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Giáo trình Anh văn chuyên ngành (Nghề: Thiết kế đồ họa - Trung cấp) - Trường Cao đẳng Cơ điện Xây dựng Việt Xô

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Giáo trình Anh văn chuyên ngành (Nghề: Thiết kế đồ họa - Trung cấp) nhằm giúp học viên đọc được, dịch được các tài liệu tiếng Anh chuyên ngành thiết kế đồ họa; đọc hiểu được các thông báo của hệ thống và các phần mềm ứng dụng khi khai thác và cài đặt; khai thác được các tài liệu chuyên ngành thiết kế đồ họa dựa trên cơ sở từ vựng và thuật ngữ chuyên ngành được trang bị. Mời các bạn cùng tham khảo!

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  1. BỘ NÔNG NGHIỆP VÀ PHÁT TRIỂN NÔNG THÔN TRƯỜNG CAO ĐẲNG CƠ ĐIỆN XÂY DỰNG VIỆT XÔ KHOA CÔNG NGHỆ THÔNG TIN VÀ NGOẠI NGỮ GIÁO TRÌNH MÔN HỌC:ANH VĂN CHUYÊN NGÀNH NGHỀ: THIẾT KẾ ĐỒ HỌA TRÌNH ĐỘ: TRUNG CẤP 0
  2. TUYÊN BỐ BẢN QUYỀN Tài liệu này thuộc loại sách giáo trình nên các nguồn thông tin có thể được phép dùng nguyên bản hoặc trích dùng cho các mục đích về đào tạo và tham khảo. Mọi mục đích khác mang tính lệch lạc hoặc sử dụng với mục đích kinh doanh thiếu lành mạnh sẽ bị nghiêm cấm. Mã môn học: MH08 LỜI GIỚI THIỆU Để đáp ứng nhu cầu về tài liệu học tập ngoại ngữ chuyên ngành cho học sinh - sinh viên và giáo trình giảng dạy cho giáo viên các trường dạy nghề, Tổ môn Ngoại ngữ đã biên soạn cuốn giáo trình“Anh văn chuyên ngành Thiết kế đồ họa”. Cuốn giáo trình được biên soạn bao gồm tất cả những khái niệm cơ bản trong ngành công nghệ thông tin nhằm giúp sinh viên mới làm quen với chuyên ngành này tiếp thu những kiến thức hữu ích về môn học. Với 4 chương bao gồm nhiều chủ đề về công nghệ thông tin, sử dụng các bài học và hình minh họa được trích từ sách, báo, các tạp chí chuyên ngành máy tính, Internet, trang Web, sách hướng dẫn và các mẩu tin quảng cáo nhằm giúp học viên thu nhận và phát triển những kỹ năng cần thiết để học môn Công nghệ thông tin sau này; biết được các đặc tính của giao diện đồ họa, các loại kết nối mạng; dịch tài liệu ngành Đồ họa ứng dụng từ Tiếng Anh sang Tiếng Việt. Bài giảng đặc biệt chú trọng vào phát triển kỹ năng đọc; những thuật ngữ và từ vựng quan trọng được tách ra thành một mục riêng để thu hút và phát triển vốn từ của học viên; trong mỗi bài có phần ngữ pháp giúp học viên ôn lại những điểm ngữ pháp cơ bản. Phần cuối bài giảng là bảng tra cứu các thuật ngữ chuyên ngành đã được dịch sang tiếng. Trong quá trình biên soạn, chúng tôi đã tham khảo nhiều tài liệu của các trường đại học, cao đẳng, chương trình khung của Tổng cục dạy nghề ban hành, các trường dạy nghề quốc tế như City & Guilds, Sunderland – Anh Quốc, cũng như các tài liệu, tiêu chuẩn nước ngoài....để đáp ứng các yêu cầu thực tế đặt ra trong quá trình thực hành. Trang bị cho giáo viên các kiến thức chuyên môn trong hội nhập quốc tế đáp ứng yêu cầu của doanh nghiệp. Mặc dù đã có nhiều cố gắng song không thể tránh khỏi những thiếu sót. Rất mong được đồng nghiệp và các bạn đọc đóng góp ý kiến để giáo trình ngày càng hoàn chỉnh hơn./. Chúng tôi xin chân thành cảm ơn! Ninh Bình , ngày tháng năm 2018 Chủ biên: Nhóm tiếng Anh 1
