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English for nursing and health care: Part 2

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English for nursing and health care: Part 2

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Following the contents section 1 book English for nursing and health care, section 2 presents the following contents: Unit 3 - The human body inside and out, unit 4 - Diet and nutrition. Invite you to refer to the disclosures.

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Nội dung Text: English for nursing and health care: Part 2

  1. UNIT THE HUMAN BODY Inside and Out
  2. 3A ------------------------------------------------- ® ---------------------- U N IT LEVELS OF ORGANISATION £Q E veryone is in te rested in th e h u m a n [hju:man] body, w hat happens w hen it is affected by disease [dazi:z] and how to stay healthy [heiei]. A rticles on h ealth and m edicine appear daily in newspapers and m agazines. O rd in a ry people w ho are n o t specifically train ed in science are freq u en tly asked to m ake decisions o n scientific m atters w hich affect society. T h e scientific [saian'tifikl term for th e study of body stru c tu re is anatom y |on'a?tomi|. Part of this word m eans to ‘c u t’ because early an ato m ists dissected (cut) the hum an body to learn about its stru ctu re. T h e p ractice of any h e a lth care professional requires a basic u n d e rstan d in g of a n ato m y a n d m ost an ato m ic d a ta is now o b tain e d th ro u g h th e use of c o m p u te d tom ography, m agnetic resonance im aging and p o sitro n em issio n to m o g ra p h y , ra th e r th a n through experim ental studies. Physiology [fiziWadji] is th e study of how body p a rts fu n c tio n , including th e ir chem ical and physical processes. A natom y and physiology are closely related. A n y th in g th a t d isturbs th e no rm al w orking o f th e body is co n sid ered a disease |dazi:z] and is studied as th e science of pathology [paB'oladjil. A ll living things are organised from very simple levels to m ore com plex levels. L iving m a tte r begins w ith sim ple ch em icals [kemikalzl w hich are form ed in to th e com p lex substances th a t m ake living cells, w hich are th e basic u n its of life |l,iif|. G ro u p s of specialised cells form tissues and differen t tissues fu n c tio n to g eth e r to form o rg a n s. V arious organs fu n c tio n to g e th e r to m,ike up th e system s ot the h u m an body. All the human sciences study different aspects of th e hum an body, its structure and function, its Dover Pictorial Archive Serie> 11982) - Margaret Mitt Human Anatomv Coloring IWk b e h av io u r and its a sso c iatio n w ith its
  3. e n v iro n m e n t. To study th e awesom e com p lex ities of the hum an body, it is necessary to break it dow n into sections th a t can be exam ined in detail, rem em bering th a t all the parts must interact w ith one a n o th er successfully to ensure our survival. To study different parts of the body, we can divide the body in various ways to give us po sitio n or lo ca tio n . G e n era l divisions are th e head, the th o rax , the abdom en, th e pubes and the lim bs o r extrem ities. Diagram s are show n w ith th e figure sta n d in g in the anatom ical p o sitio n unless stated otherw ise. T h e pictures show figures in th e anatom ical position w ith hands facing the front and feet slightly apart. NB S tanding in this way, the anatom ical right is on th e left of the diagram and the anatom ical left is on your right! T h e hum an body is marvellously com plex and it is amazing how well it works m ost of the tim e. How does it start and how does it develop? T h e h u m an gam etes or germ cells are th e ova (p i.) ovum (s .) in th e fem ale and th e sp e rm cells (sperm ato zo a/sp erm ato zo o n ) in the m ale. M eiosis occurs during th eir form ation (oogenesis) w hen these germ cells d evelop w ith a haploid number (h a lf th e n u m b er) of chromosomes. A ll o th e r cells in the body c o n tain th e full num ber of chrom osom es and are called diploid cells. During fe rtilisa tio n , th e 2 hap lo id cells fuse to g eth er and becom e a zygote w ith the com plete num ber of chrom osom es, so a fem ale germ cell + m ale germ cell = zygote = the beginnings of a hum an life. O th e r cells reproduce by m itosis, w hich is the equal division of nuclear m aterial ( karyokinesis), followed by division of the cell body (cytokinesis). T h e result of this division is 2 daughter cells, each containing 23 pairs of chrom osom es (i.e. 46 chrom osom es altogether). Because all tissues increase in size during childhood, a lot more cells divide in a growing child th an in an adult. Specialised groups cell + cell = tissue of cells form tissui [ti/u:z] Tissues functioning together tissue + tissue = organ are organs [sgsnzl O rgans functioning together for the same general purpose = body system [sisom) organ + orSan = ^ sVstem
  4. THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF BODY SYSTEMS STRUCTURE S tructure refers to th e arrangem ent of parts, organs, tissues, cells or particles. Function is th e norm al, unique [ju:ni:k] activity. A cell is the basic structural and functional unit of any living organism . C ells may be different shapes and sizes and perform a variety o f functions. Tissue is m ade up o f a specialised group o f cells. T h e re are 4 basic types of tissue: • Epithelial [epi’eirUsl] tissue forms th e skin th a t covers th e body, lines cavities and forms glands. • Connective [kanektiv] tissue is extensive and forms th e support and framework of the w hole body. Bone, cartilage, tendons, fat, blood and lym ph are all made up of different types of connective tissue. • M uscle [mAsal] tissue is designed to produce m ovem ent by forcible c o n tra c tio n and includes 3 different groups: skeletal muscle, sm ooth (or visceral [visarall) muscle and cardiac muscle. • N ervous [ra iv a s ] tissue m akes up th e com m u n icatio n netw o rk o f th e body. The c e n tra l agency is th e b ra in a n d e a c h stru c tu re in th e body is in direct com m unication w ith th e b rain by nerves w h ic h come to g eth e r to form the spinal cord. A n organ is m ade up o f groups of specialised tissues, w orking together w ith a specific function. A system is a group o f organs w orking to gether w ith th e sam e specialised function.
