CLEANER PRODUCTION AUDIT IN THE PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY: A CASE STUDY IN VIETNAM

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CLEANER PRODUCTION AUDIT IN THE PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY: A CASE STUDY IN VIETNAM

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However, China’s industry is dependent on non-wood fibers (largely agricultural residues) at a 3:1 ratio over wood fiber. This suggests a concentration of many smaller operations. In fact, China’s rapid agricultural growth since 1978 provided fiber for eight-fold growth in the production of smaller papermills between 1984 and 1992 (CTAPI (1993)). The smaller mills have been rapid innovators, but they remain especially environmentally intrusive. They are dependent on pollution control technologies that are not as effective for non-wood fibers. Non-wood fibers deteriorate more rapidly in storage, leaving a larger volume of untreated residue in the holding ponds and wastewater effluents....

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