<br /> Dang Cpng san Vifit Nam khdi xudng vao ndm 1986, ddt nudc da cd<br /> nhiing lidn bp vupt bdc vd nhidu mdt, ca kinh te ldn xa hdi. So sanh vdi<br /> c h u ^ ngheo qud'c tfi', ty lfi ngheo ddi ciia Viet Nam da giam tur 58% ddn<br /> sd vao nam 1993 xud'ng con khoang 37,4% vdo ndm 1998 va 14% vao<br /> nam 2008 - mpl Urong nhflng miic giam ngheo nhanh nhdt trong khu vuc<br /> chdu A (Ngdn hdng Thd gidi et al. 2011; UNCn', 2002). Nhihig eai each<br /> manh me trong san xual ndng nghifip vdo cudi nhflng ndm 1980 da khidn<br /> Viet Nam tfir mdt nudc dang phai dd'i mdt vdi linh trang thifi'u thirc ph^m<br /> khiing khifi'p trd thdnh mpl trong nhflng nudc ddn ddu Ihd gidi vd xud't kh^u<br /> gao, ed phfi va mpl sd ndng san khac. Theo ddnh gid cua Ngdn hang Thd<br /> 30 Nghien curu Gia dinh vd Gidi. Quyen 22, so 3, tr. 27-41<br /> <br /> <br /> gidi (2011). Viet Nam Id mpt trong nhflng nfin kinh id da thd hifin suphdt<br /> trifi'n ngoan muc trong khoang han mpt thdp ky gdn ddy. Tdng trudng thuc<br /> vd tdng san phdm qud'c npi (GDP) trung binh dat khoang 7.5%/ndm trong<br /> khoang thdi gian iCr 2000 ddn 2007. Thu nhdp binh qudn d^u ngudi thue td<br /> dd tdng tir 260 USD vao ndm 1995 Ifin 835 USD vao ndm 2007 va hem<br /> 1000 USD vdo ndm 2009. Vdi tdc dp tdng trudng ndy, Viet Nam da gia<br /> nhdp nhdm cac nudc cd thu nhdp irung binh vdo ndm 2010, vdi vific vupt<br /> qua mflc thu nhdp binh qudn ddu ngudi 1.000 USD/ndm, mdc dCi vin con<br /> kha nhidu vd'n dd ddt ra vd vific duy tri mpt each bdn vQtig su phal tridn do.<br /> Trong bang xfi'p hang Chi sd phat tridn con ngudi ciia UNDP (HDI), Vifit<br /> Nam da nd luc cd dupe vi trf tucmg dd'i cao .so vdi vj tri xep hang vd thu<br /> nhdp cLia minh. Ndm 2005, Vifit Nam xdp thii 105 trong tdng .sd 177 nudc<br /> trong bang xdp hang. Didu ndy thd hifin mdt su tidn bp ddng kd so vdi vj<br /> tri thii 109 eua ddl nudc trong bang xdp hang eiia ndm 2004 (UNDP,<br /> 2006a, 2007/2008).<br /> Chi bdo phal tridn cd linh ddn yeu id gidi ciia Vifit Nam eung thd hifin<br /> nhutig tifi'n bd ldn trong bang xdp hang eua thd gidi. Cae ehi bao quoc gia<br /> vd tudi thp binh qudn, ty lfi ttr vong ciia cac ba me, vd giao due eo ban, va<br /> vi cham sdc sflc khde ban ddu ddu ndi Ifin rdng khoang each gidi da duoc<br /> thu hep mpt each dang ke. Thfim vao dd, d Vifit Nam h^u nhu khdng cd<br /> phdn biet dd'i xii gidi d trd scf sinh, nhu the hifin trong cac ehi bao vd siic<br /> khde tre em. Nhutig didu ndy da khifi'n Viet Nam cd dupc vj tri kha cao<br /> trong bang xfi'p hang vd cdc khia canh lifin quan ddn gidi, nfi'u so sanh vcd<br /> cac nude lang gidng vd vdi cac nudc ed ciing mii'c GDP binh qudn ddu<br /> ngudi (NCFAW, 2000; UNDP, 2007/2008; United Nations Viemam,<br /> 2002). Ndm 2011, xfi'p hang vfi Chi bdo phdt tridn cd tfnh ddn yfi'u gidi<br /> (GDI) cua Vifit Nam la 48, trong khi xfi'p hang vd ehi bdo phat tridn con<br /> ngudi (HDI) id 128 trong 182 nudc cua bang xfi'p hang (UNDP 2011),<br /> 2006a, 2007/2008), Trong nhdm cac nudc khu vuc Ddng A - TTiai Binh<br /> Duong, Vifit Nam cd vj trf khd cao vd cac chi bao binh ddng gidi, ddt u-ong<br /> su so sanh vdi nhung thdnh tuu kinh td ciia dd't nudc. Ndm 2005. GDP binh<br /> qudn ddu ngudi ciia Vifit Nam la thd'p hem Indonesia vd dn Dd (3.071 USD,<br /> so vdi 3.843 ciia Indonesia vd 3.452 eiia d'n Dp), nhung thfl hang ciia Vifit<br /> Nam veGDI lai cao hem ca hai nudc nay (Vict Nam xfi'p thii 91, so vdi thii<br /> 94 eua Indonesia va thii 113 cua d'n D6).