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genki 1 an integrated course in elementary japanese1 phần 2

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genki 1 an integrated course in elementary japanese1 phần 2

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Nếu bạn là người nhập môn mới hoàn toàn thì có lẻ điều khó hiểu nhất là Tại sao lại có hai bảng chữ cái là hiragana và katakana? Cũng không có gì khó hiểu lắm đâu, hiragana là thể hiện chữ viết của người nhật, còn katakana được dùng để viết những từ nước ngoài du nhập vào mà chủ yếu là tiếng Anh.

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Nội dung Text: genki 1 an integrated course in elementary japanese1 phần 2

  1. ADDITIONAL VOCABULARY Countries U S-A. Ameri ka lgirisu Britain Australia Oosutoraria Korea Kankoku Sueeden Sweden Chuugoku China kagaku science Asian studies ajiakenkyuu keezai economics international. relations kokusaikankee kon pyuutaa computer jinruigaku anthropoIogy seeji pslitics business bijinesu literature bungaku history rekishi job; work; occupation doctor office worker kaishain high school student k ookoasee shufu housewife graduate student daigakuinsee college student daigakusee lawyer bengoshi mother okaasan father otoosan older sister o neesan older brather oniisan younger sister irnooto younger brother otooto
  2. "It is 12:30." "I am a student." "My major is the Japanese language." These sentences will all be translated into Japanese using an appropriate noun and the word desu. 9 I = U 1.3A/ TT0 (It) is half past twelve. @ Juuniji han desu. (I) am a s tudat. ( $2 *L\T-FO Gakusee desu. t c C3X. z*T-3-0 6 the Japa~leselanguage. (My major) N ihongo desu. Note that none of these sentences has a "subject," like the "it," "I," and "my major" found in their English counterparts. Sentences without subjects are very common in Japanese; Japanese speakers actually tend to omit subjects whenever they think it is clear to the listener what o r who they are referring to. What are we to do, then, when it is not clear what is being talked about? To make explicit what we are talking about, we can say: t3 b = G3h Z*TT, is the Japalaese kanguage. n ihongo desu. wa stands for the thing that is talked about, or the "topic," which is later in Where the sentence identified as n ihowo. For example, :*TTa +&XI SI h,4 (My)major ds the Japanese langwzge. it t 3 h/ . 3 Senrnon w a nihongo desu. Similarly, one can use the pattern X wa Y desu t identify a person or a thing X as item o Y. - +AT?, It- t i bk Lt2 I am Sue Kim. X- Watashi wa Suu Kimu desu.
  3. 9 3 L f i S " I 3 * L*~\TTo Mr. Y a w h i f a i a teacher. k Yarnashita san wa sensee desu. n A 96. Mary i s an American. 7%1)3FJ13'b-c--Fo $7')--3LlA Mearii san wa arnerikajin desu. Wa is a member of the class of words called "particles." So is the word lzo, which we will t urn to later in this lesson. Particles attach themselves to phrases and indicate how the phrases relate to the rest of the sentence. Note also that nouns like gakwee and s esee in the above examples stand alone, d i k e their English translations "student" and "teacher," which are preceded by "a." In Japanese, there is no item that corresponds to "a,"nor is there any item that corresponds to the plural "-s" at the end of a noun- Without background situations, a sentence Iike gakusee desu is therefore ambiguous between the singular and the plural interpretations; it rnay mean "We are/you a d t h e y are students," as well as "I am/you are/she is a student." I t is very easy to form questions in Japanese. Basically, all you need to do is add ka at the end of a statement. < @ 3 5: - @ L Y F & ~ ' 9 9 a =,PSf( * L ~ T T , Ryuugakusee desu ka. Ryuugakusee d esu. (Are you) i ~ t e m a t i o ~ student? al (1 am) an i atemtGmnl sturEenf- aH The above sentence, Ryzcugakusee desu ka, is a "yes/noW uestion. Question sentences q may also contain a "question word" like nun2 (what). In this Iesson, w e learn how t o ask, and answer, questions using the following question words: nun.; (what time), namai (how old), nannensee (what year in school). Note.carefully that the order of words in a sentence may be quite different from what you find in your language. ; Z~\Z*TT, * h % &la Q'a'hTT-h~, ( +i?hS,&Ll) eego desu. nan desu ka. (Senmon w a) S enmon wa (My major) is Eytglish. What is your m ior? ' It is not customary to w rite a question mark at the end of a question sentence i Japanese. n 'The Japanese question word for "what"has k v o pronunciations: =an and naai. Naa is used immediate- ly before dmu or before a "counter" like j (o'clock). The other form, mmi, i used before a particle. s i Nani is also used in the combination nanl;jin (person of what nationality).
