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Database fundamentals

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This teaches you the fundamentals of databases, including relational database theory, logical and physical database design, and the SQL language. Advanced topics include using functions, stored procedures and XML.

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  1. Database Fundamentals A book for the community by the community Neeraj Sharma, Liviu Perniu, Raul F. Chong, Abhishek Iyer, Chaitali Nandan, Adi-Cristina Mitea, Mallarswami Nonvinkere, Mirela Danubianu FIRST EDITION
  2. Database Fundamentals 4 First Edition (November 2010) © Copyright IBM Corporation 2010. All rights reserved. IBM Canada 8200 Warden Avenue Markham, ON L6G 1C7 Canada This edition covers IBM® DB2® Express-C Version 9.7 for Linux®, UNIX® and Windows®.
  3. 5 Notices This information was developed for products and services offered in the U.S.A. IBM may not offer the products, services, or features discussed in this document in other countries. Consult your local IBM representative for information on the products and services currently available in your area. Any reference to an IBM product, program, or service is not intended to state or imply that only that IBM product, program, or service may be used. Any functionally equivalent product, program, or service that does not infringe any IBM intellectual property right may be used instead. However, it is the user's responsibility to evaluate and verify the operation of any non-IBM product, program, or service. IBM may have patents or pending patent applications covering subject matter described in this document. The furnishing of this document does not grant you any license to these patents. You can send license inquiries, in writing, to: IBM Director of Licensing IBM Corporation North Castle Drive Armonk, NY 10504-1785 U.S.A. For license inquiries regarding double-byte character set (DBCS) information, contact the IBM Intellectual Property Department in your country or send inquiries, in writing, to: Intellectual Property Licensing Legal and Intellectual Property Law IBM Japan, Ltd. 3-2-12, Roppongi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 106-8711 The following paragraph does not apply to the United Kingdom or any other country where such provisions are inconsistent with local law: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION PROVIDES THIS PUBLICATION "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF NON-INFRINGEMENT, MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Some states do not allow disclaimer of express or implied warranties in certain transactions, therefore, this statement may not apply to you. This information could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically made to the information herein; these changes will be incorporated in new editions of the publication. IBM may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described in this publication at any time without notice. Any references in this information to non-IBM Web sites are provided for convenience only and do not in any manner serve as an endorsement of those Web sites. The materials at those Web sites are not part of the materials for this IBM product and use of those Web sites is at your own risk. IBM may use or distribute any of the information you supply in any way it believes appropriate without incurring any obligation to you.
  4. Database Fundamentals 6 The licensed program described in this document and all licensed material available for it are provided by IBM under terms of the IBM Customer Agreement, IBM International Program License Agreement or any equivalent agreement between us. Any performance data contained herein was determined in a controlled environment. Therefore, the results obtained in other operating environments may vary significantly. Some measurements may have been made on development-level systems and there is no guarantee that these measurements will be the same on generally available systems. Furthermore, some measurements may have been estimated through extrapolation. Actual results may vary. Users of this document should verify the applicable data for their specific environment. Information concerning non-IBM products was obtained from the suppliers of those products, their published announcements or other publicly available sources. IBM has not tested those products and cannot confirm the accuracy of performance, compatibility or any other claims related to non-IBM products. Questions on the capabilities of non-IBM products should be addressed to the suppliers of those products. All statements regarding IBM's future direction or intent are subject to change or withdrawal without notice, and represent goals and objectives only. This information contains examples of data and reports used in daily business operations. To illustrate them as completely as possible, the examples include the names of individuals, companies, brands, and products. All of these names are fictitious and any similarity to the names and addresses used by an actual business enterprise is entirely coincidental. COPYRIGHT LICENSE: This information contains sample application programs in source language, which illustrate programming techniques on various operating platforms. You may copy, modify, and distribute these sample programs in any form without payment to IBM, for the purposes of developing, using, marketing or distributing application programs conforming to the application programming interface for the operating platform for which the sample programs are written. These examples have not been thoroughly tested under all conditions. IBM, therefore, cannot guarantee or imply reliability, serviceability, or function of these programs. The sample programs are provided "AS IS", without warranty of any kind. IBM shall not be liable for any damages arising out of your use of the sample programs. References in this publication to IBM products or services do not imply that IBM intends to make them available in all countries in which IBM operates. If you are viewing this information softcopy, the photographs and color illustrations may not appear.
