Designing SQL Server 2000 Database P1

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  1. 1U YYEAR TUPGRADE B ER PRO ECTION PLAN DESIGNING SQL SERVER 2000 ® DATABASES FOR .net ENTERPRISE SERVERS ™ “This book is a solid introduction to a critical FREE Monthly component of the Windows 2000 Server family. It Technology Updates will be a valuable title in your IT library.” —Richard Martin, Database Administrator and Windows DNA Developer, MCP+I, MCSE, MCSD, MCDBA, MCT FREE Downloadable Dominion Technology Group, Inc. HTML FREE Membership to Access.Globalknowledge Robert Patton, MCDBA, MCSD, MCSE+I, MCP+I Jennifer Ogle, MCSE, MCNE, Oracle DBA TECHNICAL EDITOR and CONTRIBUTOR: Travis Laird, MCSE, MCDBA, A+, Network+, i-Net+, CIW
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  5. Acknowledgments We would like to acknowledge the following people for their kindness and support in making this book possible. Richard Kristof, Duncan Anderson, Jennifer Gould, Robert Woodruff, Kevin Murray, Dale Leatherwood, Rhonda Harmon, and Robert Sanregret of Global Knowledge, for their generous access to the IT industry’s best courses, instructors and training facilities. Ralph Troupe, Rhonda St. John, and the team at Callisma for their invaluable insight into the challenges of designing, deploying and supporting world-class enterprise networks. Karen Cross, Lance Tilford, Meaghan Cunningham, Kim Wylie, Harry Kirchner, Bill Richter, Kevin Votel, Brittin Clark, and Sarah MacLachlan of Publishers Group West for sharing their incredible marketing experience and expertise. Mary Ging, Caroline Hird, Simon Beale, Caroline Wheeler, Victoria Fuller, Jonathan Bunkell, and Klaus Beran of Harcourt International for making certain that our vision remains worldwide in scope. Anneke Baeten, Annabel Dent, and Laurie Giles of Harcourt Australia for all their help. David Buckland, Wendi Wong, Daniel Loh, Marie Chieng, Lucy Chong, Leslie Lim, Audrey Gan, and Joseph Chan of Transquest Publishers for the enthusiasm with which they receive our books. Kwon Sung June at Acorn Publishing for his support. Ethan Atkin at Cranbury International for his help in expanding the Syngress program. Joe Pisco, Helen Moyer, and the great folks at InterCity Press for all their help. v
  6. From Global Knowledge At Global Knowledge we strive to support the multiplicity of learning styles required by our students to achieve success as technical professionals. As the world's largest IT training company, Global Knowledge is uniquely positioned to offer these books. The expertise gained each year from pro- viding instructor-led training to hundreds of thousands of students world- wide has been captured in book form to enhance your learning experience. We hope that the quality of these books demonstrates our commitment to your lifelong learning success. Whether you choose to learn through the written word, computer based training, Web delivery, or instructor-led training, Global Knowledge is committed to providing you with the very best in each of these categories. For those of you who know Global Knowledge, or those of you who have just found us for the first time, our goal is to be your lifelong competency partner. Thank your for the opportunity to serve you. We look forward to serving your needs again in the future. Warmest regards, Duncan Anderson President and Chief Executive Officer, Global Knowledge vi
  7. Contributors Robert A. Patton (MCDBA, MCSD, MCSE+I, MCP+I) is a Software Engineer specializing in Microsoft Windows DNA applications using Interdev and Visual Basic with Windows 2000 and SQL Server. He is cur- rently a Senior Applications Developer at in Dublin, OH and, in his position there, has done work for First Union National Bank, Corporate Strategic Services, the Midland Life Insurance Company, and Sykes Enterprises. Robert attended the University of Chicago, where he studied Public Policy. He earned his Bachelor of Science degree in Software Engineering from The Ohio State University. He lives