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Broadband telecommunications infrastructure in Thailand: analysis and recommendations

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Broadband telecommunications infrastructure in Thailand: analysis and recommendations

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The objective of this paper is to analyze the status of broadband telecommunications infrastructure in Thailand. Recommendations to develop broadband services in Thailand are also provided in this paper.

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Nội dung Text: Broadband telecommunications infrastructure in Thailand: analysis and recommendations

  1. International Journal of Management (IJM) Volume 7, Issue 4, May–June 2016, pp.142–151, Article ID: IJM_07_04_011 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijm/issues.asp?JType=IJM&VType=7&IType=4 Journal Impact Factor (2016): 8.1920 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com ISSN Print: 0976-6502 and ISSN Online: 0976-6510 © IAEME Publication BROADBAND TELECOMMUNICATIONS INFRASTRUCTURE IN THAILAND: ANALYSIS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Ninlawan Petchraburanin, Settapong Malisuwan, Dithdanai Milindavanij and Wassana Kaewphanuekrungsi. National Broadcasting and Telecommunications Commission (NBTC), Thailand ABSTRACT Nowadays, the development in broadband technology has been accelerated, affecting the investment in expanding last mile connection infrastructures to be cheaper and can be installed as conveniently, quickly, and efficiently as wired line broadband technology, especially the utilization of efficient mobile networks in providing broadband services which enable broadband development to be accessible and cover the whole area of the country within a very short period of time. Therefore, wireless broadband development is another significant method for developing broadband in Thailand. The objective of this paper is to analyze the status of broadband telecommunications infrastructure in Thailand. Recommendations to develop broadband services in Thailand are also provided in this paper. Key word: Broadband, Telecommunications, Infrastructure, Analysis, Recommendations, Thailand Cite this Article: Ninlawan Petchraburanin, Settapong Malisuwan, Dithdanai Milindavanij and Wassana Kaewphanuekrungsi, Broadband Telecommunications Infrastructure in Thailand: Analysis and Recommendations. International Journal of Management, 7(4), 2016, pp.142–151. http://www.iaeme.com/ijm/issues.asp?JType=IJM&VType=7&IType=4 1. INTRODUCTION In Thailand, the government or state agencies are the investors in fiber optic cable network development. From the current information, it is found that TOT Public Company Limited and CAT Telecom Public Company Limited have potential for this kind of execution and have constructed fiber optic cable networks which have already covered several areas countrywide. http://www.iaeme.com/IJM/index.asp 142 editor@iaeme.com
  2. Broadband Telecommunications Infrastructure in Thailand: Analysis and Recommendations The development of broadband networks by revising the construction of fiber optic cable networks may be integrated with the execution of CAT Telecom Public Company Limited, which has lately invested in the following three stages. 1. Backbone is the construction of networks at the provincial level. 2. Backhual is the construction of networks to connect large provinces to sub- provinces. 3. Access is the construction of networks at the sub-district or household level. This requires additional investment and fiber optic cable running to every district by stringing the cable from the access point in a district to sub-districts, with the distance of abound 20 km. Here, the access point should be installed in the sub-districts to enable the users, which are state agencies, to use the Internet at the speed of 100Mbps. Such distance for cable stringing is not considered too far. However, in case of schools or health stations located far away, the LTE technology may be used for the distance of 4-5 km or 10 km and the router which supports 4G must be installed in such schools or health stations [1], where the signal receiver is WiFi, to provide students and villagers with a higher chance of Internet access. In this particular case, CAT Telecom Public Company Limited may focus on the public sector. However, if considering the investment to provide every household with internet penetration, the readiness of users such as the local population and types of services such as access to the price of rubber or rice must be taken into account as well. In order to provide services on 4G, the process must be carried out on the main network by increasing the capacity of devices, because the fiber optic cables have already been existed. This includes increasing the capacity of source and target devices to 10Gbps or 40Gbps, or even