  5. 7 Trademarks IBM, the IBM logo, and ibm.com are trademarks or registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corp., registered in many jurisdictions worldwide. Other product and service names might be trademarks of IBM or other companies. A current list of IBM trademarks is available on the Web at “Copyright and trademark information” at www.ibm.com/legal/copytrade.shtml. Java and all Java-based trademarks are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the United States, other countries, or both. Microsoft and Windows are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States, other countries, or both. Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States, other countries, or both. UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the United States and other countries. Other company, product, or service names may be trademarks or service marks of others.
  6. Table of Contents Preface ............................................................................................................................. 15 Who should read this book? ........................................................................................ 15 How is this book structured? ........................................................................................ 15 A book for the community ............................................................................................ 15 Conventions ................................................................................................................. 15 What’s next? ................................................................................................................ 16 About the Authors........................................................................................................... 17 Contributors .................................................................................................................... 19 Acknowledgements ........................................................................................................ 21 Chapter 1 - Databases and information models .......................................................... 23 1.1 What is a database? .............................................................................................. 23 1.2 What is a database management system? ........................................................... 23 1.2.1 The evolution of database management systems .......................................... 24 1.3 Introduction to information models and data models ............................................. 26 1.4 Types of information models .................................................................................. 27 1.4.1 Network model ................................................................................................ 28 1.4.2 Hierarchical model .......................................................................................... 28 1.4.3 Relational model ............................................................................................. 29 1.4.4 Entity-Relationship model ............................................................................... 30 1.4.5 Object-relational model ................................................................................... 31 1.4.6 Other data models .......................................................................................... 32 1.5 Typical roles and career path for database professionals ..................................... 32 1.5.1 Data Architect ................................................................................................. 32 1.5.2 Database Architect ......................................................................................... 32 1.5.3 Database Administrator (DBA) ....................................................................... 33 1.5.4 Application Developer ..................................................................................... 34 1.6 Summary................................................................................................................ 34 1.7 Exercises ............................................................................................................... 35 1.8 Review questions ................................................................................................... 35 Chapter 2 – The relational data model .......................................................................... 37 2.1 Relational data model: The big picture .................................................................. 37 2.2 Basic concepts ....................................................................................................... 38 2.2.1 Attributes ......................................................................................................... 38 2.2.2 Domains .......................................................................................................... 39 2.2.3 Tuples ............................................................................................................. 40 2.2.4 Relations ......................................................................................................... 40 2.2.5 Schemas ......................................................................................................... 41 2.2.6 Keys ................................................................................................................ 41 2.3 Relational data model constraints.......................................................................... 44 2.3.1 Entity integrity constraint................................................................................. 44 2.3.2 Referential integrity constraint ........................................................................ 45 2.3.3 Semantic integrity constraints ......................................................................... 46 2.4 Relational algebra .................................................................................................. 49