  4. 2 fa'X/L*TTha, CTTO { (bw nanji desu ka. I ma kuji desu. ([ma) What time i it now? It is nilae o'clock s 9 7'.j-3ctli Q x/%~~TT75~, 4 rp3 9 \ T T , C :'rgj nansai desu ka. Mearii san wa Juukyuusai desu. How old are you, Mary? I'm nineitem years old. Q Pthk*~ - p ; t r a . bchk*~\T-$-, h~ Nannensee desu ka. Ninensee desu. What year are i college? n yo= T & bt fA 2" 9 t3 3 &TT75*, Ia 6 a 7 3 4 3 ~ ~ , nan desu ka. Denwa bangoo wa lchi hachi roku no nana san yon san desu. I t is 186-7343. W7uat i your Eekpkose amber? i No is a particle that connects two nouns. The phrase Toozai daigaku nu gakusee means "(a) student at Tozai University." The second noun gukmes provides the main idea" (being a student) and the first one T ~ o z a i aigdku makes it more specific (not a high d school, but a college student). No is very versatile. In the first example below, i t acts like the possessive ("x's") in English, b ut that is not the only role no can play. See how it connects two nouns in the following examples. f r l - f k S h a T LblXLt"? Tukeshi's phone number denwa bangoo Takeshi san no f3\75${a * ~ L * L \ , a college profasor sensee daigaku no i t l 3 h r"n $75." ( * L \ a student o f fhe Japanese l amuage nihongo no gakusee l=i3L,Ql f s b ~ &{z @college i~ Japan daigaku nihon no Observe that in the first two examples, the English and Japanese words are arranged in the s ame order, while in the last two, they are in the opposite order. Japanese seems to be more consistent in arranging ideas here; the main idea always comes at t he end, with any further description placed before it. 3Here is what we mean by the "main idea." In t he phrase Tukeshi san m d mwa Bangoo (Takeshi's phone number), the noun &wa bawgoo (phone number) is the main idea, in the sense that if something is Takehi's phone number, it is a phone number. The other noun Takeski san i not the main idea, s because Takeshi's phone number is not Tak&.
  5. noun, 03 noun, t T main idea further restriction A phrase of the form "noun1 m noun? acts more o r less like one big noun. You can put it wherever you c an put a noun, as in the following example: id -+/v-tt~\l~~, Z ~O Takeshi san no sensee desu. okaasan wa kookoo no Takeski's mather is a high school teacher. 1 Expression Notera - 8 Db Ano indicates that you have some reservations about saying w hat you are going t o say next. You may be worried about interrupting some- thing someone is currently doing, or soundkg rude and impolite for asking personal questions, for example. [3tl/ZZb Both Rai and ee mean "yes" in response t o yes-no questions. Compared to h ai, ea is more conversational and relaxed. In more informal situations, ula is used. Hai is also used to respond to a knock at the door or to the calling of one's name, meaning "Here," as follows. ( Ee cannot be replaced in this case.) TAf Mr. Smith? Teacher: 7: 5 2 3 ? Sumisu san? H we. Student: Mtl, H ai E3TTlj\b Soo desu ka acknowledges t hat you have understood what was just said. "Is t hat so?" or "I see." Pronunciation of 1% b The particle t;t. is pronounced " wa," n ot "ha." It should be written with k i. All other instances of "wa" are written with b.