above 100Gbps. The major trend in wireless broadband development in Thailand is to devise the method to allocate the limited spectral resource adequately for supporting future demands of broadband utilization as well as developing broadband to cover boondock areas. The current status of mobile telecommunications markets in Thailand after mobile operators started proving 3G and 4G services under the 2.1GHz license revels that in 2014, the number of 108 million mobile phone subscribers to every spectrum can be divided into 78.2 million subscribers in the 2.1GHz spectrum and another 29.8 million subscribers in other spectrum which tends to continuously decrease [2]. Such increasing number of subscribers to new networks in the 2.1GHz spectrum points out the need for mobile broadband consumption in Thailand which grows rapidly. Regarding the strategy for broadband development in Thailand, other than forecasting the need for future consumption of the new broadband technology in parallel with developing broadband to cover rural areas, it is important that all surrounding factors which are in line with international trends must be considered along with the trends in administrating and managing the currently existing spectral resources to yield the utmost benefit. 2. SPECTRUM FOR WIRELESS BROADBAND DEVELOPMENT Internationally, Thailand has imposed the Spectrum Management Master Plan that is in line with international trends. Thailand’s Spectrum Management Master Plan requires that the spectrum to be used in radio broadcasting, radio-television, radio- communication, telecommunications, and other purposes must be allocated under the http://www.iaeme.com/IJM/index.asp 143 editor@iaeme.com
  3. Ninlawan Petchraburanin, Settapong Malisuwan, Dithdanai Milindavanij and Wassana Kaewphanuekrungsi regulations imposed by the National Broadcasting and Telecommunications Commission (NBTC) [3]. These regulations are listed in the National Table of Frequency Allocation which is in line with the table of frequency allocation in the 3rd region according to criteria of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) which were formulated in the radio regulations during the World Radio Communication Conferences (WRC), where the radio regulations must be revised every 4 years and member countries have to create their own spectrum master plans and frequency plans to be in line with international trends. At the level of region or ASEAN Community building, other than creating the community to be strong and stable in terms of politics, economy, and society, there should be preparation for challenges and all kinds of threats. In the aspect of cooperation in relation to telecommunications administration and management, the ASEAN ICT Master Plan has been formulated to promote cooperation within the ASEAN region and bring about conformity in terms of spectrum management criteria among member countries. The latest declaration which has been approved is the Singapore Declaration obtained during the conference in Singapore, November 11-15, 2013. This particular declaration is the principle for proposing guidelines for cooperation at the ASEAN level so as to impose criteria, regulations, and rules for administrating and managing telecommunications businesses [4]. The essence of this declaration is to promote the utilization of the 700MHz spectrum among countries in the region to be in the same fashion. Most countries in the region office assign the UHF spectrum to be shared in mobile services and radio and television broadcasting. In the World Radio Communication Conference (WCR-07), the spectrum in the range of 698-862MHz is assigned to be used for mobile services under the name of International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT) in several countries [5]. After the agreement on such important decision was made, the Asia-Pacific Telecommunity (APT) has further studied to promote the 700MHz spectrum to be accepted as the digital dividend spectrum within the Asia-Pacific region. Such attempt was successful and gave rise to the principle framework for 694/ 698-806MHz spectrum or APT 700 in 2011. Here, 3GPP adopted such framework to impose Band 28 (FDD) and Band 44 (TDD) in June 2012. The Band 28 (FDD) has attracted interest from a lot of regulatory agencies and network providers throughout Asia, Australia, New Zealand, and America [6]. Though countries in the 3rd region select various kinds of technology for terrestrial television services, i.e. DVB-T, ATSC, ISDB-T or DMB-T, ATP member countries still realize that the assigning of digital dividend spectrum harmoniously according to ATP700 will lead to economy of scale which will drive the price of client devices to be lower and make the devices become numerous in the market. Besides, the characteristic of 700MHz spectrum which can cover a wide area and completely penetrate through barriers also make it suitable for service provision in buildings and in remote areas. APT700 has gained widespread acceptance from several countries in the region, with Japan, Australia, and New Zealand as the major leaders in utilizing ATP700 in the actual network, including several Latin American countries. This is obviously the sign of ATP700 success because the countries in this region generally make decision after the regional superpower like the United States. In this case, even Mexico which has the population of over 116 million also have supported APT700 and finally http://www.iaeme.com/IJM/index.asp 144 editor@iaeme.com
