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Giải phẫu bệnh thú ý

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Giải phẫu bệnh thú ý

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Hệ bạch huyết: gồm những cấu trúc tham gia trong quá trình trao đổi bạch huyết giữa mô và dòng máu gồm bạch huyết, hạch bạch huyết và mạch máu. Hệ miễn dịch: chống lại những tác nhân gây bệnh bao gồm bạch cầu, VA, Amydal, tuyến ức và lách. Hệ cơ: bao gồm các cơ của cơ thể. Hệ thần kinh: thu thập, trao đổi và truyền tải thông tin. Bao gồm não, tủy sống, hệ thần kinh ngoại biên và dây thần kinh. ...

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  1. dr xilt olu Ciao tinh Gidi phAu b?nh fhrt y bia soan &la theo chaong trinh m1n hoc dd duoc BA Gido d$c ,d Ddo tqo duJCt chinh th{tc ndn 1990. Gidi phdu bpnh gbn hai phin: gidi phAa benh tqi cuong rA gidi phAu bC,th bA pha (chuten khoa). A phAn gidi phdu bQnh bQ phdn nbi vi nhitnT 6n thtong da cdc Trong khi chd ti t h benh Ij tnig co quan, ching nguyen han khdc nhau Ea) n'n cfrng nht qud t6i cho in phan gidi phAu benh dqi cudng nhAm kip thdi cu g cAp cho sinh yien ngd\h t tdi liCu vi nhitng tguy,n ry co bA\, nhan? khdi ien, crtng tfiu nhil g ddc nh8 Th(t ti li hinh thai crta nhitng tdn thuonS chuttg nhdt cho nhiiu qu6 trinh bQnh hay benh tqt. tenhilng kinh nghian gidng d4y crta nhiiu ndm ffiAc, kh hOp fii tham khAa Daa chuong trinh eidng day cfia mAt s6 nabc; sou khi tham khAo i ki6n ciia nt6t s5 aing nthilp, ching t6i manh dqn- thay ddi s1t sdp x6p n\t s6 chudng muc cing nhu bd sml n6t s5 nbi dung m1i dd 6ng hOp duOc (tron1 phqm yi tai lil:u c6 duoi vd khi nbtg rha khda) nhin ting buAc hieL dai hod, Viet Nam hod gido tinh, chrt e t6i SiAi thiCu m1t cdch khdi qudt nh1ng td thwrS ctia t6 bdo qua kinh hidn fi dien fil (t 6c ddy chua c6). Chudng "Nhitng bi^t tdi cia xAc ch6t" tru6c d6y, nay dua vio phin tibp sau c a 6n thuong ft bAa yd haai fi td chr1c. Nhu tQy rhVy daoc sr1 liln quan gita tdn thuong d t6 Aao - don vi cdu tic chitc ndng cia co thd s6ng -.vdi nhin" htt hqi todn than do benh tAt gay naL. Phdn "Tu tta r6t thuong" Oa j,h thudng) \,A "Bqi huyi, tu6c dAr- Ia n phan ria hai..huonq riAn? biir. nay dtla vAo .uoi (hton| "vian t,oi ti do stl 'tu sua thAn gdn) vet thudn?" va "bat futyit' ta kit qud cria su d.i€n bi6n khdc nhau crta aid trinh tian v.t... Do k:hu6n khd thai gian Sidng day n6n giAi phdu b\nh n6i chung e0 rier cd ti thuyat IAn th\c hdnh) vd phin gidi phdu beni dq.; cudng tfti riCng (30iii (d li thu];t t)d thuc hd.nh) quA hqn hpp so vdi tt1i dunS rA y?u ciu m6n ioc: b,n canh d6 c6 gi6a trinh Sini lj b?nh Thi I nan ching t6i chi dta rdo gido tinh nhrlng Oi dung thAt c|n thit nhim cung cip n6t s6 nguy\n Ii, khdi niem ciing nhu nntig iii, aii co bdn cia cdc tlin thuong ,tbi chung Siip cho sinh ,tien sau ndy di vdo cdl m6 Ircc tin.on9 dt(Qr d; dbns