  5. © C a n you na m e a n y o f the m ajor organs in the h u m a n body? s M atching Exercise. P u t the words in the 1. T h e process o f cell division involving th e D N A w hich box below in the space provided to com plete doubles itself to produce identical daughter cells is called the definition. 2. A group o f specialised cells w ith th e sam e fu n c tio n is c a lle d ................................... 3. T h e th ick , m uscular [mAsk'ju:ia] layer of th e h e a rt wall is know n as t h e .................................. 4. T h e largest mass o f nerve tissue in th e body - th e ‘central cartilage [kaitalid^] agency’ for co m m unication w ith th e rest of th e body - is tissue [ti/u:] an organ called t h e ..................... myocardium [mai'aukaidiam] 5. A type of hard c o n n ec tiv e [kanektiv] tissue th a t acts as a epithelium [epiffcWam] shock absorber a n d reduces fric tio n b e tw ee n b ones in cell [sell m oveable jo in ts (or a rticu la tio n s) o f th e body is called function [fAgk/an] brain [brein] 6. T h e tissue th a t forms a protective covering for th e body organ b:gan] and also lines th e intestinal [intest'ainall tract, th e respiratory smooth muscle [ra'spira'tri] trac t and th e urinary [jurranril passages is called [smu8 mAsl] mitosis [mai'taosis] 7. T h e basic u n it o f life is t h e .................. 8. D ifferent tissues working together w ith th e same function form a n ....................... 9. T h e a ctio n o f peristalsis [peri'stolsisl - th e m o v em en t of food dow n th e oesophagus [a'sDfagasl a n d th ro u g h th e intestine - is formed by involuntary o r ................................... 10. T h e norm al, unique [ju:ni:k] activity of various body parts is its ......................... A lth o u g h each body sy ste m can n o t u w k independently, w e can look a t the stru c tu re of each a n d its various com plicated fu n ctio n s to see how the body w orks as a single u n it.
  6. 3B iy Study the pictu re w ith the body system s m a rked w ith nu m b ers 1 to 11 on page 124 and n a m e th e m u sin g th e follow ing nam es: (W rite th e m again u n d e r N a m e of S y stem below .) U N IT r—i [n3:vas] RESPIRATORY [ra'spira'tri] SYSTEM [di'djestiv] I C j drcuiatm ry [ssikyieitni System ^ E n d o crin e lendaJkrin] System eletal V,fltvCv' ' ' sM i ,// c I " i -git*? M uscular ImAskHida) System _ . J >Sfem ' T „ w Cl R e p r o d u c tiv e [ripra'd/iktiv) S y s te m 0 ■* - ,n ^ ntegUm f t U rinary [ju:ranril System entary & •V. 8,u^ System) JL NAME OF SYSTEM STRUCTURE (is m ade u p o f..) 1 ...b ones [baonzl (+ cartilage, ligam ents) Function(s): 2 ... skeletal, cardiac a n d sm o o th m uscles [nusslz] (+ ten d o n s) Function(s): 3 h e a rt [ha:t] a n d blood vessels (a rte rie s, v ein s a n d capillaries) F unction(s): 4 lu n g s [Lujz] a n d a ir p assag es. N a s a l p a ssa g es, u v u la [jurv'juia], Function(s): p h a ry n x [fce'rinks], lary n x [laerinks], tra c h e a [traTdal, b ro n c h i fbrngld], bron ch io les [brogki'Dlz], alveoli [alViWiMair sacs) 5 b ra in , spinal co rd a n d nerves Function(s): 6 m o u th (te e th , to n g u e a n d salivary glands), epiglottis, oesophagus Function(s): [a'sofagas], s to m a c h [stAmak], in te s tin e s 111140513112] + accessory o rg a n s: liv e r [liva], g a llb la d d e r [go l'blaeda], p a n c re a s [paerfkhas). P a rts of this system are sometimes referred to as the gut. 7 k id n ey s [kidnizl, u re te rs [jutrataz], b lad d e r [blaeda], u r e th r a [juAiAal Function(s): 8 M a le: te s te s , d u c ts /s e m in a l v e sic le s, p ro s ta te g la n d , penis F unction(s): F e m ale : o v a rie s, F a llo p ia n tu b e s (o v id u c ts ), u te r u s [ju.-ta'rasl, vagina lvald3aina], b re asts Ibrests) 9 G la n d s: p itu ita ry [pitju.Jitri]I p in e a l [pm'ial], th y ro id lea?™!] and Function(s): p a ra th y r o id [paera^ai'rad], th y m u s [Oaimas], a d re n a l [adrimal], p an creas [paegk'rias], ov aries [auva'riz] a n d te ste s [testizl 1 0 lym ph nodes (to n sils a n d a denoids [aeda 'noidz]), ly m p h vessels, F unction(s): valves [vaelvz], th e spleen [spli:n] 1 1 e p id e rm is, d e rm is, se b a ce o u s M xi/as] (o il-p ro d u c in g ) glands, F unction(s): su d o rife ro u s |su:daWaras] (sw eat-producing) glands 128 L istening 1 7 - Body sy ste m s L isten to th e recording and c h ec k your a n sw ers.