in Dublin, OH with his wife Jenny and their sons Michael and Alex. Jennifer Ogle (MCSE, MCP+I, MCNE, Oracle DBA) is Owner and President of Radioactive Frog Web Designs, Inc. (, which specializes in contract Web site design and development and database administration. Jennifer has over 20 years of experience in the IT industry, specializing in government, scientific, and manufacturing applications. Her recent assign- ments include SQL and Oracle development for Hoover Materials Handling Group and Lockheed Martin. In addition to her extensive software and hardware experience, she has programmed with Java, Visual Basic, and Visual InterDev, among many others. Jennifer lives with her husband Kent in Knoxville, TN. Sean Campbell (MCSE, MCDBA, MCSD, MCT) is an Owner of 3 Leaf Solutions, LLC. He has worked in the education field for 7 years, with 5 years focused on IT training and consulting. Sean has worked with SQL Server since version 6. He has developed custom training and delivered MOC training for a number of years on SQL Server and other development technologies and has authored numerous Microsoft TechNet sessions on topics such as supporting SQL and upgrading to SQL Server 2000. Sean’s consulting experiences have run the gamut from database administration and application upgrades to .NET development. Sean has been working on projects with Microsoft since early Beta releases of SQL Server 2000 and has focused on SQL Server 2000’s administration and implementation enhancements. vii
  8. Mark Horninger (A+, MCSE+I, MCSD, MCDBA) is President and Founder of Haverford Consultants, Inc. (, located in the suburbs of Philadelphia, PA. He develops custom applications and system engineering solutions, specializing primarily in Microsoft operating systems and Microsoft BackOffice solutions. Mark has over 12 years of computer consulting experience and has passed 26 Microsoft certified exams. During his career, Mark has worked on many extensive projects including database development using SQL 6.5, SQL 7, and SQL 2000; application development; training; embedded systems development; and Windows NT and 2000 project rollout planning and implementations. Mark lives with his wife Debbie and two children in Havertown, PA. Steve Maier (MCSD) is a Senior Software Engineer for Heidelberg Digital L.L.C. (, located in Rochester, NY. He develops custom PostScript drivers for Microsoft operating systems. Steve has 10 years of computer programming experience in DOS, Windows, and UNIX. During his career, Steve has done database development, manufacturing application development, driver development, and game development. He has also worked on FDA-approved medical software and has taught a variety of college classes including programming, system analysis, and PC repair. Steve lives with his wife Lisa and two children in Rochester, NY. Henk-Evert Sonder (CCNA) has over 15 years of experience as an Infor- mation and Communication Technologies (ICT) professional, building and maintaining ICT infrastructures. In recent years, he has specialized in inte- grating ICT infrastructures with business applications and the security that comes with it. Currently, Henk works as a Senior Consultant for a large Dutch ICT solutions provider. His company, IT Selective, helps retailers get e-connected. Henk has also contributed to other Syngress books, including the E-mail Virus Protection Handbook (ISBN: 1-928994- 23-7). Scott Delaney (MCSD, MCDBA, MCSE) is a Senior Consultant with TurnAround Solutions (, a leading e-com- merce consulting and product development firm based in Australia. TurnAround has a core client list including blue chips and multinationals and is known for its well-trained staff, processes, and quality development. In addition to his database work with SQL Server and Oracle, Scott also develops custom C++ and Java solutions. His current pet project is the viii