hon. Cbn nfl,6 nQi dung khdc Mn fidi gian t|u\,. Ching t6i c6 gdng dua vdo sdch cdc kiin th&c mai dd fitng b 6c hien dai hoA giAa tinh, song,6 thdi dqi bing nd thbng tin md s6ch bda tdi Ueu liel quan d6n m6n hqc cb d.uqc rdt hqn ch6, nhdt.Id tinh dA c6 han nAn tAp "C.Ai pnai benh dqi caong,, khda8. traah klLii htn? tttiiu s6t. Rdt mong tuqc su g6p jt tdy clntg c a qui ban dQc vd donq a?hirl. Cl i g tbi xin than thAnh citm on tuoc- TAC GIA
  2. Grdr TH|FU GAI MON PHAU BFNH L OINH NGH|A l! Girii phrlu bdnh hoc (A:oatonical pathology) hay hinh thrii bQnh lj hoc (Morphological pathology) ld m6t m6n hoc chuydn nghion ctu nhfng bidn ddi vd hinh thdi, cdu trric cria td bno, t6' chfc hay cec co quan do b6'nh tat gay nen 6' cd thd. N6 nghian criu nhfng bidn ddi benh li (hay nhrrng td11 thudng) d nhfng mlic d6 kh6c nhau: ahring tdn thudng c6 thd nhan thdy truc tidp bing n6t thudng, goi ld gidi ph6u bQnh dai thd, vd nhnng bi6n ddi phii qua khh hidn vi mdi nhdn bidt duqc, gai le gidi phiu b6nh vi thd, c6 nhrlog bi6n ddi tinh vi hdn phdi qua kinh hidn vi di6n trl goi Id si6u vi thd hodc ddd mfc d6 -- 1 pban tt thi goi ld b6nh hoc phdn iri. Tr6n eo s6 d6 ph6i ldrn 16 nguv€n nhdn gay be4h ctdg nhu cech phdt sinll cta b6nh tat. II. NHICM VU VA NOI DUNG Nhu phdn drhh nghia da dd cQp t6i, gidi ph6u b6nh nglidIr criu nhrlng bidn d6'i v6 hinh thdi ciu tnic 3 mot cd quan hay co thd b6nh trcn hai mdt dai thd vd vi ihd. Nghia id ph:ii quan sat, md fti vd t6'ng hop m6t c6ch ddy dri, chinh x6c va kh6ch quan nhrilg LiSc thudng 6 t6 bdo, t6 chtc hay cd quan v6 vi tfi, hinh d6ng, kich thudc, miiu s6c, nhidu Lhi cd kh6i ludng, trong luqng, txgng th6i, hodc sd li6n quan gita ving t6n thuong vd ldnh manh v.v.-. Nhrmg girii phAu b€nh khdng chi drlng lai 6 vi€c quan set m6 te ddn thudn md quan trong hd1 la li dua trcD cdc dri kiCn de ihu duoc d6 phii phan tich t6'ng hqp dd tim ra ngryen Dhen gay nen tdn tiuong (bQnh nguydn hqc) vd ti]n ra m6i ]j6n quan g-ifa nhrlng t6'n thuong, gina nhi:]g bi6'n ddi cuc b6 vd todn then. grria nhfDg hu hai v6 cdu tlrlc vd cic rdi loan vd cc Ddng v.v., trl d6 hidu duoc qud trinh tac ddng cria nguydn nhdn dd tao ra ciic tdn thudng hay qu6 tia}r sidr bQrh (shh b6ni hgc). Cring voi nhring tei h6u cria cic m6n can lan sdng, gidl phdu b6ah t6'ng hop, phdn tich tim ra b6n chdt oia quA td* benh hay nhr:ng rdi loan vd cd ndng me v6 met lam sdng c6 r}lrhg mo h6 vd 15n lon- Vdi tinh chdt cq ihd, chinh xdc vi khech quan qua c6c tdn thuong vd hinh th6i, ciu tnic, giii ph6u b€nh cdn xric minh kdt qud cia c6ng tdc chdn dorin dring sai hay hi6u luc cria c6ng tec chta tri cho gia sic b6rh T U, !j.,$Al!h4gfg! l. lq_TTE' 494f bQnh vd met hinh th:ii hoc. Dd d6p rtrg duqc nhfng nhi€m vu tr€n, n6n Gi;ii phAu b6nh Thf y cdn trang bi cho ngudi ldm €6ng fdc Thf y mdt n6i dung phong phrl va todn diCn ca hai mat ly u,Luyet va Lhgc hanh.