  6. Z 3 & 3 7-8667TB, TI - c L@ bf Watashi no denwa b angoo wa san narra no hachi roku roku nana desu. M telephone wuwber i 37-8667. y i There are a few exceptions, such as k ow~~zkkim (good afternoon) and kmbomwta (good evening). They are usually written with 5, tv tZ 'It;- and 7 i2 - h,if&g. Plumbers b Many number words have more than one pronunciation. Refer to the table at the end of this book for a general picture. tf 5 13 -ED and are both commonly used. t ~%,butpronouncedas I Y iIn b s 3 & & (oneminute)and t 1 ~ 2 I ~ t l (one-year old). tZ a ll the time- When you &e reading out each digit separately, 2 as when you give your phone number, it may be pronounced with a lung vowel, as tZl.1. "dX,all the time. The part that follows it may change shape, as 3 in 3 A&&, instead of 3 A&&. L h, is the most basic, but fourth-year student is k ; B a X i - F t h and 4 four o'clock i d; U. In some combinations that we will later s kam,it is read as L (as in 'L.fi%?, April). The part that folIows this number may h ange shape 'too, as in k. &&A. 2 all the time. When read out separately, it may be pronounced 5 with a long vowel, as c-'3 . ?3 < , but pronounced as 5 9 in 5 9 & A. 6 Q t is the most basic, but seven o'clock is L Ei C . e 7 t3 G , but usually pronounced as 6% -7 in i A d:-;, &X. and $23 3 tl. 8 3 o 5 is the most basic, but nine o?clockis < C . 9 L @4, butpronouncedas C g q in C v~&."X/and ~ 9 3 5 . 1 . U 10 Giving one's telephone number b The particle .pro is usually placed in between the local exchange code and the last four digits. Therefore, the number 012-345-6789 is zero icki xi, saa yon go n o, roku nana hachi k yuu. @hreLlbThe word s e ~ s e es usually reserved for describing somebody i else's occupation. Watashk w a s a m e desu makes sense, but may sound slightly arrogant, because the word semee actually means an "honorable master." If YOU (or a member of your family) are a teacher, and if you want to be really modest, you can use the word kyooshi instead. &hr b Sun is placed after a name as a generic title. I t goes both with a given name and a family name. Children are referred to as chan (and b oys in
  7. ..- . :'. ,:I .. , pa&culaf as kurr), rather than as s ax. Professors and doctors are usually referred t o with the title sensee. S m and other title words are never used in reference to oneself. Referring to the person y w are talking to b T he word for "you," anaba, is not very commonly used in Japanese. Instead, we use the name and a title like sun and sensee to refer to the person you are talking to. Therefore, a sentence like "Ms. Hart, are you Swedish?" should be: r6 It & t f P b i I \-t. S LEk x ~ 3 - ~ Y L ~ T ~ ~ ~ , Haato san wa sueedenjin desu ka. Idk 7 L t iT/" b 3 & , &;fcf..i3 ~ 3 z - r " Y V h / T ? h ~ ~ instead of I \- anata wa sueedenjin desu ka. Haato sari, Japanese names b When Japanese give their name, they say their family name first and given name last. Usually, they don't have middle names. When they introduce themselves, they often say only their family name. Here are some typical Japanese names. Given name Family name Men Women v5t w4 r St? Hiroshi Yuuko Satoo &("a 4 TT-3 4 ~1% Megumi lchiroo Suzuki c f z $1 1 L 2 i?;tXI Takahashi Kenji m.5 3 Yuuki BkSr 2 341.4 blk-5 Kyooko Masahiro Itoo
  8. (Numbers) ii Qh -F~/+LL\ ree zero 3 kL"@J5 t "rg j L ~ S ; sanjuu juuichi LhU*? Uqji: y onjuu juuni L*L+@j 3tL 3XI L *@j gojuu juusan san L L "r95LAJL'@.9 &
  9. @ l;f (Time) @ 8 r a z"U U 1I ShC 2 t= L>& sanji niji yoji ichiji goji il: t*=lt' ?dl2 (C , t it% t" t&U juuji hachiji shichiji rokuji kuji I :"> t E I @ T (J i c l3tL C@?tcU L'@;l~%t' L \% ichiji han juuichiji juuniji A. Look at t he following pictures and answer the questions. @ Example: Q : & \ 3 tdhL"T'P$ko ha nanji desu ka. A :~~GL't&X,TTO Ichiji han d esu.