<br /> <br /> Tuy nhifin, vd'n dd phal trifi'n bdn vung vdn la mdt thdch ihflc Idn dd'i vdi<br /> Viet Nam. Cdng cude Ddi mdi da mang lai nhung thdnh tuu vd ciing to<br /> ldn, nhung cDng ddng thdi lam tdng khoang each gifla cae nhdm ngudi<br /> trong mpt sd lmh vuc, trong.dd cd ITnh vuc binh ddng gidi. Nhidu ldc gia.<br /> vi du nhu Taylor (2004), da ban ludn vd su gia tdng va thd hifin ngdy cdng<br /> ro mpt .sd loai bd't binh ddng xa hpi d Viet Nam, vd Chinh phii Viet Nam<br /> eung nhdn thd'y nhung bd't binh ddng dd Id thach ihfle quan trpng. Theo bao<br /> cao kdt qua Didu tra Miie sd'ng hp gia dinh (Tdng cue Thd'ng ke, 2010), da<br /> cd nhung bdng chiing rd rfil vd su gia tdng khoang cdeh thu nhdp giua<br /> ngudi giau vd ngudi ngheo, giira khu vuc ndng thdn vd dd thi. vd giua midn<br /> niii va ddng bdng. Mdt sd' bdo cao khdc eung bay id quan ngai ve su suy<br /> giam ty le tie'p cdn ede djch vu chdm sdc y lfi', ty lfi tu vong cao cua cac ba<br /> me d mpt sd khu vue, hodc vd ty lfi suy dinh dudng cao d ca nam va nu<br /> gidi va tae ddng eua vd'n dd chi phf y td ciing nhu vific khdng dii bao hidm<br /> y tdcho ngudi ngheo (ADD. 2005; Lifin Hop Qude, 2011). Ngodi ra, mpt<br /> sd' vd'n dd khac eung gia tang trong thdi gian gdn ddy, ehdng han nhu hifin<br /> tuang sinh con thfl ba d mpt sd cdp vp chdng dd cd hai con gdi. vdi khdng<br /> ft trudng hap su dung ky thudt sieu dm xac dinh gidi linh thai nhi dd loai<br /> bd thai nhi gai. Vice ndy dang de dpa nhimg thanh iuu md ca dd't nudc da<br /> rd't nd lire dd dat dupe trong vdng vdi thdp ky qua trong linh vuc kidm sodt<br /> quy md va cdu true ddn sd'.<br /> <br /> 2.2. Lao dpng va viec lam<br /> Theo ddnh gia cua Ngan hang Thd gidi (2011)(UNDR 2006b), ty le<br /> tham gia vao luc lupng lao dpng cua nfl gidi hifin nay tai Viet Nam thudc<br /> vao hdng eao nhd't trong khu vuc Tuy nhifin, dieu dang ehu y a ddy Id su<br /> khae bifit rd ret vd mdt gidi tinh trong thj trudng lao dpng - dieu cd tac<br /> ddng manh me ddn dia vj kinh td - xa hdi cila phu nfl va nam gidi va dfi'n<br /> ty le gidi ti'nh trong luc lupng ngudi cd dii ndng luc tham gia lanh dao<br /> chinh tri. Su khac biet vd mat gidi tinh nay the hien kha ro d ty le nam/ nfl<br /> tham gia trong khu vuc lao dpng hudng luang va trong cdc loai nghe<br /> nghifip ma hp thudng lam. Tfnh ehung d Vifit Nam vao ndm 2009, cd<br /> 27,5% tdng sd phu nu cd vifie lam ldm vific trong khu vuc dupc tra luong,<br /> trong khi ty le nay d nam gidi la 38,9% (Ngdn hang The gidi et al., 2011)<br /> (Worid Bank, 2006). Phu nfl khdng hifin difin nhidu d cac linh vuc quan ly<br /> va khoa hpc, eung nhu trong khu vuc chinh thu'c vd trong cdc ca quan nha<br /> nude (ADB. 2002), nhung lai chifi'm sd ddng d cae loai cdng vifie ddi hdi<br /> ky ndng thdp vd luong khdng cao, nhd't Id trong khu vuc kinh td khdng<br /> chinh Ihflc (Kabeer, Tran Van Anh and Vu Manh Loi, 2005; Ngdn hang<br /> The gidi el al., 2011). Vdo nam 2009, chi ed 26,3% tdng sd phu nu ed hoal<br /> dpng kinh id la lam vifie trong khu vuc nha nudc (Pierre, 2011) (ADB,<br /> 2002). Ty le can bp lanh dao nu trong cac Bd va cd quan nha nudc da giam<br /> tfl 12% trong nhiem ky 2002-2007 xudng cdn 4,6% trong nhifim ky 2007-<br /> 2011 (VielNamNet/VTC, 2009). Mdt cupc khao sal do Bd Lao dpng -<br /> 32 Nghidn cUu Gta dinh vA Gidl. Quyd'n 22, so 3, tr. 27-41<br /> <br /> <br /> Tliuong binh vd Xa hpi lidn hdnh (MOLISA, 1998) eho thd'y rdng ty le lao<br /> ddng nfl tha'p nhd't Id d ede doanh nghifip nhd nude (39,7%). Irong khi ty<br /> le ndy d cac doanh nghifip tu nhdn Id 55,6% vd d cdc doanh nghifip cd vdn<br /> ddu tu nudc ngodi Id 48.8%. Ddy Id didu ddng chii S trong bd'i canh ehinh<br /> phii da ban hdnh ehfnh sdeh khuyfi'n khfch cdc doanh nghifip nhd nudc sir<br /> dung thfim nhidu lao ddng nfl hdn nfla (ILO, 1998).