  4. Broadband Telecommunications Infrastructure in Thailand: Analysis and Recommendations becomes the country with the highest number of population after India and Japan which support this particular spectrum [7],[8]. The fact about utilization of the 700MHz spectrum is the result of transformation from analog technology for transferring and receiving television signals to digital technology in broadcasting services. As a consequence, the ITU determined that the spectrum being returned from abolition of analog television services will be used as the spectrum for International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT) or providing mobile wireless broadband services [9], for example, the use of the 700MHz spectrum in providing services through implementation of Long Term Evolution (LTE) in the United States. If the 700MHz spectrum needs to be reallocated in Thailand, the television system must be completely transformed from analog to digital as soon as possible according to the of the National Broadcasting and Telecommunications Commission. Therefore, an important strategy for developing wireless broadband in Thailand is the refarming of 700MHz spectrum so as to provide international mobile telecommunications (IMT) or mobile wireless broadband services. Apart from the 700MHz spectrum, other spectrum bands that are considered the guidelines for practical execution to develop wireless broadband to be concrete internationally, which the ITU assigned to be the spectrum for telecommunications that can be used in providing wireless broadband services are the 2300MHz and 2500MHz spectrum bands, especially the provision of mobile phone services through implementation of LTE. Nowadays, Thailand’s 2300MHz and 2500MHz spectrum bands are held by three state enterprises: TOT Public Company Limited, CAT Telecom Public Company Limited, and MCOT Public Company Limited, including security agencies. Therefore, if these particular spectrum bands are allocated, the negotiation with both the state enterprises and security agencies must be conducted to impose regulations and criteria for retrieving such spectrum for further development for providing wireless broadband services in the future [10]. 3. SPECTRUM FOR WIRELESS BROADBAND DEVELOPMENT IN THAILAND The spectrum allocated for mobile phone services and currently used for providing wireless broadband services comprises the 2 main parts as follows: 3.1 The Spectrum Serviced by State Enterprises For several times, TOT Public Company Limited and CAT Telecom Public Company Limited are the telecommunications service providers to which the spectrum have been allocated by the National Frequency Management Commission to be used in mobile phone services. The two state enterprises have granted concession for private companies to make investment in developing mobile phone networks. The spectrum bands belonging to this particular group include 470MHz, 800MHz, 900MHz, and 1800MHz [3]. The Spectrum That License Holders Allow to Be Used in Telecommunications This is the spectrum which license holders allow to be used in telecommunications during the period that concession has not yet existed. This period marks the beginning of the licensing system in the free competitive telecommunications market or for providing mobile phone services, which may be in the form of spectrum allocated by the NBTC http://www.iaeme.com/IJM/index.asp 145 editor@iaeme.com
  5. Ninlawan Petchraburanin, Settapong Malisuwan, Dithdanai Milindavanij and Wassana Kaewphanuekrungsi Apart from the spectrum bands shown in the table, which are allocated to mobile phone services in Thailand, there are also the spectrum bands which the ITU and various nations agree to assign for telecommunications, which can be further allocated for improving wireless broadband services, e.g. the 700MHz, 2300MHz, and 2600MHz spectrum bands. As for the 700MHz spectrum, it is the result of the transition from analog signal transmission technology to digital signal transmission technology in radio and television broadcasting as previously mentioned, whereas the 2300MHz and 2600MHz spectrum bands have been assigned for telecommunications purposes. They are used as the main spectrum for providing wireless broadband services, especially the provision of mobile phone services through LTE