  7. Database Fundamentals 10 2.4.1 Union............................................................................................................... 49 2.4.2 Intersection ..................................................................................................... 49 2.4.3 Difference ....................................................................................................... 50 2.4.4 Cartesian product ........................................................................................... 51 2.4.5 Selection ......................................................................................................... 52 2.4.6 Projection ........................................................................................................ 53 2.4.7 Join ................................................................................................................. 54 2.4.8 Division ........................................................................................................... 56 2.5. Relational calculus ................................................................................................ 57 2.5.1 Tuple-oriented relational calculus ................................................................... 58 2.5.2 Domain-oriented relational calculus ............................................................... 59 2.6 Summary................................................................................................................ 60 2.7 Exercises ............................................................................................................... 60 2.8 Review questions ................................................................................................... 62 Chapter 3 – The conceptual data model ....................................................................... 65 3.1 Conceptual, logical and physical modeling: The big picture .................................. 65 3.2 What is a model? ................................................................................................... 67 3.2.1 Data model ..................................................................................................... 67 3.2.2 Database model.............................................................................................. 67 3.2.3 Conceptual data model concepts ................................................................... 68 3.3 A case study involving a Library Management System - Part 1 of 3 ..................... 77 3.3.1 Developing the conceptual model .................................................................. 77 3.4 Summary................................................................................................................ 85 3.5 Exercises ............................................................................................................... 85 3.6 Review questions ................................................................................................... 85 Chapter 4 – Relational Database Design ...................................................................... 89 4.1 The problem of redundancy ................................................................................... 89 4.1.1 Insertion Anomalies ........................................................................................ 90 4.1.2 Deletion Anomalies ......................................................................................... 90 4.1.3 Update Anomalies .......................................................................................... 90 4.2. Decompositions .................................................................................................... 91 4.3. Functional Dependencies ..................................................................................... 92 4.4 Properties of Functional Dependencies ................................................................. 94 4.4.1 Armstrong’s Axioms ........................................................................................ 94 4.4.2 Computing the closure set of attributes .......................................................... 95 4.4.3 Entailment ....................................................................................................... 96 4.5 Normal Forms ........................................................................................................ 96 4.5.1 First Normal Form (1NF)................................................................................. 96 4.5.2 Second Normal Form (2NF) ........................................................................... 98 4.5.3 Third Normal Form (3NF) ............................................................................... 99 4.5.4 Boyce-Codd Normal Form (BCNF)............................................................... 100 4.6 Properties of Decompositions .............................................................................. 101 4.6.1 Lossless and Lossy Decompositions............................................................ 102 4.6.2 Dependency-Preserving Decompositions .................................................... 103 4.7 Minimal Cover ...................................................................................................... 103
  8. 11 4.8 Synthesis of 3NF schemas .................................................................................. 105 4.9 3NF decomposition .............................................................................................. 106 4.10 The Fourth Normal Form (4NF) ......................................................................... 106 4.10.1 Multi-valued dependencies ......................................................................... 107 4.11 Other normal forms ............................................................................................ 108 4.12 A case study involving a Library Management System - Part 2 of 3 ................. 108 4.13 Summary ............................................................................................................ 111 4.14 Exercises ........................................................................................................... 112 4.15 Review questions ............................................................................................... 112 Chapter 5 – Introduction to SQL.................................................................................. 115 5.1 History of SQL...................................................................................................... 115 5.2 Defining a relational database schema in SQL ................................................... 116 5.2.1 Data Types.................................................................................................... 116 5.2.2 Creating a table ............................................................................................ 117 5.2.3 Creating a schema ........................................................................................ 120 5.2.4 Creating a view ............................................................................................. 121 5.2.5 Creating other database objects ................................................................... 121 5.2.6 Modifying database objects .......................................................................... 121 5.2.7 Renaming database objects ......................................................................... 