  9. development of SayIT, a full-featured speech synthesis package for use by people who have lost the ability to speak due to illnesses such as ALS or stroke. Scott lives in Tasmania, Australia with his wife Paula. John Iwasz (MCSD) has over 5 years consulting experience developing custom applications. He specializes in n-tier and Web development using Microsoft technologies. John recently wrote an article on the IIS Metabase for ASP Today. During his career, John has worked on enterprise-wide pro- jects as well as commercial development. His has designed and developed Web site front ends, middle tier components, and determined database architecture. John lives in Philadelphia, PA. Melissa Craft (CCNA, MCSE, Network+, MCNE, Citrix CCA) is Director of e-Business Offering Development for MicroAge Technology Services. MicroAge is a global systems integrator headquartered in Tempe, AZ. MicroAge provides IT design, project management, and support for dis- tributed computing systems. Melissa is a key contributor to the business development and implementation of e-business services. As such, she develops enterprise-wide technology solutions and methodologies focused on client organizations. These technology solutions touch every part of a system’s lifecycle—from network design, testing, and implementation to operational management and strategic planning. Melissa holds a bachelor’s degree from the University of Michigan and is a member of the IEEE, the Society of Women Engineers, and American MENSA, Ltd. Melissa currently resides in Glendale, AZ with her family, Dan, Justine, and Taylor. Melissa is the author of Syngress Publishing’s best-selling Managing Active Directory for Windows 2000 Server (ISBN: 1-928994-07-5). Cameron Wakefield (MCSD, MCP) is a Senior Software Engineer at Computer Science Innovations, Inc. ( in Melbourne, FL, where he develops custom software solutions ranging from satellite com- munications to data-mining applications. His development work spans a broad spectrum including Visual C++, Visual Basic, COM, ADO, ASP, Delphi, CORBA, and UNIX. Cameron also develops software for a Brazilian hematology company as well as business-to-business Web applications. He also teaches Microsoft certification courses for Herzing College (AATP). He has passed 10 Microsoft certification exams. Cameron’s formal education was in computer science with a minor in math at Rollins College. He lives in Rockledge, FL with his wife Lorraine and daughter Rachel. ix
  10. Bret Stateham (CNE, MCSE, MCSD, MCDBA, MCT) is the Owner of Net Connex Technology Training and Consulting, L.L.C. ( in San Diego, CA. Bret’s background includes extensive networking, devel- opment, and training experience. His most recent projects have involved custom training, database development and administration, XML schema development and standardization, custom application development, and countless hours developing Active Server Pages-based Web solutions. Bret and his wife Lori live in San Diego, CA. Technical Editor and Contributor Travis Laird (MCSE, MCDBA, A+, Network+, i-Net+, CIW) has extensive experience in a broad range of technology subjects ranging from network design and support through software design and development. Travis has worked on numerous e-commerce and line-of-business solutions based on Microsoft technologies including Windows 2000, Visual Basic, IIS, and SQL Server. Travis currently works as an Independent Consultant in the New York City area. He recently designed and developed a Web-based e-commerce solution allowing a client to reach global markets with over 30,000 prod- ucts. He attended Syracuse University and graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree in Finance and Management Information Systems. Travis lives in Westchester, NY and enjoys traveling with his ever-supportive fiancée Maria. x