<br /> Mpt didu ddng chii ^ nfla Id vd vj tri lanh dao, quan {•$ ciia nam gidi vk<br /> phy nfl trong cac id chflc. Vi trf trong Dang cdng san ed ^ nghTa quan trpng<br /> ddi vdi vifie dat dupc cac vi tri lanh dao ndi chung ciia phu nu. nhung trong<br /> nhifim ky 2011-2015, chi cd mdt nfl uy vifin Bd Chinh trj, hai nfl uy vifin<br /> trong Ban Bi thu gdm 10 thdnh vifin. vd 14 nfl trong sd 175 iiy vifin trung<br /> ucmg Dang (Ngdn hdng Thd gidi, et a l . 2011). Hien lai, phu nfl chi ndm<br /> gifl mdt vj tri bd irudng. 10% thfl trucmg vd tuang duang, 4,7% Chti tich<br /> Hpi ddng nhdn ddn cd'p tinh, 1,6% Chii ljch Uy ban nhdn ddn c^p tinh (P<br /> Thanh, 2011). Ty lfi nudai bidu Qude hpi mac du Id kha cao, nhung cung<br /> dang ed ehidu hudng giam lifin tifi'p trong ba nhifim ky gdn ddy, tfl 27,3%<br /> nhifim ky 2002-2007 xud'ng 25,8% nhifim ky 2007-2011. vd 24,4% nhifim<br /> ky 2011- 2016 (www.na.gov.vn). Thdm ehf ea trong eae ITtih vue nghd<br /> nghifip ma phu nfl chifi'm da sd, nhu ngdnh dfil va may mde hay trong linh<br /> vue giang day bdc tidu hpc, nam gidi cung chifi'm hdu hdt cdc vi tri lanh<br /> dao quan ly trong tflng co quan, td chiie. Nhu chi ra trong bao cao cua<br /> Ngdn hang The gidi (2006), mac du phu nfl chifi'm 71% luc lupng giao vifin<br /> cae bdc hpe, nhung vi trf hifiu trudng cdc trudng lai thudng do nam gidi<br /> ndm gifl.<br /> <br /> Thfim vao dd, vific giam bien ehd trong khu vuc nha nudc trong qua<br /> fl-inh Ddi mdi thdi ky cud'i nhimg ndm 1980 vd ddu nhung ndm 1990 da<br /> khifi'n phu nfl bj md't vific nhidu hem nam gidi (Rama, 2001). Trong giai<br /> doan 1990-1992. cd khoang 550.000 phu nfl bj md't vific do qud U-inh linh<br /> gi^n bifin ehd^eiia cdc doanh nghiep nhd nudc, trong khi con sd nay d nam<br /> gidi Id khoang 300.000 ngudi (NCFAW. 2000). Dfl lieu thu dupe tfl cupc<br /> Didu tra Mflc sd'ng ddn eu ehu k^ 1992-1993 eho thd'y rdng chi ed r^t it<br /> phu nfl bj ddo thai tfl ede doanh nghifip nhd nudc cd thfi lim dupc vific lam<br /> cd tra luong khac. Da sd hp phai chuydn sang lam cdc edng viec khdng<br /> dupc tra luang (Rodgers, 1999). Trong giai doan gifla thdi ky 1992-1993<br /> va 1997-1998, tfnh trung binh luong cua phu nfltang 4%, tfl 19% Ifin 23%,<br /> nhung irung binh luong nam gidi tdng dupc 9%, tfl 32% Ifin 4 1 % (Desai,<br /> 2001). Khoang cdch gidi vd lidn luang cd xu hudng giam tfl ndm 1990 ddn<br /> khoang-gifla nhflng ndm 2000, nhung dang cd xu hudng chiing lai Irong<br /> nhflng ndm gdn ddy (Pierre. 2011).<br /> LeThi Thuc 33<br /> <br /> Vd su phdn tach gidi trong khu vue kinh td, cdc kdt qua tfl cupc Didu<br /> tra mflc sd'ng ddn eu chu k^ 2 (1997/1998) va Didu tra mflc .sdng hd gia<br /> dinh (Tdng cue Thd'ng kfi, 2010) cho thd'y rdng ddy la mdt khuynh hudng<br /> phd bifi'n trong loan qud'c. Phu nfl chifi'm da sd trong cdc linh vuc khdch<br /> san, nha hang, du Ijeh, y tfi', ngdn hdng, kd todn, gido due, bdn hdng, chd<br /> bifi'n thuc ph^m, dfit may. Trong khi dd, nam gidi chifi'm da sd trong cdc'<br /> linh vuc nhu khoa hpc ky thudt, cdng nghifip ndng, ndng luong, dien tfl,<br /> xdy dung, quan ly. didu hanh.v.v. (Bales, 2000; Desai, 2001; Ngdn hang<br /> Thd gidi et al. 2011). Mdt sd nghifin cihi vd gidi vd phdt tridn d Vifit Nam<br /> cung khdng djnh su khae biet ngay edng gia ldng gifla nam va nu trong<br /> tham gia cdc ITnh vue quan trpng eua dd't nude d cd'p qud'c gia (Bui Thi<br /> Lan, 1998; Tran Thi Van Anh and Le Ngoc Hung, 1997). Khuynh hudng<br /> nay khdng cd thay ddi Idn trong nhflng ndm tidp theo. Theo nhdn dinh ciia<br /> bdo eao Ddnh gid gidi lai Viet Nam eiia Ngdn hang Thd gidi (2011:48)<br /> (GSO el al., 2005), trong qud trinh chuydn ddi co ed'u kinh te', phu nu Viet<br /> Nam ra khdi khu vue ndng nghiep chdm hon nam gidi, vdi ty le giam tfl<br /> 51,5% vao nam 2007 xud'ng cdn 50% vao nam 2009, trong khi ly lfi nay<br /> d nam gidi la 47,2% va 45,2%, theo thfl tu tuang ung.<br /> Su khde bifit vd thdi gian lao dpng gifla nam vd nu eung phan anh mdt<br /> thiet thdi dang kd cua phu nfl Viet Nam. Nhu binh ludn trong bao eao ciia<br /> Ngan hang Thd^gldi va mpt sd eo quan khac (2006), phu nfl vd nam gidi<br /> Viet Nam ngay nay cd ddng gdp tuong duang nhau trong viec tao thu<br /> nhdp, nhimg lai khdng cd su chia se ngang nhau trong thuc hipn cae cdng<br /> vifie nha. Theo kfi't qua Didu tra mflc sd'ng hp gia dinh 2008, phu nfl tham<br /> gia lam cdng vific gia dinh nhidu hon nam gidi 0,7 gid mdi ngay (2,2 gid<br /> so vdi l,5gid)(NgdnhangThdgidielal., 2011:58). Theo mpl danh gia vd<br /> binh ddng gidi d Viet Nam ndm 2004, phu nfl thudng phai lam vific trung<br /> binh 13 tieng mdt ngdy, trong khi nam gidi chi lam 9 tifi'ng (Chfnh phii,<br /> 2005). Trong nhieu trudng hpp, d ea ndng thdn vd thdnh thj, phu nfl thudng<br /> phai gdnh gdip ddi trach nhifim bdi vi hp khdng chi phai kifi'm sd'ng, ma cdn<br /> phai thuc hien ddy dii cac bdn phdn truydn thd'ng trong vai trd ngudi me<br /> va ngudi vp (Dallon et al., 2002). Theo thd'ng ke, trong hon mdt nfla eae<br /> gia dinh Vifit Nam, phu nii dupe mong dpi la ngudi duy nhd't chju trach<br /> nhiem cham sdc ire em, chdm sdc ngudi gid, ngudi tan lat, hodc ngudi dm<br /> (VASS, 2006). Bao eao cua Ngdn hang Thd gidi va mpt sd co quan khac<br /> (2006) eho thd'y phu nfl va nam gidi Viet Nam ngdy nay cd ddng gdp<br /> tuong duong nhau trong viec lao thu nhdp, nhung lai khdng cd su chia se<br /> ngang nhau trong thuc hifin cac cdng vific nhd. Phu nfl ludn phai chju ganh<br /> ndng edng vific ldn hem nam gidi lai bd'i k>' thdi didm nao trong cupc ddi<br /> 34 Nghien cflu Gia dinh vA Gidl. Quydn 22, so 3, tr. 27-41<br /> <br /> <br /> ciia hp (Desai. 2001). Didu ndy dfln dfi'n hfi qua Id phu nfl ed rit it thdi gian<br /> ddnh cho ede hoat dpng xa hpi vd tifi'p tuc hpc Ifin eao, do dd hp rd't hifi'm<br /> khi cd ca hdi tham gi:i vdo qud trinh ra quyfi't djnh tai edng ddng.<br /> I Ion nira. trong hdu hfi't cdc ITnh vue cua xa hdi Vifit Nam, su phdn bifit<br /> dd'i xir gidi vSn cdn tdn tai. Bdo cdo eiia Ngdn hdng Thd gidi vd mpt sdeo<br /> quan khde (2006) md ta mdt thue td Id cac bdo chf thudng ddng tai cdc tin<br /> quang cdo viee Idm vdi su phdn biet dd'i xir nam nir ro rfit, bao gdm nhflng<br /> edng vific khdc nhau diinh cho cdc flng vifin nam vd nfl (thudng Id khdng<br /> nhan nfl). hodc tham chi chi vdi cflng mdt vj trf cdng viec, phu nfl bj yfiu<br /> cdu phai ddp ting nhiing yeu cdu ngat nghdo hon so vdi nam gidi vd chdt<br /> luong bang ed'p (World Bank et al., 2006). Theo phdn tich eua Kabeer vd<br /> epng su (2005). eae mdu tin