  7. UNI T GRAMMAR NOTES T a lk in g a b o u t s t r u c tu r e ‘to be m ade up o f ’, ‘consists o f ’ or ‘to be com posed o f ’ 3B T h e re are subtle differences in the use of th e above phrases: ‘to be m ade up o f’ is used for a detailed breakdown of a part or a structure e.g. The joints (or articulations) are made up of bones, cartilage and ligaments. ‘consists o f’ is used in a general way w hen all the m ain parts of a structure are nam ed e.g. The respiratory tract consists of the pharynx, trachea, lungs, bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli. ‘to be com posed o f’ is used w hen the m aterials or substances from w hich the structure is formed, are nam ed e.g. Both the brain and the spinal cord are composed of nerve cells and fibres. /y Now, com plete th e follow ing sentences. 1. T he p h a ry n x .....................................the naso-pharynx, the oro-pharynx and the laryngo-pharynx. 2. T h e brain s t e m ......................................the m id-brain, the pons and the m edulla. 3. T h e in te stin e s....................................... 2 parts, the large and the small intestine. 4. T he duodenum , the jejunum and the ile u m ............................ the small intestine. 5. W h at does th e skeletal sy s te m .................................. ? Bones, joints and ligaments. 6. T he female reproductive system .............................the ovaries, the oviducts, the uterus and the vagina. 7. T h e s k i n ...............................epithelial tissue, collagen fibres, nerves, blood vessels and glands. © W ith a partner, look a t questio n 5 . M ake questions for the other sentences. Using the information you have, ask your partner some questions about the structure of other systems. VERBS AND NOUNS f C om plete th e table w ith the m issing w ord. Verb N oun Verb N oun transport transportation circulate tek'juleit] regulate Ireg1juleit] digestion form ation remove secrete (d irectly in to e lim ination the bloodstream ) destruction filter excrete (in to a duct) production reproduction conceive defend lining cover(ing) develop provide p rotection storage situate dilate function(ing) 129
  8. FUNCTION fe z N ow m a ke som e sentences usin g this form at: e.g. The circulation of blood to the tissues is the function of the heart. T h e excretion of waste products Blood circulation th e liver W aste excretion is a/the* function o f th e kidneys W ater regulation th e h e art Production of bile Storage of protein and glycogen (*T hc function is used when it is the only function, a function indicates one of several functions) (a) F u n c tio n (s): T h e purpose o f this system is to take in air, filter it and take it to the R ea d the tissues responsible for gas exchange. O xygen [nksi'djan] is th e n transported description o f the by th e blood to all th e tissues in th e body. C a rb o n dioxide, a waste fu n ctio n s of each [weist] product, is re-absorbed in to th e blood and th e n excreted from the body system . body. Identify the system and label each. (b) N ow tu rn back to T h is system forms th e basic fram ew ork o f th e body - it supports and page 128 a n d w rite protects all th e in tern al organs. Bones serve as levers (w ith th e attached a b rief su m m a ry of m uscles) for m ovem ent, produce blood cells and store calcium [luel'siaml the fu n ctio n (s) of salts w hich c an be absorbed in to th e blood w h en th ere is n o t enough each body system . calcium in th e diet. (c) T h e se c re tio n o f h o rm o n es Ih^'maunz], w h ic h re g u la te th e body's functions chem ically, is th e fun ctio n o f this system. (d) T h is system is also called th e excretory system and filters body liquids, e lim inating chem icals and excess fluids from th e body. (e) T h is system c o n ta in s a n im p o rtan t organ w hich pum ps blood round the e n tire body. T h is is necessary to supply cells w ith n u trie n ts and oxygen and to transport waste products for excretion. (f) T h is system is e sse n tia l for re p ro d u c tio n a n d th e p ro d u c tio n of horm ones, sex cells (gam etes) [gsmi:ts] and it also enables conception [kon’sepjan] and perm its th e carrying and b irth of babies (offspring). (g) T h e system w hich converts (changes) food in to sim pler substances for th e cells to use for energy also takes away (or elim inates) waste products from th e body.