122 5.3 Data manipulation with SQL ................................................................................ 122 5.3.1 Selecting data ............................................................................................... 122 5.3.2 Inserting data ................................................................................................ 123 5.3.3 Deleting data ................................................................................................. 124 5.3.4 Updating data ............................................................................................... 124 5.4 Table joins ............................................................................................................ 125 5.4.1 Inner joins ..................................................................................................... 125 5.4.2 Outer joins..................................................................................................... 126 5.5 Union, intersection, and difference operations .................................................... 128 5.5.1 Union............................................................................................................. 129 5.5.2 Intersection ................................................................................................... 130 5.5.3 Difference (Except) ....................................................................................... 130 5.6 Relational operators ............................................................................................. 131 5.6.1 Grouping operators ....................................................................................... 131 5.6.2 Aggregation operators .................................................................................. 132 5.6.3 HAVING Clause ............................................................................................ 132 5.7 Sub-queries.......................................................................................................... 132 5.7.1 Sub-queries returning a scalar value ............................................................ 133 5.7.2 Sub-queries returning vector values ............................................................. 133 5.7.3 Correlated sub-query .................................................................................... 133 5.7.4 Sub-query in FROM Clauses ........................................................................ 134 5.8 Mapping of object-oriented concepts to relational concepts................................ 134 5.10 A case study involving a Library Management System - Part 3 of 3 ................. 135 5.9 Summary.............................................................................................................. 139 5.10 Exercises ........................................................................................................... 140 5.11 Review questions ............................................................................................... 140
  9. Database Fundamentals 12 Chapter 6 – Stored procedures and functions........................................................... 143 6.1 Working with IBM Data Studio ............................................................................. 143 6.1.1 Creating a project ......................................................................................... 144 6.2 Working with stored procedures .......................................................................... 146 6.2.1 Types of procedures ..................................................................................... 147 6.2.2 Creating a stored procedure ......................................................................... 148 6.2.3 Altering and dropping a stored procedure .................................................... 152 6.3 Working with functions ......................................................................................... 153 6.3.1 Types of functions......................................................................................... 153 6.3.2 Creating a function........................................................................................ 154 6.3.3 Invoking a function ........................................................................................ 155 6.3.4 Altering and dropping a function ................................................................... 156 6.4 Summary.............................................................................................................. 157 6.5 Exercises ............................................................................................................. 157 6.6 Review Questions ................................................................................................ 157 Chapter 7 – Using SQL in an application ................................................................... 161 7.1 Using SQL in an application: The big picture ...................................................... 161 7.2 What is a transaction? ......................................................................................... 162 7.3 Embedded SQL ................................................................................................... 163 7.3.1 Static SQL ..................................................................................................... 163 7.3.2 Dynamic SQL ................................................................................................ 168 7.3.3 Static vs. dynamic SQL................................................................................. 172 7.4 Database APIs ..................................................................................................... 173 7.4.1 ODBC and the IBM Data Server CLI driver .................................................. 173 7.4.2 JDBC............................................................................................................. 175 7.5 pureQuery ............................................................................................................ 176 7.5.1 IBM pureQuery Client Optimizer ................................................................... 179 7.6 Summary.............................................................................................................. 179 7.7 Exercises ............................................................................................................. 180 7.8 Review Questions ................................................................................................ 180 Chapter 8 – Query languages for XML ........................................................................ 