quang cdo vific Idm ddng trfin bdo Lao ddng<br /> trong thdi gian 3 thang ciia ndm 2000 chfla tdi 26,7% cdc vj trf ehi ddnh<br /> cho nam gidi. Phdn Idn ede edng vifie ndy thupc ITnh vuc eo khf, edng nghe<br /> thdng tin vd ky thudt, tu dpng hda, vd cdng nghifip xu 1^ xang ddu. Cd<br /> khoang 13% cdc vj tri cdng vific chi danh eho nfl gidi, bao gdm vifie giang<br /> day, djch thudt, kd toan. tifi'p thj. va lao ddng phd thdng. Nhung quang eao<br /> mang djnh kifi'n gidi nhu vdy se Idm nan Idng ea nam gidi va phu nfl trong<br /> vifie tim kie'm ca hdi nghd nghiep khac vdi djnh kidn gidi phd bidn. Hodc<br /> cd m^u quang cdo tuyfin bd thdng rdng ca nam va nfl ddu cd thd npp don<br /> xin vifie, nhung flng vifin nfl phai cd bang "Kha" hodc "Gidi", trong khi<br /> nam gidi thi cd thd dupc chdp nhdn chi vdi bdng 'Trung binh". Theo each<br /> nhu vdy, thai dp phdn bifit gidi ciia cdc nha tuyfi'n dung da khep iai rdt<br /> nhidu CO hpi eua phu nfl trong vific tim kifi'm mdi cdng vific dupe tra luong.<br /> <br /> Cae chinh sdch bao hp phu nfl trong edng vific cflng khidn hp gdp nhidu<br /> khd khan han trong tifi'p cdn cae co hdi viec lam mpt each binh ddng, mdc<br /> dii ehiing dupe tao ra dd bao vfi phu nfl. Tfl khi dd't nude chuydn sang thdi<br /> ky kinh tdthj trudng, cdc chinh saeh ddnh eho phu nfl nhu nghi sinh eon,<br /> nghi chdm con d'm, v.v da trd thdnh gdnh ndng dd'i vdi cae doanh nghifip<br /> ngoai nhd nudc. Do vdy, ede doanh nghifip nay thudng nd U-anh viec thdu<br /> nap phu nu vao luc lupng lao dpng eiia minh.<br /> Ndi ngdn gon. ndu so sdnh vdi ihflc id la khdng cd mpl ngudi phu nfl<br /> ndo Idm vific trong bd may chinh quydn thdi ky trudc nam 1945 (United<br /> Nations Vietnam, 2002), thi sir tham gia lam viec trong khu vuc cdng ciia<br /> phu nfl trong nfla thd ky tidp theo da thd hifin mpt su lidn bd vuol bde. Tuy<br /> nhifin, su phdn tach gidi trong lue lupng lao ddng hifin nay vdi nhung dinh<br /> kifi'n gidi manh me da lam md't di nhidu tidn bd ehinh Irj eiia phu nfl. Didu<br /> ndy dupc ddt trong bd'i eanh thue id Id hdu hdt cae nha lanh dao chi'nh trj<br /> LeThi Thuc 35<br /> <br /> cua Viet Nam da bdt ddu su nghifip lanh dao cua minh tfl edng vific trong<br /> bp may ehinh quyen, va su hifin difin ban chd ciia phu nfl trong luc lupng<br /> lao ddng khu vuc cdng rd rang la mpl bd't lpi Idn dd'i vdi hp. Mpt tac dpng<br /> tifiu cue nfla dd'i vdi su tidn bd cua phu nfl trong lanh dao chinh trj cung<br /> bdt ngudn tfl vific cd qua ft phu nfl trong cdc loai ngdnh nghd ma tfl dd hdu<br /> he't cac nhd lanh dao chinh tri cua dd't nudc da xud't hien va trudng thanh,<br /> chang han nhu eae nganh khoa hpc va edng nghfi, edng nghifip nang. ndng<br /> lupng. hdnh ehinh, quan ly, vd luc lupng vu trang.<br /> <br /> 2.3. Giao due va dao tao<br /> Trong qua khfl, vific ed dupc bdng cdp Id each duy nhd't dd dupc cdng<br /> nhdn vd dupe ihdng tifi'n trong bp mdy chfnh quydn phong kidn d Viet<br /> Nam. Tuy nhifin, ehi ed nam gidi la ed thd nghT dfi'n tham vpng ndy, do quy<br /> dinh cam phu nfl tham gia he thd'ng gido due ehfnh thflc ciia chd dp phong<br /> kien. Nhu dd cap trong bdo cao ciia Lien hop qud'e lai Viet Nam (2002),<br /> irudng dai hpc ddu lien cua Vifit Nam, Qud'c Tfl Giam, duac thdnh ldp vao<br /> ndm 1070 dudi thdi nha Ly, danh dd dao tao cae hoang tfl, con trai cua cac<br /> gia dinh quan lai. vd nhiing hpc sinh nam xud't sdc trong ddn chung. Vific<br /> tham gia cdc trudng va ldp hpc lai cae dia phucmg eiing ehi ban chd trong<br /> ddi tuong nam gidi. Trong sud't thdi ky phong kie'n d Vifit Nam. ehi cd<br /> nhflng Idp bpc ddc biet ddnh cho hpc sinh nfl la cdc Idp dupc td chflc rieng<br /> cho ede edng chiia, con gai cac quan lai, va con gai ciia cae gia dinh rd't<br /> giau cd (United Nations Viemam, 2002).