  9. UNI T (h) I 1 T h is com plex system, w hich is also th o u g h t of as a n organ, protects the body from disease, helps to regulate body tem perature a n d acts as a 3B sensory receptor. (0 A system w hich runs parallel w ith th e veins th roughout th e body, drains fluid from th e tissues and helps to defend th e body against infection and disease. (j) W e n e ed th is system to p roduce m ov em en t, b o th v o lu n ta ry a n d involuntary, and to keep our hearts beating to keep us alive [alaiv]. (k) T his is th e m ost com plex system in th e body and its functions are to regulate all th e o th er systems in th e body, to receive and send messages and to provide us w ith inform ation about our e n v iro n m en t len'vai'ran'mant]. Complete 1. T h e .................... c a rrie s ...................through the arteries to the body cells. the sentences 2. O n e function of t h e ............................ is t o ......................the am ount o f w ater using the correct in the body. Miordfs.) from the 3. T h e .................................. also ....................... urea [ju:ri:a] (a n itro g e n waste box. product) from the body. ovaries 4- T h e ...............................functions as b oth an organ of digestion and excretion. eproduc 5. T h e ............................. is an accessory organ of digestion. lines 6. T h e ............................. beats 80 tim es per m inute on average. ire situate nary syste 7. T h e ........................... are only found in females. T hey are endocrine glands blood w h i c h ........................horm ones and o v a ....................................................... here. pancreas 8. A n accessory lask'sesa'ri] organ of d igestion, w h ich is also an e n d o crin e cartilage g la n d ,..................... insulin and is called t h e ............................... on ceptior 9. A ll th e bones in th e skeletal system ............. from a fibrous c o n n ec tiv e regulate covers tissue c a lle d ...............................T h is tissue eventually hardens w ith calcium bone deposits to b e c o m e ............................. kidneys ( x 3 ) 10. T h e ................ the ureters, the urinary bladder and u reth ra m ake up the ; liver (x2) ..........................................w hich can also be called t h e ........................................... secrete 11. B oth the spinal cord and the b r a i n ......................................... nerve cells. oxygen excrete 12. C e l l s .................................. b y .................................... - a process called mitosis. h e art 13. T h e skin w h ic h ........................the outside of the hum an b o d y ............................ ire produced ■ cells, sw eat glands, oil-producing glands, blood vessels and nerve endings. form E pithelial tissue a l s o ..................... all the systems th a t have tracts opening : com posed
  10. 3C © UNI T DIRECTIONAL TERMS Id is necessary to have special words to talk about the position or location of organ* and parts and to talk about d irection in th e h u m an body. T h e words 'left' and 'right', ‘back’ or ‘fro n t’ are n o t specific enough and th e use o f ‘north’ and ‘south’ would be inappropriate! T h e d irectional term s used refer to the body in th e anatom ic position. T hree imaginary planes are used to describe the structural plan of th e body and the anatom ic relationship of one p art to another. T hese planes cut through th e body at right angles to each other. PLANES OF DIVISION M idsagittal Plane Transverse Plane Divides the body into front Divides the body in to right Divides th e body in t.' pans and back halves. and left halves. above or below. Directional terms used: Directional terms used: Directional terms used: F ro n ta l / V entral or Dorsal M edial or L a te ra l Superior or Inferior A n te rio r or Posterior A Sagittal plane lies away C ra n ia l or C audal from th e m idline and divides the bodv into right and left parts 132 D raw a cross-section o f each o f the planes o f division.