  3. v6 li thuydt, Gi6i phdu b6nh gdm c6 hai phdn chinh: - Phdn thf nhdt: Gi6i ph6u bQnh dai crrdng, g6m nhr?ng t6n t'huong co brin chung nhdt cho nhi6u qud trinh bQnh li nhu nhtlg bidn ddi co b6n cria td bdo lra -lo, ,,h,rog to'r thuong do r6'i lo4n trao ddi chdt (thoai hod), tdn thuong do r6'i loan tudn hoin c+c b0, vi6m vA nhring rdi 1o4n cria sq sini san td bao vd to'chfc. hai: Gidi ph6u benh chuven khoa Phdn dv cring c6 hai noi durg tht - Phdn nhu: + Dqi cudng v6 cric tdn tluong do c6c nguyen nh6n kh6c alau gay nan l1hu qoc hai virut, vi khudn cec loai, ki sinh irling cdc loqi ve c6c chdt gay + Gi6i phAu b€nh c6c co quan, gdm nhtDg tdn thudng d trlng cd quaD' b0 phQn do fi6u nguyen nhan gav nen nhu bonh hC tim m?ch' hC ii6u hoa' hC ni€u si r duc, cd thdn kinh vd da v'v ' Vd thrfc hdnh - Do tinh ddc thri clia ngdnn Thri v ld nedli- b6c si Thti v duq" qad md kh6rn gia sric dd chdn dodn b€nh - di chi so chdn' vd ldy b6*r - oyio e.li di chA'n dodn c5c m4t khec nhu virut, vi khudn' kf sintr tning' pfrdr" si Thri v cac dOc chit v.v... Vi vAy girii phdu bQnh phei trang bi cho c6c b6c mon nav N6i dung cu kidn thtc vd nhang nguy€n tac vd ly thudt thuc hanh thd vd chi tidt sc c6 nhfns tii IiCu hudng ddn thqc hanh O d5v chi n€u nhrlng n6i dung kh6i qu6t gdm: - Ki thuat m6'kh6m c6c loai gia srlc, gia cdm' - Phudng ph6p quan s6t ve vidt bi6n bin m6' kh6m' - Phudlg phap ldy, bdo qudn, grii c6c m5u vat di x6t nghiCm' - Phuong ph6p quan s6t tieu b6n vi ihd vd c6ch t6'ng hd.p cac tdi UQu Li€n quan dd rut ra ket ludn cudi cung. Trang bi cho ngTdi hqc sdu rQng vd li txuvdt, thdnh thao vd thuc henh' J", lh6ch [uan v6 phdn tich tdns hqp ld v6u cdu cria Gi6i phAu bQnl "hion . Thli y III. V! TRi C(,A GIAI PHAU BENH TRONG KHOA HQC THU Y Thf y ld ngdni khoa hqc quan trqng cria khoa sinh hgc thgc hinh Nhiem vrl v'r vq cria n6 ld phdng vd t4 benh Lip thcri, trong d6 phbng b6nh ld niiCm cong le phucmg cbam hang ddu. vi v4v viQc chdn do6n bQnh chiri x6c vd' I4p thdi dd c6 biOn phdp phdng vd t4 bCnI c6 hieu qua ld mot v6u cdu quan trong nganh Thri d6'i vdi ngdnh tii y. Ciai phdu benh ld m6n hpc quan trong trong y, n6 li mot trong nhfng m6n co sA Thri v, dat cq sd li luan vd thgc i6 cho cdc m6n hoc ldm sdng nhu noi ngo?i Lhoa, b6nh truy6n nhi6m' kf sinh ining' sin khoa v.v. d6ng thdi gidi phdu bQnh cdn ld mon chdn dodn bQnh v6 mit hinh th6i. Bdng cac phuang ph6p d4c biCt cria minh dd phet hiCn c6c t6'n thucrns phudag ph6p v6 m4t dai thd, vi thd, td bdo hqc, sicu c;u tnic vd d6i khi ca c6c h6a t6' chrlc, h6a td bdo v.v. dd iim ra nguycn nhan vd cd chd cia b€nh' 6