183 8.1 Overview of XML.................................................................................................. 183 8.1.1 XML Elements and Database Objects.......................................................... 183 8.1.2 XML Attributes .............................................................................................. 185 8.1.3 Namespaces ................................................................................................. 186 8.1.4 Document Type Definitions .......................................................................... 187 8.1.5 XML Schema ................................................................................................ 188 8.2 Overview of XML Schema ................................................................................... 189 8.2.1 Simple Types ................................................................................................ 189 8.2.2 Complex Types ............................................................................................. 191 8.2.3 Integrity constraints....................................................................................... 192 8.2.4 XML Schema evolution ................................................................................. 193 8.3 XPath ................................................................................................................... 194 8.3.1 The XPath data model .................................................................................. 194 8.3.2 Document Nodes .......................................................................................... 194
  10. 13 8.3.3 Path Expressions .......................................................................................... 196 8.3.4 Advanced Navigation in XPath ..................................................................... 196 8.3.5 XPath Semantics .......................................................................................... 196 8.3.6 XPath Queries .............................................................................................. 198 8.4 XQuery ................................................................................................................. 199 8.4.1 XQuery basics .............................................................................................. 200 8.4.2 FLWOR expressions..................................................................................... 200 8.4.3 Joins in XQuery ............................................................................................ 201 8.4.4 User-defined functions .................................................................................. 202 8.4.5 XQuery and XML Schema ............................................................................ 202 8.4.6 Grouping and aggregation ............................................................................ 202 8.4.7 Quantification ................................................................................................ 204 8.5 XSLT .................................................................................................................... 204 8.6 SQL/XML ............................................................................................................. 206 8.6.1 Encoding relations as XML Documents........................................................ 206 8.6.2 Storing and publishing XML documents ....................................................... 207 8.6.3 SQL/XML Functions...................................................................................... 207 8.7 Querying XML documents stored in tables .......................................................... 211 8.8 Modifying data...................................................................................................... 212 8.8.1 XMLPARSE .................................................................................................. 212 8.8.2 XMLSERIALIZE ............................................................................................ 213 8.8.3 The TRANSFORM expression ..................................................................... 213 8.9 Summary.............................................................................................................. 214 8.10 Exercises ........................................................................................................... 215 8.11 Review questions ............................................................................................... 215 Chapter 9 – Database Security .................................................................................... 221 9.1 Database security: The big picture ...................................................................... 221 9.1.1 The need for database security .................................................................... 222 9.1.2 Access control .............................................................................................. 224 9.1.3 Database security case study ....................................................................... 225 9.1.4 Views ............................................................................................................ 231 9.1.5 Integrity Control ............................................................................................ 231 9.1.6 Data encryption ............................................................................................. 231 9.2 Security policies and procedures ......................................................................... 232 9.2.1 Personnel control .......................................................................................... 232 9.2.2 Physical access control ................................................................................ 232 9.3 Summary.............................................................................................................. 233 9.4 Exercises ............................................................................................................. 233 9.5 Review Questions ................................................................................................ 233 Chapter 10 – Technology trends and databases ....................................................... 235 10.1 What is Cloud computing? ................................................................................. 235 10.1.1 Characteristics of the Cloud........................................................................ 236 10.1.2 Cloud computing service models ................................................................ 237 10.1.3 Cloud providers ........................................................................................... 237 10.1.4 Handling security on the Cloud ................................................................... 241