<br /> <br /> O cac tang ldp xa hpi thd'p ban, con gai cua cdc gia dinh giau cd cung<br /> dupe hpe mpt sd ldp nao dd, nhung hp vdn khdng thd vupt ra khdi ranh<br /> gidi dja vj thd'p kem ciia minh bdi sir thd'ng tri cua tu tudng Nho gido ve<br /> phu ntt: "Phu nhdn nan hod". Tae gia Andaya (2006) dua ra nhdn xet rdng<br /> quan didm nhu vdy tdn lai mpt each dai ding trong td't ca eae xa hpi vung<br /> Ddng Nam A. He qua la, phu nfl khdng hd cd mat trong bp mdy chinh<br /> quydn phong kie'n.<br /> He thd'ng giao due Phap thay the he thdng giao due phong kidn, cho du<br /> vd nguyen tdc la ed nhdn hpe sinh nfl, nhung vdn khdng thd thay ddi dang<br /> kd tnnh dp hpe va'n ciia phu nfl trong thue tfi'. Den tdn ddu thdky XX, quan<br /> nifim phd bidn vd gido due dd'i vdi phu nfl vdn la giu hp trong vdng bua<br /> vdy cua su mu ehfl va khdng hidu bifi't, nhdm tranh cho hp khdi bj 'hu<br /> hdng' (Marr, 1981). Cho den tdn ndm 1918, trong xa hdi Viet Nam ehi cd<br /> rd't it phu nfl cd the dpc ltru lodt chu qudc ngfl. chfl Hdn, hodc chfl Phap<br /> (Marr, 1981; McHale, 1995). Vao ndm 1938-1939, ndm ma chd dp thue<br /> ddn ddu tu nhidu nhd't eho giao due, chi cd 17% nfl trong tdng sd 567.000<br /> 36 Nghidn cOru Gia dinh vA G)di. Quy^n 22, sd' 3. tr. 27-41<br /> <br /> <br /> hpe sinh hoc trong cac trudng. Dfi'n nam 1945, ehi ed vdi sinh vifin nil<br /> trong 1.000 sinh vifin dai hpc eiia ca nude (Eisen. 1984; United Nations<br /> Vietnam, 2002).<br /> Tfl khi dd't nude gidnh dude ddc lap vdo nam 1945, chinh phu nude Vifit<br /> Nam Ddn chu Cdng hda da cd nhflng n6 lire rd't ldn trong eai thifin trinh<br /> dd hpc vdn cho nhdn ddn, ddc bifit Id cho phu nfl. Trong nhiing ndm dSu<br /> sau Cdch mang Thdng Tam mfl chfl dupc coi Id mdt trong ba thfl gide nguy<br /> hidm nhd't lue dd cua dd't nudc (hai thfl gide edn lai Id gide ddl vd giac<br /> ngoai xdm). Phu nu dupe khuydn khich tham gia cdc Idp hpc xda mu chu<br /> vd tham gia cdc ldp cd trinh d6 cao hon (Tran Thi Van Anh. 2000). Kdt<br /> qua Id. sir tidp cdn cua phu nfl tdi cac hoat ddng gido due vd ddo tao da<br /> tdng Ifin mdt each ddng kd, ndu so sdnh vdi ede Ihdi k>' trude. Ddn ndm<br /> 1981, phu nfl da chidm ty le 50% trong todn bp hpe sinh thude cdc bde ddo<br /> tao ca ban vd 5 1 % hpc sinh sinh vifin ede trudng day nghd. Tai eae trudng<br /> ky thudt chuyfin nghifip vd cdc trudng dai hpe, sinh vifin nfl chidm khoang<br /> 38- 40%, ifly tflng chuyen nganh (Eisen, 1984).<br /> <br /> Ngay nay, Vifit Nam dang tidp tuc thd hien td't trong vifie thue hifin muc<br /> tifiu eiia ehinh phu vd xda bd khoang each gidi trong gido due phd thdng.<br /> Da cd nhflng thanh tuu to ldn trong vific mang dfi'n co hdi hpc hanh eho ea<br /> nam va nfl. Nfiu so sanh vdi cdc nudc dang phat tridn khdc, Viet Nam da<br /> dat dupe trinh dp hpc vd'n rat eao eho ca hai gidi nain vd nfl. Trong sd cac<br /> nudc Ddng Nam A, ty lfi nfl so vdi nam trong sd sinh vifin dai hpc 6 Vifit<br /> Nam la khd gdn vdi ty lfi ndy d cdc nudc nhu Thai Lan. Indonesia,<br /> Malaysia, va Philippines, ldn ban ty lfi ndy cua Han Qud'c va eae nudc<br /> Nam A (UNDP, 2003). Gdn ddy d Viet Nam, ty lfi bifi't chfl d ngudi ldn ehi<br /> edn su khac bifit khdng ddng kd giua nam vd nfl, 96% so vdi 91% (GSO,<br /> 2004). Sd lifiu vd tinh hinh nhdp hpc cho tha'y khdng cd nhidu khdc bifit<br /> gifla nam vd nfl. Chdng ban, vao ndm 2006 cd khoang 9 1 % cdc em gai vd<br /> 92% cac em trai nhdp hpc d bdc tidu hpe va trung hpe ea sd (UNDP, 2006).