  4. Dd hac tap gi6i ph5u b€nh duqc t6't cdn phrii c6 kidn thrlc cia c6c m6n cd sd khric nhu siei phiu, t0' chfc, sinh li, sinh horl, sinh hgc td bdo vv- Vi c6 n5m duqc cdu tnic vd chrlc ndng cria mot co thd binh tludng thi mci hidu dugc nhtng thay ddi bdt thudng xdv ra troag qu6 trinh bQnh lj" Ngodi ra cdn phrii bidt v4n tlqng c6c ki6n thrlc c,ia gidi ph6u b6nh dd hqc tap cec n6n Um sang thdi' duqc seu hon. Dd c6ng t6c chdn do6n girii ph6u b€nh duoc chinh xec' kip bdc sf thri y cdn c6 kidn thfc sau rong v6 bCnI hqc thri v vd c6c m6n hgc cia ngdnh chdn nu6i c6 li6n quan nhu dinh duang, di truydn hqc vv-' Ri6ng ngdnh Thri y ViQt Nam c6 nhring v6u cdu vd di6u kien cong t6c dic biet, tr-ong not hodn crinh ddt nudc cdn nghbo vd lqc hau Nednl chSn nu6i phd'bidn'ie quy m6 nh6, 16 t6 lqi trai roag tr6! nhtrag dia ba'n rdt phrtc i4p ',ra ai" ti. Giao tirOng vin tdi k6m ph6i tridn Trlng vring' -midn thim chi rl tingotrdt khong c6 nhrrng phdng md kh6m (autopsv roorn) dd chdn cloaa b€ ' " Un; U tl1i6'u nhrrng quv dinh (lu4t) ch4t che v6 vC sinh ih]i v d6'i vdi v{t \ra nu6i cdng n}Iu d5 thi khi kho6 cri,lg nhu Lic chdt Dich b6nh xav ra thudng dai khi rdi nghiom trong- Trong hodn cddr nhu v{v, b6c s}-thi v vdn "..vco pti;.tdo doen xac miDh b6nh mau 19, klp thdi, nhidu l
  5. ', k9p vd con dao rnd vA quan sdt bdng m5t thudng Vi viv chi thdv rluqc b6 oroai, -u te hdi hot, ph4m vi rdt gi6'i han, chri v6u ld c6c co quan' b0 nh4n tfrdl nhrhs bidn d6i bCn}r li cfng chi quan sit' m6 t6 cdc th5'i u' bQc "Jr "o qu6i thai v.v... nhgt vd cec- nhd gi4i Ddn thdi kj' ph+c hung alua tl€n c6c phudng tien thd sd d6' ph6u fich d6 ph6u d6 tidn Lanf' aoo" nhidu phAu tich vd drla ir6n cec tdi liQu kh6 chiDh xdc' Trons hq da l4p duqc cric brin v6 v6 giai pl'6u ngudi vd dong vat ai nfrat iO ddn c6c c6ng trinh Dghicn criu hC th6'ng mach meu vd idi riu dai m vezali rn6 ta g phdu &""^tio") ounl 1543, sau d6 ld Fabritx, 1603 lghi6o oiu *ach m6u. $grer, 1628 ng!!6q!trL hqqi qOry cta tim va rneu dOne "uo'r,g "e" vnt, ddt n6n rn6ng cho sinh lf hqc hiQn dai' 2. Giai ilo4n thf hai Giai doan thrl hai tn th6 ki XVII - XD( - Thdi k' giei phdu td chic td bao' (Leuwen Hock' 1683) vi Sq ra ddi cria kinh hidn vi, hic ddu chi ld ddn gidn thdu kinh v6 slc (Lixte' sau d6 Id kinh hidn vi phr?c t4p nhd chd tao duOc 1830) da gifp cho agtdi ta khi ning quan set' m6 ti cdu t4o t6' chrlc s6ng v6i Ldn ddu ti6n ngtdi ta quan s6t dudc dQ phOne dai vdi chuc ddn v;i trdm lan ri Sr.,f' tat vd hinh th6i td bao dQng vat vd thuc v4t Sau d6 vdi su phtt drida t h6a hgc thudc nhuQrn ra ddi C6c l6t cit m6ng crla mil d c6' "i. "i"r'"rntCnrhog- -eo girip cho neudi ta cd thd quan srit dugc rhidu chi aos" r Jnfr "J t6 bdo md trudc dav xem tudi Lh6ng thdv duqc' ti6t cia hsc hiEI Voi kinh hidn vi cei ti6n ve cdc ki thuet nhudm mo' mon t6'chric thanh vd hac thuy61 td bdo cring ra ddi vdi c6c c6ng tillh nghien ciu cria c6c ofrak}roufro"nhrrSleiden(ntrdthltcv4thQcngudiDfc'1804-1881);Swan(nid (ahd b€nh li hoc sinh li hQc ngldi Dic, 1810-1882) vd sau 'Av li Virchorv "B€nh ;*t ou", 18;1-1902), ng1ld ddu ti6n nghi6r' crlu vd