technology. Nowadays, in Thailand, the 2300MHz and 2600MHz spectrum bands have already been held by several organizations as previously mentioned. Therefore, no matter the 2300MHz and 2600MHz spectrum bands will be retrieved for re-farming or not, the result will be the utmost benefit to the future strategies for wireless broadband development in Thailand. The estimation of bandwidth for future consumption demands which is concerned internationally as a result of the study on “National Wireless Broadband Master Plans for the Asia-Pacific Region” of the ITU in 2012. It was estimated that the spectrum needed for telecommunications in the Asia-Pacific region by 2020 should have the bandwidth of at least 760MHz or 840MHz which is most suitable [11]. As for Thailand, the information concluded at the end of 2014 shows that there was only 379MHz spectrum amount used in telecommunications, which are the 470MHz, 800/900MHz, 1800MHz, and 2100MHz spectrum bands. Therefore, spectrum recruitment, integration, and re-farming in the nearly twice amount within the duration of less than one year, according to the aforementioned suggestion of the ITU, seem to be difficult because they significantly depend on negotiations with incumbent spectrum holders to retrieve the spectrum for the utmost benefit for the country and population, and are also regulated by legislative restrictions. However, in practical, the numbers estimated by the ITU may not regularly be in line with the real situation in Thailand, because several factors vary by each country. Nevertheless, such study report should be used as reference for planning and imposing policies for spectrum allocation of Thailand in the future [12],[13],[14],[15]. The problem of spectrum holding, in the band that supports new communication technologies for proving wireless broadband services but has never been used at the maximum capacity, is the policy that spectrum regulators worldwide have placed importance on. Every state must seek guidelines for imposing policies on spectrum retrieving for re-faming so that it can support wireless broadband development, including in Thailand. 3.2 Formulation of Spectrum Hoarding Preventive Strategies From the aforementioned reasons, the NBTC should formulate spectrum hoarding preventive strategies by determining the bandwidth of every spectrum held by each operator that is proportional to the number of customers. This facilitates the state in allocating spectral resources more efficiently, providing more chances for other operators to enter into the market easily, and bringing about higher competition. These are considered the approaches to spectral resources management that truly yield the utmost benefit. http://www.iaeme.com/IJM/index.asp 146 editor@iaeme.com
  6. Broadband Telecommunications Infrastructure in Thailand: Analysis and Recommendations The implementation of spectrum hoarding preventive method called Anti- Spectrum Hoarding should be treated as an urgent policy. Though the spectrum holders are state enterprises, such policy is implemented to yield the utmost benefit for the country, instead of keeping the spectrum dormant without producing any benefits for the country and population [16]. Negotiating or asking the holder to return the spectrum voluntarily may be the one of the efficient methods nowadays. In this case, the NBTC may arrange payments for the holder who return spectrum voluntarily by imposing the fee rate to compensate various state agencies for the opportunity lost from re-farming the spectrum to others, instead of forcing them to return the spectrum to be auctioned and reallocated in the free competitive system. 4. WIRELESS BROADBAND DEVELOPMENT WITH FUTURE TECHNOLOGIES Nowadays, the technology which supports future utilization is designed to be applicable in more bandwidth so that it can yield the utmost benefit and be support the network which requires high capacity. This is because the utilization behavior of most consumers potentially emphasizes on data communication. 4.1 Strategy for Network Utilization in the Form of Heterogeneous Networks or HetNets The structure of mobile phone network is enormously changing in terms of radio- access networks and core networks. The change in radio-access networks which can be obviously seen is “heterogeneous networks” or “HetNets”, which refer to the network structure comprising base stations that have different transmission power such as macrocells, microcells, picocells, and femtocells, but use spectrum in different bands or even different technology such as LTE, HSPA, and GSM. The utilization of HetNets will help increase the capacity for better supporting the overall network consumption and improving the quality of network services [17]. The guidelines for improving mobile network structures in terms of radio-access network to “HetNets” is, therefore, considered one of the strategies for improving provision of wireless