  11. Contents Introduction xxvii Chapter 1 SQL Server 2000 Overview and Migration Strategies 1 Introduction 2 Overview of SQL Server 2000: A .NET Enterprise Server 3 The Future of Windows DNA: Microsoft.NET 4 New and Enhanced Features of SQL Server 2000 8 XML Support 10 Development Tools and Technologies 14 Query Analyzer 14 New Data Types 15 Indexed Views 16 Trigger Enhancements 16 Referential Integrity Enhancements 17 User-Defined Functions 18 Index Enhancements 18 Shared Session Information 19 Collation Support 19 Extended Properties 20 Meta Data Services 20 Analysis Services 20 OLAP Enhancements 21 Data Mining 22 SQL Server Administration 23 Windows 2000 Active Directory Integration 24 Scalability and Availability 24 Scalability Enhancements 25 Distributed Partitioned Views 26 Fail-Over Clustering 26 Log Shipping 27 Data Transformation Services 27 Replication Services 28 Active Directory Integration 29 xi
  12. xii Contents Queued Updating Subscribers 29 Multiple Server Instance Support 29 Web and Internet Standards Support 31 Web Access Using Hypertext Transfer Protocol 31 Secure Sockets Layer 31 SQL Server 2000 Versions, Features, and Requirements 32 Common Edition Requirements 33 SQL Server Licensing and Pricing 34 Enterprise Edition 35 Hardware Requirements and Capacity Limits 35 Operating System Compatibility 36 Standard Edition 36 Hardware Requirements 36 Software and Operating System Compatibility 37 Personal Edition 37 Hardware Requirements 37 Software and Operating System Compatibility 38 Developer Edition 38 SQL Server 2000 Desktop Engine 39 SQL Server 2000 Windows CE Edition 39 Should You Migrate to SQL Server 2000? 41 How Will SQL Server 2000 Benefit My Organization? 42 Will SQL Server 2000 Fit into My Organization? 43 Steps to a Successful SQL Server Migration 43 Planning a SQL Server Migration 44 Determine Existing and Future Application Requirements 45 Inventory Existing Database Servers 45 Train Database Administrators and Support Personnel 45 Next Steps to Successful SQL Server Migration 46 Migrating to SQL Server 2000 46 Upgrading from SQL Server 6.5: Active/Passive Mode 49 Upgrading from SQL Server 6.5: Active/Active Mode 50 Upgrading from SQL Server 7.0: Active/Passive Mode 50 Upgrading from SQL Server 7.0: Active/Active Mode 50 Summary 52 FAQs 54 Chapter 2 Installing and Configuring SQL Server 2000 57 Introduction 58 Planning a SQL Server Installation 59 Installation Requirements 60 Hardware Requirements 60 Software Requirements 61 SQL Server Licensing 62
  13. Contents xiii Installation Options 63 Local vs. Remote Installation 63 Creating Service Accounts for SQL Server 65 Changing User Accounts 66 Disk Imaging Support 67 Answer File for Automated Installations 67 Multiple Server Instances 68 Collation Options 68 Upgrading to SQL Server 2000 69 Installing SQL Server 71 Standard Installation 71 Advanced Installation 75 Configuring Cluster Support 75 Unattended Installation 76 Configuration Options and Settings 76 SQL Server Properties 76 Server Network Utility 86 Client Network Utility 87 SQL Server Agent 89 SQL Mail 90 Summary 92 FAQs 92 Chapter 3 SQL Server Scalability and Availability 93 Introduction 94 Scaling Up vs. Scaling Out 94 TPC Benchmarks 97 SQL Server Fail-Over Clustering 98 SQL 2000 Fail-Over Clustering Architecture 99 Planning for SQL Server Clustering 99 Clustering Capabilities and Requirements 100 Microsoft Cluster Service 101 System Area Networks 101 Shared Disks 102 Log Shipping 102 Implementing Fail-Over Clustering 102 Setting Up Network Adapters 103 Setting Up Shared Disks 103 Setting Up MSCS on NT 4.0 104 Setting Up MSCS on Windows 2000 (Advanced Server/Datacenter Server) 104 Upgrading to SQL Fail-Over Clustering 105 Setting Up SQL Server 2000 Fail-Over Clustering 108 Distributed Partitioned Views 109 Federated Servers 109 Data Partitioning 111