dd ra hqc thuvdt li t6 bdo" - dAt cd s6' cho m6n B€nh hgc td bdo ngdv nav' 3. Giai tlo4n thli ba Giai doan thi ba tri th6 kj' )Oi ddn nav ' vdo thd ki )o( kho3 hoc n6i bu6c phdt sitth hqc n6i i6ng dat drrqc nhi6u thAnh tqu vd c6 nhfng vd t6 bi" 6 mfc tridn manh mc. Neudi ta Lh6ng drtng lai 6 cdu tao td chrlc "horrg.ra bdo' vdo cdrr trric vi d0 vi thd md dd di sdu nghiCn cfu vdo si6u cdu trric td protein vi c6c dai phan chrlc ndng c6c dai phan tri sinh hgc nhrr axrt nucleic' "h6 trg" cria cdc ngdnh tri ki6c v.v... C6c thenh ftu dat dugc mot m4t nld tt su khoa hoc khic nhu h6a hgc, vat li, to6n hQc vv mit khec n}rd 0 sU ph6i dudc dua vac tddn cec phuoDg ph6p md, cdc ki thuAt vd phuong tien hien dai nghi6n criu. Iiin|hidnvid6ipha'Raddikho6ng1942'gtnpchoYiCcnghiencl'uidbaLo 16 rdng chinh xtlc thuan ldi hdn. Nhd n6 md kha ning xem tuai t6 bdo duoc 8
  6. hdn. !i c6c chi tidt cdu inic t€' bao kh6ng phan biCt duqc d kiah hidn Yi thudng thi c6 thd thdy khi nhin qua kinh hidn vi ddi pha' Kinh hidn vi di€n t& - Kinh c6 dQ Lhudch dqi rdt ltn (hdng chr+c vaa ddn heng tiieu ldn) DIit ld khri naag phAa li rdt cao GhoADg 2-10Ao' Do d6 qua kioh hidn vi dien ti netdi ta phdt hiCa dud;c d td bdo Dhltag cdu tnic me trd6c dey tren kidr hidn vi quang hqc Lhdng'thdy duqc nhu ludi nQi nguvdn sioh' ribos6m, b'zOsom vd cri cdu truc chi tidt cta thd ty vv"' Trong Dhrhg budng hqp d4c biet thdy duo-c ce cec phan tt lfn trong c6c rn6 nhu ADN vdi cdu trric xo6n k6p gi6'ng nhu m6 hinh cria Watsdtr - Crik' Tg ch4p ph6ng x4- Dring tia Ron-gheu dd phao tich cdu tnic 'vQt thd cdo Phuaog phep ndv c6 hiCu sutt phari ti lfn hqD ce kinh hidn vi oghico "'fo. aE pla,l li ndv c6 thd di"Cn trl (o,zmp so vd 1mp cria kinh hidn vi ilie trt)' d ph6n tich x6c dinh dugc vi tri cAc pha trt ticng biet' Chinh nnd phuang ph6p phAn trl IIb gdm cdu tric bing tia ro'n-ghen dd cho ph6p chrlng minh ring c6c 4 chu6i da peptit cu6n Iai hav ph6n tt mioglobj! c6 Lich thutc 4 ldn nh6 hon' Ngodi c5c ki thuat tren, trong nghlicn ciru sinh hqc ngudi ta cdn dring nhidu phudng ph6p khec nhu si6u U €m, diCn di, sic kj, hC thdnc vd bdo' phuong cdy td bdo, let c6t mo dd nghien crtu qu6 trioh chuydn h6a cria td pf,ap "l'Oi tao, *O ua cec cd quan v-v... k€1 hqp v6i cdc Li thuat phan tich t6'ng hqp vdi cfu viCc nghi6n crtu dic didm vd chtc ndng c5c phdn trl sinh hqc dd nghi6n ciu tnic vd chrtc Ph4n cfa chring Nhu vay ngey nay dlra vdo thdlrl tqu cria c6c nginh khoa hqc kh6c vi vdi viec sri dgng cac phuqng phdp ki thuat hodn chiah, ngld'i ta de di siu vdo b6n chdt cdu trric id bdo ngdy cdng tinh Yi hon. Ngudi ta de hidu ro hcn v€ qu5 trinh s6'ng, di sau Ydo cdu trric vd chric neng cria co thd s6'ng d treng thei lj. binl thudng cring nhu b€nh Tren cd sd Dhfng thenh iuu tr6n, ngdy nay dr4 hinh thinh m6n Bfnh lpc ft' beo - r'g}Iie'I ciu nllrlng t6'n thuong td bdo A