  11. DIRECTIONAL TERMS ✓ N o w label th e diagram below w ith all the follow ing directional term s, m a tc h in g th e words th a t have opposite m eanings. D raw the m idline ( 1) - an imaginary line close to the middle of the body - there is no opposite to thisl a n terio r/v en tral (towards the front) lateral (further from the m idline/tow ards the side) distal (farther away from the body) superior/cranial (above or in a higher position) inferior/caudal (below or lower th an ...) proxim al (nearer to the m ain part of the body) medial (nearer to an imaginary m idline plane) p osterior/dorsal (towards the back) ty Study the directional term s and com plete the following sentences. e.g. The hand is d istal to the shoulder. 1. T h e thorax i s ..................... to the abdom en. 2. T he nose and the m outh are in a ..........position on the face. 3. T h e elbow i s ..................... to the wrist. 4. T h e knee i s ........................to th e back o f the thigh. 5. T h e ears are i n ........................positions on the head. 6. T h e buttocks a r e ..................... to the pubic region. 7. T h e navel (or um bilicus) is at t h e .............................. 8. T h e femur (th e long bone in the th ig h ) i s ................... to the tibia and hbula. 9. T h e knees a r e .................................to th e hips. 10. T h e brain i s ...................... to the spinal cord. 11. T h e oesophagus i s ........................... to th e stom ach. A lot o f muscles and blood vessels are nam ed using directional terms so th a t th eir location and relationship to o th er parts are easily understood. J * O n these 2 diagram s, label 1. the rig h t eye: (a) Interior rectus muscle (b) S uperior rectus muscle (c) M edial rectus muscle (d) L ateral rectus muscle 2 . th e heart: ( a ' Interior vena cava (b) S uperior vena cava
  12. 3C U N IT BODY CAVITIES A c av ity is any ho llo w space. Body cavities are areas w hich confine o rg a n s and systems th a t h ave related functions. T h e 2 m ajor body cavities are the d o n a l cavity and th e ventral cavity. T h e dorsal cavity is subdivided in to the cranial cavity (c o n ta in in g th e brain) and the spinal cavity (con tain in g th e spinal cord). T h e ventral cavity is divided in to 3 parts: th e thoracic cavity, th e abdominal cavity and th e pelvic cavity. T h e abdom inal a n d pelvic cavities together are called the abdominopelvic cavity. $ L abel th e body cavities C om plete th ese sen ten ces. and th e organs situ a te d in the abdom inopelvic cavity. 1. T h e h eart and the lungs are situated in the 2. T h e d om e-shaped m uscular organ th a t separates this cavity from the abdom inal cavity is t h e ............................ 3. T h e spinal cord is located in t h e ......................................... 4- T h e brain and th e spinal cord are situated in a space know n as t h e ........................................... 5. T h e abdom inal and pelvic cavities to g eth er are known as t h e .................................................. 1 _ 6. W h ere are th e differen t parts o f th e digestive system located? Look at th e diagram of organs located in the abdom inal cavity and w rite an approxim ate position for each o n th e list using d ire c tio n a l term s (e.g. The oesophagus passes through the diaphragm and its inferior end lies medially in the abdominal cavity): • The stomach [st.unak] ............................ • The liter [livs] ....................................... • The appendix [sp'endiks] ....................... • The pancreas [pan'kriss] ....................... • The transverse colon |tra?nzlv3:s kaulon] • The duodenum [diu:a'di:ndm] ................ • The ascending colon [ei'sendip kaulnn] . • The descending colon [dii'sendip kaulnnl • The gallbladder [grdtiteda] ................... • The bile dllCt [baial'd.vkt] ....................... 134 • The aecum [stkaml ..............................
  13. CLINICAL DIVISIONS OF THE ABDOMEN m For th e purpose o f clinical exam ination O n diagram I , m ark: a n d reporting, th e abdom en is divided the R ight U pper Q uadrant (R U Q ) in to 4 co rre sp o n d in g regions called the R ight Lower Q uadrant (RLQ ) quadrants. T h e um bilicus [Amba'laikas] (or th e Left U pper Q u ad ran t (L U Q ) n avel) is th e intersecting point. the Left Lower Q u ad ran t (LLQ) G> ^ Listening 18 - E xercise P ractise saying th e words in T h e U m bilicus the box before lis te n in g to th e d ic ta tio n . N ow , liste n to the [Am'bilikas] o r [Amba'laikasJ recording. Use it as a d icta tio n to help you label diagram 2. T h e U m bilical [Am'bilikl] o r [Amba'laiklJ N ow , test yo u rself and m a rk the anatom ic regions in the Region box on the diagram . T h e P elvic/P ubic [pjufcik) o r © Do you k n o w how the w ord ‘hypochondriac’ [haipau'kDndriaek] H ypogastric [haipaiygasstrik] is usually u se d ? W h a t do you th in k is the reason? R egion T h e R ight and L eft © T h in k o f som e questioris to ask your partner. Look a t the L ateral [tarsi! R egions examples a n d fo rm u la te some questions before you start. T h e R ight a n d L eft H y p o c h o n d riac W here would a p a tie n t In th e R ight Lower [h aip au 'k D n d ricek ] w'ith acute appendicitis Q uadrant or the R ight Iliac R egions feel th e m ost pain? R egion of the abdom en... T h e L eft and R ight W here is the liver located? Ing u in al [iq'gwinai) o r Iliac [ili:'*k] R egions In the R ight H ypochondriac Region! ...W h a t organs are situated in the T h e E pigastric [epi'gastrik] H ypogastric (or Pubic Region)? R egion
