Environmental Innovation Dynamics in the Pulp and Paper industry

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Environmental Innovation Dynamics in the Pulp and Paper industry

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Berkhout (2005) argues that the source of pressures on each corner of the Innovation Triangle differs. Pressure on abatement tends to come from the environmental authori- ties; pressures on process changes come from competitors and customers; whereas pres- sures on products come from consumers and pressure groups. Moreover, changes in one corner of the Innovation Triangle affect changes in both other corners through dynamic interlinkages (depicted by the arrows in Fig. 2). As we will discuss below for example, consumer demand for the product chlorine-free paper, indirectly affected the process of bleaching, and henceforth the need and technology of abatement of...

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