broadband services in Thailand, which can be detailed as follows: The use of small cell sites such as femtocells (cover household or personal areas) and picocells (cover alleys or local areas) in a large number will help increase the capacity at the uplink side, increasing the efficiency in broadband utilization. The appropriately positioning of microcells under the coverage area of macroells will greatly reduce the traffic on macrocells, especially in small areas with heavy traffic (hot spot) such as business areas, department stores, airports, and streets. The use of such microcells will help improve the quality of signals in the area where macrocells have never penetrated or have poorly penetrated through. However, in order to use HetNets efficiently in mobile phone networks, service providers have to realize the difficulty in regulating and managing a lot of microcells in the networks. They may select the technology such as Self-Optimization Network (SON) or Self-Configuration Network to make network administration and management become more automatic. http://www.iaeme.com/IJM/index.asp 147 editor@iaeme.com
  7. Ninlawan Petchraburanin, Settapong Malisuwan, Dithdanai Milindavanij and Wassana Kaewphanuekrungsi As for the core network, 3GPP has formulated various strategies to improve the system step by step, with the aim of eventually transforming into the ALL-IP structure. A method for increasing the capacity in the core network side is to make the design of network structures to be simple and have the fewest hierarchies (flat architecture). Though the existing of hierarchical architecture will make the administration and management of the whole network become easy from the control center, this particular structure will affect the system to respond more slowly and have a low overall speed compared with another “flatter” structure that makes the overall network suitable for high-speed communication. Accordingly, the system that 3GPP designed in Release 7 and 8 was “flatter” so as to prevent the data packet from passing through several nodes, making the system become faster and be able to respond more quickly [18]. 4.2 Strategy for Utilizing HSPA/ LTE Technology along with Wi-Fi or Wi- fi off load One of the guidelines for utilizing spectrum at its maximum capacity is to appropriately promote technological innovation, for example, the utilization of HSPA/ LTE along with Wi-Fi. All of the developers of networking technologies in mobile networks and Wi-Fi see the importance of continuously developing technologies, in terms of using spectrum at the maximum capacity, network capacity, speeds of data transmission, including the efficient coordination between technology and congruent evolution. This makes the utilization of main technologies in mobile phone networks such as HSPA and LTE along with Wi-Fi become extremely successful worldwide. Providers of 3G and 4G mobile services or wireless broadband services should improve the efficiency in utilizing a lot of existing macrocells along with small cells and femtocells which have low transmission power to specifically increase the system capacity in urban areas and transfer some data traffic to Wi-Fi, called Wi-Fi Offload, to reduce burden of mobile phone networks as much as possible. From the study of Cisco in February, 2014, it is found that the amount of traffic offloadeded to Wi-Fi and femtocells takes the proportion of 45 percent of the overall traffic amount on mobile phone networks worldwide, which is estimated to increase above the utilization amount on the main network by 2018 [19]. The strategy for offloading data from mobile phone networks to Wi-Fi so as to prevent traffic overflow in mobile phone networks can be carried out by several means, such as implementing small cells which are connected through Internet networks, 4G LTE which has a strong point in the capacity for supporting data transmission and reception, and using Wi-Fi to reduce the amount of data transmission and reception from mobile phone networks, which can be technically called “Wi-Fi Offload”. 4.3 Utilization of New Technologies Requiring Higher Spectrum Bands Nowadays, the traffic on wireless broadband utilization in the low spectrum bands such as 300MHz – 3GHz has been extremely heavy and is getting more overcrowded. Researchers and developers of various technologies, therefore, have turned to use broadband in higher spectrum bands because such bands are thinly used. For example, Wi-Fi services which were previously provided in 2.4GHz – 5GHz spectrum bands has already been provided in the 60GHz spectrum under the IEEE 802.11ad standard for short-distance broadband connection [20], or even research and development in satellite communication services of which the spectrum band has already expanded to http://www.iaeme.com/IJM/index.asp 148 editor@iaeme.com