  14. 3D U N IT THE SKELETAL SYSTEM R ead th e tex t before a tte m p tin g th e w ritte n exercises. T h e skeletal system includes all of the Cranium bones of the body show n on the right and includes cartilage (fibrous connective Zygomatic bom Masai bone tissue), joints (articulations) and Maxilla ligam ents (fibrous tissue bands th at Mandible 7 Cervical vertebm co n n ect bones or cartilage). T h e study of bones is called osteology'. Clavicle Manubrium T here are 206 bones in the adult Humerut Sternum hum an skeleton and their function is to give the body its shape, to support the Xiphoid process body and protect all the delicate internal organs. T h e skeleton also provides places for the a tta ch m en t of 5 Lumbar vtrubm muscles and the bones act as levers to Iliac crest provide m ovem ent of skeletal muscles. Ulna Iliac fossa T h e cavities inside long bones store fat Radius Sacrum in the yellow m arrow and bones also Coccyx Carpah store the m inerals, calcium , magnesium , Ischium Metacarpus phosphorous, potassium, sulphur and sodium. Red blood cells are formed 14 Phalanges (haematopoiesis Ihem'atau'prfsisl) in the bone marrow of c ertain bones. Femur Bones are individually classified as organs and bone tissue is capable of a Patella process w hich forms new bone. Osteoclasts are responsible for the re-sorption (or breakdow n of bone) and osteoblasts build it and assist in the growth of bones. Fibula Bones are classified according to their shape. T here are 5 m ain classifications: long bones, e.g. hum erus, ulna, femur; Calcaneus Tarsab short bones, e.g. wrist & ankle bones; Metatarsals flat bones, e.g. ribs, sternum , 14 Phalanges scapulae; irreg u lar bones, e.g. vertebrae, face bone sesam oid bones are small bones w hich L abel the scapulae (p i.) on th e diagram . 136 form in ten d o n s, e.g. patella. (scapula - singular)
  15. U N IT THE STRUCTURE OF A LONG BONE C ancellous (spongy) bone filled ,w ith red bone marrow 3D T h e Proxim al Epiphysis G row th line or Epiphyseal line (a'pifa'sis] C om pact (hard) bone Bone cavity containing yellow bone m arrow T he Diaphysis [dai'aefasis) or A rtery Bone Shaft E ndosteum lend'Dstam] T h e Periosteum (or covering of the bone) T he Distal Epiphysis is com posed of specialised [a'pifa'sis] fibrous connective tissue Each bone can be C artilage (tough, resistant connective labelled using its tissue) covers the ends of long bones markings - that is, the depressions, grooves, openings D iv isio n s o f the Skeleton (foramina), processes and 1. T h e A xial [sksial] Skeleton: projections that is com posed o f th e skull, th e vertebral colum n and th e bones o f th e thorax - th e rib cage and sternum . can be seen on the surface of bones 2. T h e A p p e n d icu lar (eipen'dikju:la) Skeleton: and are used as includes all th e bones o f th e ex trem ities (th e arm s a n d th e reference points. legs) a n d th e bones these are co n n ec te d to, i.e. th e shoulder girdle and th e pelvic girdle. T h e skull includes all th e bones of the head: th e cranial bones and all th e facial bones. T h e vertebral c o lu m n consists o f 26 irregular bones, th e vertebrae (pi.) divided in to sections by th e ir p osition from the base of th e skull to th e caudal end: 7 cervical vertebrae ( C l to C 7 ), 12 thoracic vertebrae (T1 to T 12), 5 lum bar vertebrae (L I to L5), 5 fused vertebrae w hich m ake a triangular bone called th e sacrum (w hich also m akes up part o f th e pelvic girdle or pelvis) and a sm aller triangular bone consisting o f 4 fused vertebrae called the coccyx [koksiks]. T h e rib cage (or bony tho rax ) consists of th e 12 thoracic vertebrae dorsally, th e 12 pairs o f ribs laterally a n d th e sternum and costal cartilages anteriorly. T h e first 7 or 8 pairs o f ribs are c o n n e c te d to th e sternum by cartilage a n d are referred to as true ribs. T h e rem aining 5 pairs of ribs are called false ribs. 137