  11. Database Fundamentals 14 10.1.5 Databases and the Cloud ........................................................................... 242 10.2 Mobile application development ........................................................................ 243 10.2.1 Developing for a specific device ................................................................. 244 10.2.2 Developing for an application platform ....................................................... 245 10.2.3 Mobile device platform ................................................................................ 246 10.2.4 Mobile application development platform ................................................... 247 10.2.5 The next wave of mobile applications......................................................... 248 10.2.6 DB2 Everyplace .......................................................................................... 248 10.3 Business intelligence and appliances ................................................................ 249 10.4 db2university.com: Implementing an application on the Cloud (case study)..... 249 10.4.1 Moodle open source course management system ..................................... 250 10.4.2 Enabling openID sign-in.............................................................................. 253 10.4.3 Running on the Amazon Cloud ................................................................... 254 10.4.4 Using an Android phone to retrieve course marks ..................................... 255 10.5 Summary............................................................................................................ 256 Appendix A – Solutions to review questions ............................................................. 259 Appendix B – Up and running with DB2 ..................................................................... 264 B.1 DB2: The big picture ............................................................................................ 264 B.2 DB2 Packaging .................................................................................................... 265 B.2.1 DB2 servers .................................................................................................. 265 B.2.2 DB2 Clients and Drivers ............................................................................... 266 B.3 Installing DB2 ...................................................................................................... 267 B.3.1 Installation on Windows................................................................................ 267 B.3.2 Installation on Linux...................................................................................... 268 B.4 DB2 tools ............................................................................................................. 268 B.4.1 Control Center .............................................................................................. 268 B.4.2 Command Line Tools ................................................................................... 270 B.5 The DB2 environment ......................................................................................... 273 B.6 DB2 configuration ................................................................................................ 274 B.7 Connecting to a database ................................................................................... 275 B.8 Basic sample programs ....................................................................................... 276 B.9 DB2 documentation ............................................................................................. 278 Resources ...................................................................................................................... 279 Web sites ................................................................................................................... 279 Books ......................................................................................................................... 279 References................................................................................................................. 280 Contact ....................................................................................................................... 281
  12. Preface Keeping your skills current in today's world is becoming increasingly challenging. There are too many new technologies being developed, and little time to learn them all. The DB2® on Campus Book Series has been developed to minimize the time and effort required to learn many of these new technologies. This book helps new database professionals understand database concepts with the right blend of breadth and depth of information. Who should read this book? This book is tailored for new database enthusiasts, application developers, database administrators, and anyone with an interest in the subject and looking to get exposure such as university students and new graduates. How is this book structured? This book is divided into chapters, starting with the basic database concepts and information models in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 covers relational data models. Chapter 3 and 4 explain conceptual modeling and relational database design. In Chapters 5, 6 and 7 the focus is geared towards SQL. Chapter 8 highlights XML data storage and retrieval via SQL and XQuery. Chapter 9 addresses database security aspects. The book then concludes with an overview of various other key technologies and relevant applications that are increasingly popular in the industry today. Exercises and review questions can be found with most chapters. The solutions have been provided in Appendix A. A book for the community This book was created by a community of university professors, students, and professionals (including IBM employees). Members from around the world have participated in developing this book. The online version of this book is released to the community at no charge. If you would like to provide feedback, contribute new material, improve existing material, or help with translating this book to another language, please send an email of your planned contribution to db2univ@ca.ibm.com with the subject “Database fundamentals book feedback”. Conventions Many examples of commands, SQL statements, and code are included throughout the book. Specific keywords are written in uppercase bold. For example: A NULL represents an unknown state. Commands are shown in lowercase bold. For example: The dir command lists all files and subdirectories on Windows. SQL statements are shown in