  10. B. Answer the questions. @ Example: Q : Z 3hhTThao 1 nanji desu ka. Tookyoo wa i rna A : r"*h 3 hL'-lvT, sanji desu. Cozen 7:00 P.M. 7 Nnrr Vnrlr 3 :0 0 ~ ~ ~ . 1 :00 P .M. 5. Bangkok WL- 1/ 6 . Sydney 3. Nairobi 4 :OO A.M. 8. Rio de Janeiro 9: 00 P .M. 3:OO P,M. @ Thral%hZj (Telephone Numbers) A. Read the following people's telephone numbers. @ E=Ga%$/v4, $ 4 3 ;1''1hQQ f: Example: 283-9547 + kyuu go yon nana ni hachj san no YarnasRita a,dj71\ 1. $ 7 9 - 951-0326 Mearii L 2. f z i t 3 Takeshi f i 3 . 2- Suu ?lIBY a /\'- p 4. Robaato the dialogue below with your partner. @ B. Pair Work-Read 3 63 Q h TTdxo A : T X/b *: nan desu ka. D enwa bangoo wa B : 283-9547T$, Ni hachi san no kyuu go yon nana desu.
  11. A : 283-9547TTh0 Ni hachi san no kyuu go yon nana desu ne. B : i i t b l , +?I TTo soo d esu. Hai, C. Group Work-Use the dialogue above a nd ask three classmates their t elephone n umbers. telephone number name Q lzlzhzlD A$< ( Ll Translate the following phrases into Japanese using (n ( no).@ t"Q < 21'l dL 13 Example: student of the Japanese language L\ -+ nihongo n o gakusee 2 . my telephone number 1. my teacher 4 . Takeshi's major 3 . my name 6. student of the University of London 5 . Mary's friend 8. high school teacher 7. teacher of the Japanese language . Look at the chart on the next page and describe each person using the cues @ in (a) through (e). Yamashita sensee Robaato san Suu san Takeshi san (a) nationality 7 Ah')+ hIb &', 91 bj i. % 7 J ) - S h i A 7 %) f i h L ? T 0 - ' Example: % 7 '1 - 3 b ' + amerikajin desu. M earii san wa M earii san ( 6) year in school ? L+&?L. g, %, 1. % 7 1 1 - ' I h t 3 G Z&~+?L\TT, Example: $ 7 )- 3 3 ninensee desu. Mearii san M earii san wa
  12. (c)age ar,& ah 1r\ c @?J@ ?~ L ~ T T O 7 ~ 7 3 Example: % 7 " ] - $ h+ 9 7 ' 1 * $ ! ~ ( 3 juukyuu sai desu. Mearii san Mearii san w a (d) school &5h1Ih &'lFta' w A l r 3 Example: % 7 1 J - 2 t L %7'11-3A13 7 9 'l*-?k.+~\$~< + Mearii san wa Arizona daigaku no Mearii san 75s ( ~ & c \ T - $ - ~ gakusee desu. ( e) m ajor nb1ik h h 9 I h $ 7 ' -3 h3 + X I $ 1 -A CCC~~L~T?~ Example: 7 C + Mearii san nihongo desu. senmon wa Mearii san no I I I L~:+-/,/%-L\ , 4$"L;t;WL ( Smith, Robert Kim, S ue Yamashita sensee Kirnura Takerhi British Korean ( 4 7'1x u " ) (6.A z { U A ) Japanese American Japanese Nationality igirisujin kankokujin 4th year 2nd year 3rd year Y ear 4th year 22 19 20 Age Seoul Univ. U. of London , Tozai Univ. U. of Arizona Tozai Univ. School business history computer& (Japanese zrr?? it: :brr (r9;r.x) Japanese Major (xx=-y-) ( j k 3 L) teacher) rekishi biiinesu konovuutaa and answer questions using t he given cues. B. Pair Work-Ask 1i> &ah?$. 9,dj Example 1: 9 7 ' ) - 3 h / 7 9 ' I f i U L Mearii san amerikajin &&qh- d h ~ q r * Q : %r'J-L4,la 7 %'ltJ~:'h'il"Tdx, amerikajin desu ka. Mearii san wa : 2 2 , % -jTTo A soo desu. Ee,