  16. C om plete th e follow ing sen ten ces. 1. T h e adult skeleton h a s .............hones. 2. Bones are a ‘storehouse’ f o r ............................................. and . 3. W h at are the functions o f the skeletal system? 4. List the 5 classifications of bone: .......................................... 5. A long hone is divided in to the shaft o r ...................................... and the 6. Nam e 2 types of bone tis s u e :............................................................................. 7. N am e the 2 m ain divisions of th e s k e le to n :............................................ 8. T h e bones of the thorax include the 12 pairs of .. the 1 2 ........................and the 9. Identify the site w here grow th occurs in long h o n e :...................................................... 10. N am e th e 2 bones of the vertebral colum n th at are m ade up of fused vertebrae: L istening 19 - The sk eletal sy stem L isten to the recording a n d ch eck your answers. N ow , m atch the following words w ith the correct definition. 1. T h e fatty substance inside the central cavity of long bones: ............................ 2. T h e bones of the head and face together are called th e .................................... epiphysi 3. T h e m aterial th at forms the skeleton in an embryo: ........................................... 4. T h e 5 biggest v erteb rae are located in th e ........................... region o f th e vertebral colum n. 5. T h e tou g h (stro n g ) c o n n e c tiv e tissue th a t covers bo n es is called th e 6. Blood cells are produced in the ................................................................................... 7. T h e shaft of a long bone is also called th e ............................................................. radius 8. T h e lining (th e inside surface) of a bone cavity is called th e ......................... 9. T h e tail part of the lower vertebral colum n, consisting of 4 or 5 small, fused bones is called t h e ............................................................................................................ 10. T h e bone located on the side of the thum b in th e forearm is the ................. 11. T h e end of a long bone is i t s ........................................................................................ 12. T h e scientific nam e for th e knee-cap is the ........................................................... 13. A n adjective w hich m eans ‘betw een th e ribs': ...................................................... si 14 T he type of connective tissue th at connects 1 bone to a n o th e r :.........................
  17. JOINTS R ead th e text. Where 2 or more bones come together and usually need to move or articulate [a:'tik'ju:leit]) there is a joint [dgamt] (or an articulation [a'tik'juiiei/an].) w hich is held together w ith strong, flexible bands of fibrous connective tissue called ligam ents [ligamants]. Joints are classified according to the amount of movement perm itted, that is immovable - a synarthrosis (singular), slightly moveable - an amphiarthrosis (singular) or freely moveable - a diarthrosis (singular). 1. IMMOVABLE or FIB R O U S jo in ts (sy n a rth ro ses [sinla:0lreusi:zl plural) are those joints th a t are fixed, such as th e joining of th e skull bones - the lines a t these joints are called sutures [su:t/az], 2. SLIGHTLY M OVEABLE or C A R T IL A G IN O U S joints (am phiarthroses [amfi'a:0lrausi:z] plural) have only a m inim al am o u n t of m ovem ent - th e vertebrae [ratabri] are examples o f these. Between the vertebrae, there are disks of another strong connective tissue called cartilage [katiiidg]. This acts as a cushion, reducing friction and w ear and tear of th e bones. (Cartilage is also found o n the ends of long bones.) A n o th er example of these cartilaginous joints is the symphysis pubis [simfasas pjurbas) - the anterior pelvic joint, w hich softens during pregnancy to allow more m ovem ent. 3. FREELY MOVEABLE o r SYNOVIAL joints (diarthroses [dai'a:0‘rai>si^l plural) have a variety of different m ovem ents, so they can also be nam ed according to th e type of m ovem ent. A freely m oveable joint is referred to as a synovial [sin'auvial] jo in t because there is a cavity betw een th e joints containing a sticky synovial fluid (secreted by the synovial m em branes lining the joint) w hich prevents friction betw een th e bones. L istening 2 0 - Joints Look a t the pictures of joints below and listen carefully to th e recording to describe each one. (a) (b) (c) (d) f W h a t is it? ......................................................... ...................... .............. Medical name of joint ..................... ................................... ...................... .............. Type of joint ......................................................... ..................... .............. Classification ......................................................... ...................... .............. Type of movement ..................... ................................... ...................... ..............