  13. Database Fundamentals 16 upper case bold. For example: Use the SELECT statement to retrieve information from a table. Object names used in our examples are shown in bold italics. For example: The flights table has five columns. Italics are also used for variable names in the syntax of a command or statement. If the variable name has more than one word, it is joined with an underscore. For example: CREATE TABLE table_name What’s next? We recommend that you review the following books in this book series for more details about related topics:  Getting started with DB2 Express-C  Getting started with InfoSphere Data Architect  Getting started with data warehousing  Getting started with DB2 application development The following figure shows all the different eBooks in the DB2 on Campus book series available free at db2university.com The DB2 on Campus book series
  14. 17 About the Authors Neeraj Sharma is a senior IT specialist at the Dynamic Warehousing Center of Competency, IBM India Software Labs. His primary role is design, configuration and implementation of large data warehouses across various industry domains; implementation of custom proof of concept (POC) exercises, and execution of performance benchmarks at customer's request. He holds a bachelor’s degree in electronics and communication engineering and a master’s degree in software systems. Liviu Perniu is an Associate Professor in the Automation Department at Transilvania University of Brasov, Romania, teaching courses in the area of Data Requirements, Analysis, and Modeling. He is an IBM 2006 Faculty Award recipient as part of the Eclipse Innovation Awards program. Raul F. Chong is the DB2 on Campus program manager based at the IBM Toronto Laboratory, and a DB2 technical evangelist. His main responsibility is to grow the DB2 community around the world. Raul joined IBM in 1997 and has held numerous positions in the company. As a DB2 consultant, Raul helped IBM business partners with migrations from other relational database management systems to DB2, as well as with database performance and application design issues. As a DB2 technical support specialist, Raul has helped resolve DB2 problems on the OS/390®, z/OS®, Linux®, UNIX® and Windows platforms. Raul has taught many DB2 workshops, has published numerous articles, and has contributed to the DB2 Certification exam tutorials. Raul has summarized many of his DB2 experiences through the years in his book Understanding DB2 - Learning Visually with Examples 2nd Edition (ISBN-10: 0131580183) for which he is the lead author. He has also co-authored the book DB2 SQL PL Essential Guide for DB2 UDB on Linux, UNIX, Windows, i5/OS, and z/OS (ISBN 0131477005), and is the project lead and co-author of many of the books in the DB2 on Campus book series. Abhishek Iyer is an engineer at the Warehousing Center of Competency, IBM India Software Laboratory. His primary role is to create proof of concepts and execute performance benchmarks on customer requests. His expertise includes data warehouse implementation and data mining. He holds a bachelor’s degree in computer science. Chaitali Nandan is a software engineer working in the DB2 Advanced Technical Support team based at the IBM India Software Laboratory. Her primary role is to provide first relief and production support to DB2 Enterprise customers. She specializes in critical problem solving skills for DB2 production databases. She holds a Bachelor of Engineering degree in Information Technology. Adi-Cristina Mitea is an associate professor at the Computer Science Department, “Hermann Oberth” Faculty of Engineering, “Lucian Blaga” University of Sibiu, Romania. She teaches courses in the field of databases, distributed systems, parallel and distributed algorithms, fault tolerant systems and others. Her research activities are in these same areas. She holds a bachelor’s degree and a Ph.D in computer science.
  15. Database Fundamentals 18 Mallarswami Nonvinkere is a pureXML® specialist with IBM’s India Software Laboratory and works for the DB2 pureXML enablement team in India. He works with IBM customers and ISVs to help them understand the use of pureXML technology and develop high performance applications using XML. Mallarswami helps customers with best practices and is actively involved in briefing customers about DB2 related technologies. He has been a speaker at various international conferences including IDUG Australasia, IDUG India and ® IMTC and has presented at various developerWorks forums. Mirela Danubianu is a lecturer at Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. She received a MS in Computer Science at University of Craiova (1985 – Automatizations and Computers) and other in Economics at Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava, (2009 - Management). She holds a PhD in Computers Science from Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava (2006 - Contributions to the development of data mining and knowledge methods and techniques). Her current research interests include databases theory and implementation, data mining and data warehousing, application of advanced information technology in economics and health care area. Mirela has co-authored 7 books and more than 25 papers. She has participated in more than 15 conferences, and is a member of the International Program Committee in three conferences.
  16. Contributors The following people edited, reviewed, provided content, and contributed significantly to this book. Contributor Company/University Position/Occupation Contribution Agatha ION Designs, Inc Data Modeler Developed the core Colangelo table of contents of the book Cuneyt Goksu VBT Vizyon Bilgi DB2 SME and IBM Technical review Teknolojileri Gold Consultant Marcus IBM US Software developer English and technical Graham review of Chapter 10 Amna Iqbal IBM Toronto Lab Quality Assurance - English review of the Lotus Foundations entire book except chapters 5 and 7 Leon IBM Toronto Lab Program Director, IBM Technical review, and Katsnelson Data Servers contributor to Chapter 10 content Jeff (J.Y.) Luo IBM Toronto Lab Technical Enablement English review of Specialist chapter 7 Fraser IBM Toronto Lab Information Technical review McArthur Management Evangelist Danna IBM US STG ISV Enablement, English review of the Nicholson Web Services entire book. Rulesh IBM India Advisory Manager - Technical review Rebello IBM Software Group Client Support Suresh Sane DST Systems, Inc Database Architect Review of various chapters, especially those related to SQL Nadim Sayed IBM Toronto Lab User-Centered Design English review of Specialist chapter 1
  17. Database Fundamentals 20 Ramona Truta University of Toronto Lecturer Developed the core table of contents of the book.
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