<br /> Ty lfi nhap hpe bdc trung hpe phd thdng cua ede em gai Id tuong duong<br /> vdi ty le dd eua eae em trai vdo ndm 2003- 2004. khoang 45% so vdi 46%<br /> (GSO et al.. 2005). Vifit Nam eung da vuol qua miic tifiu 30% sd bdng sau<br /> dai hpe thupe vd nfl (MPI and NCFAW, 2006).<br /> <br /> Mdc dfl da dat dupc nhung thdnh tuu nhu vdy. nhimg vdn cd nhflng bd't<br /> binh ddng gidi dang kd trong gido due, nhd't la d nhflng bde hpc cao. Vdo<br /> ndm 1999, tinh chung cho td't ca cac nhdm ddn cu, ty lfi nfl chidm 70%<br /> trong todn bp eae trudng hop bd hpe (NCFAW, 2000: 29). Hifin tupng nay<br /> la nghifim trpng hem d khu vue ndng thdn, d nhdm ngudi nghdo, d cac<br /> LeThi Thuc 37<br /> <br /> nhdm ddn tpc thidu sd', vd d cdc bde hpc cao hon trong trudng (GSO et al.,<br /> 2005; United Nations Vietnam. 2002). Hifin nay, trong nhdm tudi 15-17,<br /> chi ed 53% nu dupe di hpe trong khi ty lfi ndy d nam gidi Id 68% (Ngdn<br /> hang Thdgidiet ah, 2011).<br /> Cdc ehinh saeh eai cdch da ldm gia tdng khoang cdch gidi trong gido<br /> due. bdi nhiing ehinh sdeh nay da Idm tdng ehi phi eho ede gia dinh. vdi<br /> vific dp dung nguyen tdc ddng hpe phi. Cdc em gai thudng bj md't co hdi<br /> tidp tuc hpe ndu cha me khdng du tidn dd ndp hpc phf cho td't ea eon cdi<br /> eua minh, bdi trie't ly phu quydn, uu tifin con trai dang tdn tai phd bidn<br /> U-ong xa hpi. Them vdo dd, ehi phi co hdi cua vific cdt bdt lao ddng tre em<br /> trong hoat dpng kinh tdgia dinh eung khie'n cdc gia dinh ngheo cat giam<br /> ddu tu cho giao due, nhd't la ddu tu eho cac em gai (ADB, 2002).<br /> He qua cua tinh trang dd Id cdng Ifin bdc hpc cao, ly le nfl cang giam.<br /> Theo thd'ng ke cua Bd Lao ddng - Thucmg binh vd Xa hpi (2010), vdo ndm<br /> 2007, chi ed 30,5% bdng thac sy vd 17,1% bang tifi'n sy dupc trao cho phu<br /> nfl. Tinh chung, phu nfl chidm 61% nhirng ngudi cd trinh dp cao ddng,<br /> 34% nhflng ngudi cd trinh dd dai hpe, 30% nhung ngudi cd trinh dd thac<br /> sy, 21% nhflng ngudi ed trinh dp tifi'n sy va 4% nhung ngucri cd trinh dp<br /> tifi'n sy khoa hpc cua ca nude.<br /> Nhu vdy, vific tm tifin khdc nhau dd'i vdi cdc em trai va cae em gai trong<br /> gido due va dao tao phan anh nhimg mong dpi xa hdi khac nhau dd'i vdi<br /> nam va nu gidi, va do dd, nd ed vai trd dinh dang sir phdn tach gidi trong<br /> cac loai nghd nghiep sau nay. (^c nha nghifin ciiu va cdc td chflc khdc nhau,<br /> chdng han nhu Desai (2001), Ngdn hang Phat tridn Chdu A (ADB, 2002),<br /> va Uy ban qud'c gia Vi su tifi'n bd ciia phu nfl (NCTAW, 2000) da bay td lo<br /> ngai vd vific eae khuynh hudng uu tifin khac nhau ndy cd thd khifi'n dinh<br /> kidn gidi trd nen sdu sde hon. Hon nua, khuynh hudng ndy cd ve trd nen<br /> trdm trpng ban kd tfl khi Ddi mdi (ADB. 2002; MOET 2000). Dfl lieu tfl<br /> eupc Dieu tra mflc sd'ng ddn eu Vifit Nam chu k^- 2 (VLSS 98) dupc tridn<br /> khai ndm 1997-1998 (Desaim, 2001), eho thdy rdng eae em gai thudng tdp<br /> trung trong cac nganh nhu su pham, khoa hpc xa hpi, va ngdn ngfl, trong<br /> khi eae em trai thudng tdp trung trong cac ngdnh khoa hpc ky thudt vd khoa<br /> hpc ung dung. Xu hudng phdn bd ngdnh nghe nhu vdy vin tidp didn trong<br /> thdi gian gdn day (Bd Lao ddng - Thuong binh va Xa hdi. 2010).