  18. 3E Further classifications of Freely Moveable (Synovial) Joints or Diarthroses U N IT W rite a n exam ple of each on th e line. B A L L A N D S O C K E T J O I N T S : T h ese give a lo t o f freedom and allow m o v em e n t on 2 planes. H IN G E JO IN T S : T h is type of jo in t restricts m ovem ent to 1 plane. P IV O T JO IN T S : T h is type of jo in t allows the bones to rotate o n one another. & L iste n again and ch eck your a nsw ers. FRACTURES A fracture [fraek't/a] is any break or rupture in a bone. Severe force can cause a fracture m almost any bone. The word ‘fracture’ is often written as the symbol '# ’ e.g. # N O F = fractured N eck of Femur. T h e bones of a baby or a young child are n o t as h a rd as a n a d u lt’s bones (because th ere are less calcium salts and they consist of a lot o f cartilage). T h ey are softer and m ore e lastic so do n o t break easily. Very o ften , th e injury seen in a c h ild is a greenstick fracture, i.e. th e bone does n o t break right through but is only injured on one side. Im agine bending a b ran ch o f a tree th a t is n o t dry or dead - it m ay bend and partially split but does n o t separate in to 2 pieces. There are 4 general classifications of fractures and a n u m b e r of more specific classifications: 1. Sim ple - th e bone is broken b u t th ere is n o break in th e skin. 2. C om p o u n d - th e skin over th e fracture has b een pun ctu red or to m o r a n o th e r organ is also damaged. 3. C o m m in u ted [kDminju:tidj - th e bone is fractured in one or m ore places, is splintered or crushed. 4. G re e n stic k - th e bone does n o t break right through but is only injured o n one side. 140
  19. CAUSE AND EFFECT W h a t happens in the h u m a n body w h e n a bone is fra c tu re d 1 C A U SE S IG N O R SY M P T O M A n increase in circulation to th e injured part redness, a sensation of heat Fluid and leucocytes (w hite blood cells) leave the bloodstream and e n te r th e tissues - there may swelling also be bleeding in to th e tissues T he pressure o n nerve endings increases T he body attem pts to keep th e p art still loss of m obility (function) .> Look at the follow ing example a n d make sentences to answ er the questions. W h en a bone is fractured, why do you notice redness around the area.’ B eca u se redness is caused by an increase in circulation. or B eca u se an increase in circulation results in/causes/leads to redness. 1. W hy does the injured part start swelling? 2. W hy do you feel pain w hen a bone is fractured? 3. W hy is th ere a sensation of h eat w hen a bone is fractured? 4. W hy is there loss of fu n c tio n w hen a bone is fractured? 5. W h at does a deficiency in calcium cause? 6. W hy are th e bones o f old people m ore likely to break? 7. W hy is exercise im p o rtan t for the body, the skeletal system in particular? © A sk your p a r tn e r th ese 1. W h a t are the 3 m ain classifications of joints? questions. 2. W h a t is the nam e ot the co n n ectiv e tissue th a t joins one bone to another? 3. W h a t is the nam e ot the strong, connective tissue th a t surrounds all bones? 4. W h a t are th e 4 m ain classifications o f fractures? 5. W h at has happened to a bone if it is classified as a ‘com m inuted [ k D m i n j u tid] fracture’?
  20. 3F --------------------------------------------- ® --------------------------------------------- UNI T MOVEMENT, POSTURE AND LIFTING S keleta l m u scles are a tta ch e d to bones and m ove the skeleton. T here are more than 650 in d iv id u al m uscles in th e skeletal m uscle system . Each muscle is a distinct structure b u t muscles usually act in groups to execute body m ovem ents. Because it is under conscious control, skeletal muscle is also called voluntary muscle. A ll muscles in th e body n eed energy to contract or shorten. T h is energy is supplied in th e form o f A T P (a d e n o sin e -tri-p h o sp h a te ) w h ic h is th e result o f th e cells ‘burning’ or using nu trien ts, causing oxidisation. For the cells to produce ATP, they m ust h ave a n adequate supply o f oxygen, glycogen and o th er nutrients. If th e body uses m ore oxygen th a n is available for strenuous exercise, lactic acid (a waste product of m etabolism ) builds up (or accum ulates) in th e m uscles, causing cram ps and muscle fatigue. A fter strenuous exercise, we need to breathe faster and our hearts beat faster so th a t m ore oxygen is pum ped to th e tissues. T h is helps th e lactic acid to be re-absorbed and to be used for o th e r m etabolic activities. POSTURE IpDs't/a] T h e way we stand, sit and m ove is im portant to our general good h e alth . For th e skeletal muscles to strengthen and support the body and its in tern al organs, they have to function correctly. W hen th e axis of the body and the axial skeleton are alm ost th e same, good posture is achieved. L abel the figures. © 1 standing straight with the shoulders pushed back and the abdomen pushed forward T his causes the abdom inal muscles to becom e weak and may result in digestive, respiratory and/or back problem s including an abnorm al curvature of th e spine w ith an excessive lumbar curve, called lordosis. © 2 with his head pushed forward to balance his body He has to tilt his pelvis or hip girdle forward. T h is results in rounded shoulders and strained back muscles w h ic h p re v e n t co rre c t b re ath in g . T h is p osture can lead to kyphosis (som etim es called hunchback) w hich is an exaggerated curvature of the thoracic curve of the spinal column. © 3 standing with ,y>od posture He is standing com fortably w ith his ear, h a n d and foot 142 on the same axis.
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