  13. w%r'Ii\ Example 2: % 7 '1 - 3 h / S h . h / v - @ ~ \ san s annensee Mearii hi,1r3 : $7'3 -5ktd: 3 X , # 3 t L * b ~ T - T 7 5 * 0 Q sannensee desu ka. Mearii san wa A : L \L\Z, t=iklX/*~~T-$-* lie, ninensee desu. gakusee Mearii san Arizona daigaku no *&'Jt' 2. $7'1--$h/~%;4a&*L' ichinensee Mearii san Cj L L / C = t S h C & 3. t2"z Takeshi san nihonjin 4 . k't?L s X //tct3/vtf~\itr'( a6 " * b\ Nihon daigaku no gakrrsee Takeshi san 5. k "rLtS,'L'@531.s3 2L' Takeshi san juukyuusai + T i 52-h ; i 6. X - - 3 ~ / Z ~ . s - ~ 2 ~ ~ Suu san sueedenjin i L /if~\3*."L\ 7. X - 3 A n (economics) SUU san no keezai senrnon Rohaato san no bijinesu senrnon .3U&Z b ?!X//&&h+3~\ 9. Up$- Robaato yonensee sari z,ifhL: 1 0. U P T - ~ ~ X / / ~ C ~ @ ~ C ~ ~ ? ~ L ~ Robaato san nijuuissai tf~+hL+?~\/~=iahCL, 11. 9 3 Yamashita sensee nihonjin Yamashita sensee Hawai daigaku no sensee A. Look at the chart below and describe each person with regard to (a) and (b). 2. ~ E C L \ $ X , 1. i 5 h * & 3 i & oniisan okaasan (a) occupation/school adj'lts S L j $ /,,I2 ;b'r\Lrb\/vcl, Example: f ; Z i 3,4, z'+I)-S/vO 4 kaishain desu. otaosan wa Mearii san no otoosan
  14. h.611' % 711-Shag r - 5 ) / Y c ~ L / , L ' a i ~ a ~ $ W f , Example: + Mearii san no otoosan yonjuuhassai d esu. otoosan w a Mary's host family s r.isx/ 3h oniisan lrnooto otoosan okaasan (mother) (father) L:? @{ L t t *"L Z j Lj-@h\ ek\k &%L\ daigakuinsee shufu kookoosee kaishain Occupation/ (graduate (high school (housewife) (works for School student) student) a company) 6. Answer t he questions using the c hart above. 15a~\te~\X/To$75h, 1. S Z j SXIt3 kaishain desu ka. Otoosan wa s r 5. 2 A t i & F ~ ~ L \ T - T - ~ * ~ 2. nansai desu ka. Otoosan wa 3 . SiP& 3 /"4a *A+kc\'C'$is., sensee desu ka. Okaasan wa 5 2 ~hT-f-h*, % 4 . S+dj 3 nansai d esu ka. Okaasan wa 5. i t c~>$.X,bd xL\ t +WL:,-ebT~~, % h Oniisan wa kaishain d esu ka. sG=~\shEa k S ~ ~ T - T h ' , Q 6. nansai d esu ka. Oniisan wa EL\$; 7. L \ Z j Z 13 , ( - ktkhTTbx, daigakusee desu ka. lrnooto wa L\% Ij Z t A ~ & S L \ T + - ? ~ ~ , 8.- nansai desu ka. lrnooto wa
  15. @2&@a fib b I$3 (Review Exercises) five classmates questions and f ill in the chart below. A . Class Activity-Ask Example questions: ;f; 3 5 2 t i ? (What is your name?) Onarnae wa? 33 f z h ao (Where do you come from?) Z * Doko kara kimashita ka. 2 A TTfi', L rZ ' (occupation) id n an desu k a. Shigoto wa f bCt/&lX,*~~Tj-~'. Nannensee desu ka. Q~3~q-j-$~~ Nansai desu ka. * h i t hita Q LT-F;S~, nan desu ka. Senrnon w a Occupation/ Major, etc. Nationality Name Age School B. Self-introduction-Introduce yourself t o t h e class. Example: z X ;1 h i i l L 3 - bT T O I d C b 3 L T 0 %7Y ~h- Mearii Haato desu. Hajimernashite. A') Z Q < 9 L~Z 5 ; { * L\T& 7 1) jf:~h$z I ma gakusee desu. Arizona daigaku n o ! ~#~XI*L\T-~-, * h/#,Al2 t cC3hz*Tj-, nihongo desu. ninensee desu. Senmon wa L :'~P ~ Q ~ $ c \ T" . F .," k 5 L ( . ~ Z ?T J uukyuusai desu. yoroshiku. Doozo
