Chapter 2: Electrical Activity of the Heart

Chia sẻ: Nguyen Nhi | Ngày: | Loại File: PDF | Số trang:32

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Chapter 2: Electrical Activity of the Heart

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Calculate the Nernst equilibrium potential for sodium, potassium, and calcium ions given their intracellular and extracellular concentrations. 3. Describe how changing the concentrations of sodium, potassium, and calcium ions inside and outside the cell affect the resting membrane potential in cardiac cells. 4. Explain why the resting potential is near the equilibrium potential for potassium and the peak of an action potential approaches the equilibrium potential for sodium. 5. Describe how the sarcolemmal Na/K-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) affects the generation and maintenance of cardiac membrane potentials. 6. Describe the mechanisms that maintain calcium gradients across the cardiac cell membrane. 7. Describe how activation and inactivation gates regulate sodium movement through...

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