DEVELOPMENT OF GUIDELINES FOR WATER CONSERVATION IN PULP AND PAPER SECTOR

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DEVELOPMENT OF GUIDELINES FOR WATER CONSERVATION IN PULP AND PAPER SECTOR

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The extent of pollution and toxicity depends upon the raw material used, pulping method, and pulp bleaching process adapted by the pulp and paper mills. For example, the pollution load from hardwood is lower than softwood. On the other hand, the spent liquor generated from pulping of nonwood fiber has a high silica content. Volumes of wastewater discharged may vary from near zero to 400 m3 per ton of pulp depending on the raw material used, manufacturing process, and size of the mill [6]. Thus, the variability of effluent characteristics and volume from one mill to another emphasizes the requirement for a variety of pollution prevention and treatment...

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