  8. Broadband Telecommunications Infrastructure in Thailand: Analysis and Recommendations 28GHz from the past which used the spectrum of lower than 12GHz, and the attempt to use higher spectrum in the bands of higher up to the visible light or laser spectrum called optical communication because it has bandwidth to support a large quantity of data transmission and reception in the unit of THz (Tetra Hertz). Therefore, the Aquila project of Facebook uses UAVs as the station forwarding broadband signals to remote areas. 4.4 Strategies for Spectrum Sharing If the spectrum sharing strategy is used without violating regulations, announcements, and related laws, it will become the effective guidelines for developing wireless broadband. This is because it can reduce cost of every related operator in terms of spectrum usage fees, even if it is the shift paradigm of telecommunications, because during the past several decades, spectrum regulators worldwide have placed importance on spectrum allocation through licensing mainly through granting exclusive rights to make operators have full confidence in operating businesses. When the spectrum demand soars, there is scarcity of resources, especially when spectrum in the appropriate bands has been completely allocated [21]. Therefore, the possible guidelines for spectrum sharing such as class licensing and assigning spectrum bands that do not require additional licenses should be studied, to be in line with future technological development. 5. CONSIDERING ADDITIONAL SPECTRUM INFLUENCING WIRELESS BROADBAND DEVELOPMENT 2300MHz Spectrum Band The ITU has assigned the 2300 – 2400MHz spectrum bands to be used for providing IMT networks. However, in Thailand, the 2300-2400MHz spectrum bands have been used for telecommunications purposes according to the Spectrum Management Master Plan. Nowadays, it is used by several state agencies, including TOT Public Company Limited and security agencies which may use it ineffectively, thinly, only in some areas, and for only some specific purposes stemming from old technologies, and may have a very small number of users in contrast with the rising spectrum demands [3]. Moreover, several countries also allocate the 2300 – 2400MHz spectrum bands for servicing International Mobile Telecommunications network (IMT), especially in Europe. As for Asia, the 2300MHz band has earned great interest in China, where the spectrum band was use in developing the TD-LTE network which currently has a lot of supporting devices in the 2300MHz spectrum and promoting networks to be constructed in several countries. Therefore, if possible, Thailand should allocate the 2300-2400MHz spectrum bands for wireless broadband services. However, spectrum retrieving is still the main issue that the NBTC has to be practically well prepared and manage to impose the timeframe that is appropriate. 2500 - 2690 Spectrum Bands The ITU has assigned the 2500 – 2690MHz spectrum as the bands for servicing International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT). Similar to the ITU, the current Spectrum Management Master Plan of Thailand has also assigned the 2500 – 2690MHz spectrum as the bands for telecommunications. However, these bands were allocated to several organizations, such as the Government Public Relations Department and MCOT Public Company Limited. If the technological development and the allocated spectrum are taken into consideration, it will be possible that the use http://www.iaeme.com/IJM/index.asp 149 editor@iaeme.com
  9. Ninlawan Petchraburanin, Settapong Malisuwan, Dithdanai Milindavanij and Wassana Kaewphanuekrungsi of these particular spectrum bands has not been effective enough and has never been in line with the currently rising spectrum demands [3]. 3400 - 3600MHz Spectrum Bands The ITU’s consideration about spectrum allocation determines that the radio spectrum in the 3400 – 3600 bands be the spectrum for telecommunications which can be used in IMT. Several countries in the 3rd regional office such as the Republic of Korea, Japan, and Pakistan use the spectrum bands in telecommunications by assigning the radio spectrum in the bands of 3400 – 3600 to be used mainly for mobile purposes or to be forbidden for other activities. The present Spectrum Management Master Plan does not assign the 3400 – 3600 spectrum bands to be used for telecommunications but for fixed services via satellites [22]. In assigning the 3400 – 3600 spectrum bands, Thailand is different from other countries in terms of usage purposes. This may have some effects which cause limitations in recruiting additional spectrum for telecommunications and disadvantages, because the devices supporting utilization in the particular bands are inapplicable. However, the transfer of satellite services to other spectrum bands may cause several problems as a consequence. 