  14. xiv Contents Creating Distributed Partitioned Views 111 Creating Linked Servers 111 Partitioning Your Data 112 Creating a Distributed View 112 Using and Updating a Distributed View 113 Log Shipping 115 Setting Up Log Shipping 116 Monitoring Log Shipping 120 Indexed Views 121 Requirements for an Indexed View 122 Creating an Indexed View 124 Summary 124 FAQs 125 Chapter 4 Designing and Creating SQL Server Databases 127 Introduction 128 SQL Server 2000 Architecture 128 Relational Databases 129 SQL Server System Databases 131 Master 132 TempDB 132 msdb 133 Model 134 Pubs 134 Northwind 135 Physical Storage Architecture 135 Filegroups 136 Data Files 137 Transaction Logs 137 Indexes 138 SQL Server Services 139 SQL Server Service 139 SQL Server Agent Service 142 Microsoft Distributed Transaction Coordinator Service 142 Microsoft Search Service 143 MSSQLServerADHelper Service 143 MSSQLServerOLAPService 143 Creating SQL Server Databases 144 Designing Your Database Solution 144 Database Modeling 145 Designing the Physical Database 146 The Disk Subsystem 146 Capacity and Growth Planning 148 Creating and Configuring Your Database 151 Getting Started 151
  15. Contents xv Using the Create Database Wizard 153 Create Database Wizard: Name the Database and Specify Its Location 155 Create Database Wizard: Name the Database Files 155 Create Database Wizard: Define the Database File Growth 156 Create Database Wizard: Name the Transaction Log Files 156 Create Database Wizard: Define the Transaction Log File Growth 157 Create Database Wizard: Completing the Create Database Wizard 158 Configuring Your Database 158 Southwind Properties | Filegroups 161 Southwind Properties | Data Files 162 Southwind Properties | Transaction Log 164 Southwind Properties | Options 164 Southwind Properties | Permissions 168 Reviewing the Southwind Configuration 168 Using T-SQL to Create and Alter a Database 169 Monitoring and Maintenance 171 Database Maintenance Plan Wizard 171 Maintenance Plan Wizard: Select Databases 172 Maintenance Plan Wizard: Update Data Optimization Information 172 Maintenance Plan Wizard: Database Integrity Check 174 Maintenance Plan Wizard: Specify the Database Backup Plan 175 Maintenance Plan Wizard: Specify the Backup Disk Directory 175 Maintenance Plan Wizard: Specify the Transaction Log Backup Plan 176 Maintenance Plan Wizard: Specify Transaction Log Backup Disk Directory 177 Maintenance Plan Wizard: Reports to Generate 177 Maintenance Plan Wizard: Maintenance Plan History 178 Maintenance Plan Wizard: Completing Your Maintenance Plan 178 Database Modeling Tools 180 Entity-Relationship Diagrams 180 SQL Server Database Designer 184 Summary 186 FAQs 188
  16. xvi Contents Chapter 5 Database and Server Security 189 Introduction 190 Planning SQL Server Security 190 Understanding SQL Server Security 191 C2 Certification 193 Administration Access and Server Security 194 Configuring the SQL Server 2000 Service Accounts 194 Securing the SQL Server 2000 Executable and Data Files 197 Object and Data Security 197 Securing Login Access to SQL Server 198 Assigning Privileges to Perform Serverwide Operations 199 Granting Access to Databases 199 Grouping Users into Database Roles 200 Using Views, Stored Procedures, and User-Defined Functions to Simplify Security 201 Network Communications Security 201 Security Options in SQL Server 202 Understanding the Windows Authentication Mode 202 Understanding the SQL Authentication Mode 205 Database Users, Roles, and Permissions 206 Selecting a Security Mode 207 SQL Server and Windows Authentication 207 Windows-Only Authentication Mode 210 Logins 210 Adding New Windows Logins 210 Server Roles 216 Fixed Roles 216 Database Users 218 Adding New Database Users 219 The Guest User Account 221 Assigning User Permissions 222 Database Roles 225 Fixed Roles 225 User-Defined Roles 227 Implementing Database and Server Security 231 The Scenario 231 User Authentication 232 Operating System Administrative Access 233 Windows 2000 233 SQL Server Logins 234 Assigning Permissions 234 Adding Users to Database Roles 234 Assigning Permissions to Users and Roles 235