rDic dO siau ca:u tric' va mdn BAnh hoc phAn rf nghicn ctlu nhlilg bi6n ddi cfu trric clia cde phen ti v6-n la cfu hl binh thudng cia co thd sinh v4t - Tuy cdn moi m6, song c6c m6n hqc trcn rdt phong phri vd ddv tridn vgng. v. cAc pHusNG PHAP cuA GlAl PHAU BENH tren giai phiu binh thudng Dd thuc hien cAc nhicm vu vd nQi dung da B€u srl dqng c6c phrrong ph6P sau: 1. Md kh6m tlai thd Ddy ld phtoog ph6p chi ydu ve thudng xuv6n phrii lim cria gi6i,ph6u b€nh Thf y. Qua m6' khdm x6c chdt hoac con vft sdng nghi ben}r' phdt hiCD n}rllng bidn ddi bdt thudng & cdc co quan, tang phn dd x6t do6n ngryon nhan bQn}l'
  7. Nhrtng tdn thuong th{y dugc }hi m6' kh6m rii6u khi chi thd hiCD mQt phen ho4c mot eiai doen ndo d6 cria qud trinh bdnh cht kh6og b6c 16 todn bQ ti6n tinh cria bCnh, nOn thudns kh6ng ddy dri, ho{c nhi6u khi kl6ng thQt didn hinh cho mdt bCnh nao d6. NAn trong di6u ki6n cho ph6p c6 thd m6' khim dri6u con vat dd tim nhrlng bcnh tich d4c trung cho benh. Hdn nlla rg1td m6' khem c6 kidn thic chuyen m6n sau, rong vd gidu kinh nghiCm thi cLi cdn qua nhring td thuang dqi thd c6 thd phAr doAn drrqc :rguy6n nh6n. Trudng hqp chdn dodn dqi thd kh6 khan cdn.ph6i c6 sg chdn do6a h6 tro cria t6'chrlc hqc, sintr vat hgc, huy6t thanh hqc ho4c vAt li h6a hoc dd nit ra kdt lu{n chioh x6c. 2. Phuong phep sinh thidt Oay ia phuorg ph6p chdn do6n dac biQt, cdn xdc minh tinh chdt cria tdn thdong & cd quan hay b0 phan ndo d6 trong co vat bi bQnh md kh6og cdn md kh6m. Phudng ph6p nAy uu didm la ginp ta chdn do5n nhanh, b€nh phdm cdn tudi kh6ng bi huj ho4i, kh6ng cdn gidt co{ vat. Nhrmg- kdt qua cang rit haD chd vi vi iri ldy bQnh phdm rdt nl6, nhidu khi kh6ng dring noi c6 t6'n thudng didn hinh, thao tec phtc tap. m vay phudng ph6p ndy chi 6p dqrg cho nhrrog tnrdng hqp d6c bi6t dhd u, viAm. 3. Phuong ph6p td chfc hqc (vi thd) Phuone ph6p ndy thudag di ddi voi phuong phdp m6 khim dai thd vd sb} thi6t. Icli chdn dodn vd mAt dai thd chua 16 reDg hoac cAn nghietr cfu sau hol nlrlng t6'o tAudng do b€nh t6t gay ra v.v.. d6u phdi qual1 sAt tren 16t cit vi thd. NgAy nay v6i sg tirOng drpg cria kinh hidn vi diC ht thi viec nghieD cifu vd mit si6u cdu trric td bio, quan s6t nhrlng t6'n thuong linh vi hdn trong c6c bao quan, cnng ld mot viQc cAng phdi li'r, nhit td nghi6n criu vd bonh hoc t6 bdo. Phuc&e phdp ney ddi h6i phii c6 pl dng thi nehiem voi ddy di trang thidt bi ve h6a chdt cdn thidt, c6 nhf4g can b6 gi6i vd ki thuat chuydn m6n. thi nghiCm .long vat 4. Phuong ph6p Khi cdn x6c minh mQt nguydn nhdn gdy'b€ah hay cdn nghi€n ctu dec didm benh li hay c6c giai doq tidn tridn cria mot benh don thudn v.v... c6 ihF gay bgnh tr6n dong vdt mAn crim. Phudng phap ndy cling c6 kh6 khnn vi nhidu Lhi kl6ng gay duqc benh hoic b€nh xiy ra kh6ng gidng v6i bQnh phet ra ttr- nhicn. 10
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