6. CONCLUSION The NBTC has to develop spectrum roadmap, no matter the spectrum allocated has been used at its maximum capacity or not, determine the starting fee of every spectrum band, and be open for every sector to express opinions. The lack of spectrum in the amount adequate for consumption demands and explicit spectrum utilization plan is the factor that gives bad results for broadband telecommunications and trends in developing the country. Therefore, the prioritizing of making the roadmap for telecommunications spectrum is important in terms of administrating and managing spectral resources of the nation, and is considered the most important strategy for developing wireless broadband in Thailand. Developing more Internet gateways will facilitate the transfer of a greater amount of data. The idea of developing Thailand to be the Internet hub is the result of adapting the old idea of expanding networks to investment in order to make Thailand so developed that finally becomes the regional Internet hub. This process should be carried out and the investment should be made by the state. Though we have expanded the network to have higher speeds and coverage, most of the contents and knowledge are still produced in foreign countries. It is difficult that such contents and knowledge will be appropriately used in the Thai environment and society, especially in local areas which are unique and have their own specific knowledge and wisdom that are valuable and more suitable for local way of life than the contents created in foreign countries. Therefore, in order to enable every Thai people to access and make use of ICT thoroughly and equally, the state agencies, private agencies, and educational institutions should launch and offer ICT services and ample knowledge to be in line with the demands of communities and societies. 7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This is the last research of Prof. Ninlawan Petcharaburanin, Ph.D. The research team members would like to express our heartfelt sorrow and condolences at such a great loss of this wonderful lady. http://www.iaeme.com/IJM/index.asp 150 editor@iaeme.com
  10. Broadband Telecommunications Infrastructure in Thailand: Analysis and Recommendations REFERENCES [1] Erik Dahlman, Stefan Parkva and Johan Skold, 4G: LTE/LTE-Advanced for Mobile Broadband, 2nd Edition, 2011. [2] NBTC Internal report, the current status of mobile telecommunications markets in Thailand, December 2014. [3] NBTC, Thailand’s Spectrum Management Master Plan. [4] Association of Southeast Asian Nations, ASEAN ICT Masterplan 2015, 2015. [5] International Telecommunications Union, Final ACTS WRC-07, World Radiocommunication Conference, Geneva, 2007. [6] GSMA, Asia Pacific Telecommunity (APT) 700MHz Whitepaper, 2013. [7] Ericsson, APT 700: A Truly Global LTE Band, Feb 2014. [8] Asia-Pacific Telecommunity, Harmonization of the Use of 700MHz Band in SATRC Countries - APT's Initiatives, October 2012. [9] Nokia Networks, Nokia Networks white paper, APT700 Discussion Paper, 2014. [10] BCG-GSMA. (2013). Socio-Economic Benefits of Assigning the Digital Dividend to Mobile in Thailand. [11] International Telecommunications Union, National Wireless Broadband Master Plans for the Asia-Pacific Region, 2012 [12] GSMA, Socio-economic impact of mobile broadband in Thailand and contribution to the digital economy, April 2015. [13] International Telecommunications Union, Digital Dividend: Insights for Spectrum Decisions, 2012. [14] International Telecommunications Union, Guideline for the preparation of national wireless broadband masterplans for the Asia Pacific region, October 2012. [15] International Telecommunications Union, Recommendation ITU-R SM.1603-2, Spectrum redeployment as a method of national spectrum management, 2014. [16] Cave, M., Chris Doyle, and William Webb. (2007). Essentials of modern spectrum management. Cambridge University Press. [17] Qualcomm, LTE Advanced: Heterogeneous Networks, 2011. [18] 3GPP TR 36.912 V2.0.0, “3rd Generation Partnership Project; Technical Specification Group Radio Access Network; Feasibility study for Further Advancements for E-UTRA (LTE-Advanced) (Release 9)”, Aug 2009. [19] Cisco, Cisco visual networking index: Global mobile data traffic forecast update, 2013-2018, February 2014. [20] Agilent Technology, Wireless LAN at 60GHz - IEEE 802.11ad Explained, May 2013. [21] Ericsson, Spectrum Sharing, October 2013. [22] Settapong Malisuwan, Noppadol Tiamnara and Dithdanai Milindavanij, THE Impact of Spectrum Assignment on Economic Growth and Competitiveness in Thailand. International Journal of Management, 6(12), 2015, pp.11–21. [23] Settapong Malisuwan, Dithdanai Milindavanij and Noppadol Tiamnara, Telecommunications Business Transformation: Framework and Recommendations. International Journal of Management, 7(1), 2016, pp.50–60. [24] APT Wireless Group (AWG), APT Report on Frequency Usage of the band 3400-3600MHz, March 2013. http://www.iaeme.com/IJM/index.asp 151 editor@iaeme.com
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