<br /> <br /> Rd rang la su phdn tdch gidi trong giao due da ddy phu nfl ra khoi cac<br /> vj tri cdn bdng cdp cao hdn, eung nhu tao tidm ndng diy hp ra khdi viec<br /> tham gia ddy dii vdo cac ITnh vue va nganh nghe ma tfl dd cac nhd lanh<br /> dao thudng xud't hien. Nhflng thanh tuu ma dd't nudc dat dupe Irong vifie<br /> 38 Nghl&n cflu Gia dinh vk Gidi. Quy^n 22, so 3, tr. 27-41<br /> <br /> mung lai eho ddng dao ddn ehiing ndn tang gido due ca ban, bidt dpc vd<br /> bifi't vifii. Id cdn each xa ,s() vdi mue tifiu trao quydn chfnh trj cho phu nu.<br /> Phu nfl cdn ft tifip can dfldc tdi gido due d nhflng bdc hpc cao, vd viee ft<br /> hiCn dien eiia hp trong mdt sd' ITnh vue ddo tao nha't djnh da tao nen nhflng<br /> rdo c;in dang kd vd mdt ed'u true dd'i vdi su tham gia lanh dao chinh trj cua<br /> phu nfl Viet Nam.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Vd mdt l^ thuyfi't, cd thd ndi rdng nhdm cdc ydu td nfin tang mang tinh<br /> cdu true cua vd'n dd binh ding gidi d Viet Nam da gdp phdn giai thich<br /> tuong dd'i td't vd cdc nguyfin nhdn d3n dfi'n tinh trang bd't binh dang gidi ndi<br /> chung, bd't binh ddng gidi trong lanh dao chinh tri ndi rifing. Vific phdn<br /> tfch cdc yfi'u td ndy ed thd giflp hinh dung dupc cac ludng yfi'u td lae ddng<br /> tdi ngudn ung vifin nfl cd kha ndng dam nhdn cdc vj tri lanh dao chinh trj<br /> trong bd may lanh dao cua dd't nudc. Tuy nhifin, didu edn Iuu y la nfi'u chi<br /> dua vdo nhdm yeu id mang linh ed'u true nay thi se ehua the dua ra dupc<br /> eai nhin todn dipn vd nguyen nhdn eiia tinh trang bdt binh ddng gidi trong<br /> ddi sd'ng chi'nh tri. Ngudi nghifin eun cdn cd cai nhin bao quat hon vd ca<br /> ba nhdm yfi'u id (cdu true, thd chdvd vdn hda) Irong khung ly thuydt tidp<br /> cdn, vd ke't hop ba nhdm ydu td dd mdt each hop 1^ dd cd Ihd giai thfch<br /> thda dang vin di nay trong bd'i canh xa hdi Vifit Nam hifin dai.<br /> Vd mdt thuc tifin, phdn tieh eho thd'y cdc vin di cua su phat tridn kinh<br /> td xa hpi, trong lao ddng va viee Idm, va trong giao due vd ddo tao cua ddt<br /> nude ddu bao chfla nhung yfi'u td rdo can, bfin canh thudn loi dd'i vdi su tidn<br /> bp cua phu nfl trong lanh dao chinhfl-j.Mue tifiu cd trfin 30% phu nfl uong<br /> sd dai bidu cua Qud'c hdi vdn dang Id rfi't thaeh thflc dd'i vdi ca he thdng<br /> chinh tri. Di thue hien dupe mue tieu ndy, edn nhanh chdng thuc ddy viee<br /> giai quyfi't va thao gd ddng bd cac rdo can, cflng vdi vific phat huy nhung<br /> thudn loi sdn ed nhdm thiie ddy tfnh tfch cue vd gidi trong hdnh vi ung xii<br /> ciia edng ddn. Cdc vd'n dd vd ed'u true cdn dupe luu tdm giai quyfi't ddng<br /> thdi vdi su quan tdm dfi'n nhung vd'n dd thupe vd thd chfi', ehinh sach, va<br /> quan trpng hon nua la vd van hda - yfi'u td ddng vai trd quan trpng trong<br /> didu khidn hdnh vi bdu cfl va ung cu eua cae cdng ddn Vifit Nam.H<br /> <br /> <br /> Tai lieu tham khao<br /> ADB. 2002. "Women in Vietnam" Manila. Philippines: Asian Development Bank.<br /> ADB. 2005. "Vietnam: Gender Situation Analysis" Asian Development Bank.<br /> Andaya, B,W. 2006, The Flaming Womb: Repositioning Women in Early Modern<br /> LeThi Thuc 39<br /> <br /> Southeast Asia. Honolulu University of Hawaii Press,<br /> Baaker. 1.1994. Strategic Silence: Gender and Economic Policy. 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