  16. C. Class Activity-Ask your classmates what their majors are, and find someone who has the following major. Example: Q : *h%hlaf a'&T$hao ka. S enrnon wa nan desu A : i :!3A Z *TTO Nihongo desu. name 1. Japanese 2 . economics 3 . English 4 . history 5. business
  17. ITime / A g e Time hours minutes c II I L'r9j~\-d."h k h'f; ~h-3~::~ ichiji lPPun juuippun Ct-Fji=LsA 12 2 d =LaX, nifun juunifun b 3 StLwi:A 3ht 3 ,4,-.2X/ 3 13 sanji sanpun juusanpun Lr 3k k kli:h t tYi:X/ 4 14 C:'rg yoji yonpun Juuyonpun r Y @5z*eiatL 15 5
  18. a Mary goes to a flea market. hbj?t\ rhia L\(h -r~h~, T A3*tt, 1 %7l]-: ikura desu ka. Mearii Kore wa Sumimasen. q jfita L L ~ F A L L T ~ - , 2 : Mise no hito sanzen en desu. Sore wa #A ' I I c~. bj, ha z~ ~~ t a \ { ,c; ~ j - - h > , ~~ u\~ rb f ~ i t r %~j-: L :. '( 3 Takai desu n e. ikura desu ka. Mearii ano tokee wa Jaa, < ; 2hTT, & &l2 3 A e t t L * t h A*a)'CTZ :': 4 sanzengohyaku en desu. wa Mise no hito A re A '1 &3 1, k 3 T Th., & $LS f < h . ~ \ T $ & , % 7")-: 5 takai desu ne. Soo desu ka. Are rno Mearii : T 2~ T T k o h~ P aG )? * Tp f * ~ ~ & 6 Mise no hito senhappyaku en desu yo. Kore wa * & ' I t > E P&, + c 3 Z I j t \ 2 (t:3b~~ 7 %7l]-: o Jaa, kudasai. sono tokee Mearii A man finds wallet on t h e ground. Lh2L't.W 3c\,iaTT r b t d -f:ihcr, 8 Kore wa dare no Shiranai hito saifu desu ka. & & ' l i h b ?zLG3 $ ~ \ ~ i a T - j - ~ %Ti)-: 9 Mearii saifu d ew. Watashi no 3 a&> ! h" Z 2 " ~ * ~ j-, -\ & I Arigatoo gozai masu. @ After shopping, Mary goes to a restaurant. iLLZfz-? 8 1 1 ~ ~ 3 L+L\~-@~ZL-~ 5'~-b Z"-j Fo kX: %= ~\(,q I Menyuu o Ueetoresu doozo. I rasshaimase.
  19. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
  20. Point Words That * r #t this one kor e that one * .ih sore that one (over there) are *aj%h * Yh which one d ore a this . . . kono Z * %a ! that . . . sono . . . (over these) an o that * which . . . z -0 d ono over there * ibf t aso ko Yr where doko * 7't'r$z who dare Food * ~.L\LL\ oishii delicious fish sakana pork cutlet tonkatsu meat niku menu menyuu vegetable y asai pencil. enpitsu umbrella kasa kaban bag shoes kutsu wallet saif u jeans jiinzu dictionary jisho bicycle jitensha newspaper shinbun teepu tape watch; clack tokee sweat shirt toreenaa * Words that appear in the dialogue C

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