  17. Contents xvii Network Communications Security 236 Multiprotocol Encryption 236 SSL Support 237 IPSec in Windows 2000 239 Summary 239 FAQs 240 Chapter 6 Administration and Active Directory Integration 243 Introduction 244 Windows 2000 Active Directory Integration 244 Registering SQL Servers in Active Directory 246 SQL Server Properties 246 sp_ActiveDirectory_SCP 248 Registering Databases in Active Directory 249 Database Properties 249 SQL Replication Services and Active Directory 249 SQL Server 2000 Replication 250 Registering Publications in Active Directory 257 Locating and Using Publications in Active Directory 258 Analysis Services and Active Directory 260 Registering Analysis Servers in Active Directory 261 Tools and Techniques for SQL Server Administration 262 Windows 2000 Active Directory 262 Active Directory Users and Computers 263 Microsoft Management Console 265 SQL Server Enterprise Manager 266 SQL Server MMC Snap-Ins 273 Moving and Copying SQL Server Databases 275 Enterprise Manager 277 Copy Database Wizard 278 Detaching and Attaching Databases 281 Linked Servers 282 Distributed Queries 284 Database Maintenance Tools 284 DBCC 285 Database Maintenance Plans 286 Maintenance Plan Wizard 286 SQL-DMO 288 Automating Administrative Tasks 290 SQL Server Agent 290 Alerts and Operators 290 SQL Mail 290 Setting Up Operators 292 Defining Alerts 292 Summary 293 FAQs 294
  18. xviii Contents Chapter 7 SQL Server Backup and Recovery 295 Introduction 296 Planning and Implementing a Successful Backup and Recovery Strategy 296 Determining Data Recovery Requirements 296 Frequency of Database Changes 297 Cost of Data Loss and Availability 298 Planning for Hardware Failure 299 The Tape Unit 299 The Disk Unit 300 The Server 301 The Network 301 Selecting a Backup Strategy 302 Backup Strategy Options 302 Database Backup Options 304 Backup Storage 307 Determining Storage Requirements 307 Backup Storage Media 311 Media Sets, Media Families, and Multiple Drives 313 Secure Offsite Storage 315 Sample Backup Scheme 315 Creating a Recovery Strategy 317 Backup and Restore Tools and Techniques 319 The Create Database Backup Wizard 319 The Database Maintenance Plan Wizard 320 Transact-SQL 321 Backing Up SQL Server Databases 322 Performing a Database Backup 323 Backing Up System Databases 335 Restoring SQL Server Databases 344 Restoring a Database Backup 344 Restoring System Databases 348 Database Options and Settings 352 Testing Your Backup and Recovery Strategy 354 Summary 355 FAQs 356 Chapter 8 Microsoft English Query and Full-Text Search 359 Introduction 360 Overview of English Query 360 What’s New in English Query? 362 More Powerful Applications 363 Installing English Query 364 Installing English Query 364
  19. Contents xix Installation Requirements 365 Creating an English Query Application 366 Planning Your English Query Application 366 Understanding Users’ Questions 366 Creating an English Query Project 367 English Query Project Components 368 English Query SQL Project 369 Creating an English Query SQL Project Using the SQL Project Wizard 370 English Query OLAP Project 371 The English Query Model 373 Building and Deploying Your English Query Application 376 Implementing Web-Based English Query Applications 376 Testing Your English Query Application 377 Putting It All Together 379 Creating a Web-Based English Query Solution 379 An Overview of Full-Text Search 381 File Filtering 381 Full-Text Search Architecture 382 Microsoft Search Service 382 Performance Considerations for Full-Text Indexes 383 Enabling Full-Text Search 387 Creating a Full-Text Catalog 387 Enabling a Database for Full-Text Search 388 Enabling a Table for Full-Text Search 388 Enabling a Column for Full-Text Search 389 Creating a Full-Text Index on the Products Table in the Northwind Database 390 Building the Full-Text Index 391 Querying Full-Text Indexes 393 FREETEXT and FREETEXTTABLE 393 CONTAINS and CONTAINSTABLE 395 Administering Full-Text Catalogs and Indexes 398 Backing Up Full-Text Catalogs 399 Populating Full-Text Indexes 401 Scheduling Index Rebuilds 402 Summary 403 FAQs 404 Chapter 9 Importing and Exporting Data 407 Introduction 408 Overview of Data Import and Export Tools 408 Data Transformation Services 410 What’s New in DTS? 410 Data Transformation Services Architecture 412 Packages 413
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