  3. MỤC LỤC TRANG I. Lời giới thiệu 1 II. Mục lục 2 III. Vị trí, tính chất môn học 3 IV. Mục tiêu của môn học. 3 V. Nội dung môn học: Chapter 1: Hardware 6 Chapter 2: Software 27 Chapter 3: Network 40 Chapter 4: Design graphic 58 VI. IRREGULAR VERBS(Bảng động từ bất quy tắc) 78 VII. ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS(Các từ viết tắt) 80 VIII. APPENDIX: VOCABULARY(Từ vựng) 81 IX. REFERENCES- Tài liệutham khảo- 88
  4. GIÁO TRÌNH MÔN HỌC Tên môn học: Anh văn chuyên ngành Mã số môn học: MH08 Thời gian môn học: 90 giờ; (Lý thuyết: 42 giờ; Thực hành, Bài tập: 42 giờ; Kiểm tra: 6 giờ) I. Vị trí, tính chất môn học: - Vị trí của môn học: Môn học được bố tri sau khi học xong các môn học chung, trước các môn học và mô đun đào tạo chuyên môn nghề. - Tính chất của môn học: Là môn học cơ sở chuyên ngành bắt buộc II. Mục tiêu môn học : - Về kiến thức: + Hiểu được từ vựng, thuật ngữ chuyên ngành thiết kế đồ họa; + Hiểu được các bài đọc về phần cứng, phần mềm, và các chương trình tiện ích phục vụ cho nghành thiết kế đồ họa. + Có được vốn từ vựng và ngữ pháp tiếng Anh đủ để tham khảo tài liệu phục vụ nghề thiết kế đồ họa. - Về kĩ năng: + Đọc được, dịch được các tài liệu tiếng Anh chuyên ngành thiết kế đồ họa; + Đọc hiểu được các thông báo của hệ thống và các phần mềm ứng dụng khi khai thác và cài đặt + Khai thác được các tài liệu chuyên ngành thiết kế đồ họa dựa trên cơ sở từ vựng và thuật ngữ chuyên ngành được trang bị. + Phát triển những kỹ năng như: đọc hiểu, dịch các tài liệu tiếng Anh chuyên ngành thiết kế đồ hoạ. - Về năng lực tự chủ và trách nhiệm: + Luôn tự giác, tự nghiên cứu hoàn thiện kiến thức qua nghiên cứu tài liệu khác bằng tiếng Anh; + Có sự liên hệ, so sánh, đối chiếu từ vựng và cấu trúc câu giữa các nghề trong ngành công nghệ thông tin; + Tự nâng cao kĩ năng nghe nói đọc viết, trao đổi chuyên môn với đồng nghiệp bằng tiếng Anh. + Bố trí làm việc khoa học đảm bảo an toàn cho người và phương tiện học tập. III. Nội dung môn học: 1. Nội dung tổng quát và phân bổ thời gian: Thời gian Số Tên chương, mục Tổng Lý Thực hành Kiểm TT số thuyết bài tập tra* Chapter 1: Hardware 20 10 9 1 1. Computer Architecture 9 4 5 1 2. Peripherical devices 6 3 2 1 3. Configurating a Computer 5 3 2 2 Chapter 2: Software 21 9 10 2
  5. 1. The Operating systems 5 2 3 2. Application programs 5 2 2 1 3. Ultility programs 5 2 3 4. Databases 6 3 2 1 Chapter 3: Network 20 10 9 1 1. Internet 9 4 5 3 2. Communication 5 3 2 3. Network 6 3 2 1 Chapter 4: Design graphics 29 13 14 2 Computer graphics 7 4 3 4 Multimedia Data 8 4 3 1 Fundamental of Art 7 3 4 Technical Design 7 2 4 1 Cộng 90 42 42 6 2. Nội dung chi tiết: Chapter 1: Hardware Thời gian: 20 giờ * Mục tiêu - Cung cấp vốn từ liên quan đến các thiết bị bên trong máy tính, các thiết bị ngoại vi kết nối với máy tính. * Nội dung: 1. Computer Architecture 1.1. What is the computer 1.1.1. Computer hardware 1.1.2. What is a computer? 1.2. Inside the system 1.2.1. Read the text and then answer these questions. 1.2.2. Look at these extracts from the text. What do the words in bold refer to? 1.2.3. Language Focus: Defining Relative Clauses 1.3. Display screen 1.3.1. Your computer screen 1.3.2. How screen displays work 1.4. Keyboard and mouse 1.4.1. The keyboard 1.4.2. Mouse action 1.4.3. Describing functions and features 2. Peripherical devices 2.1. Choosing a printer 2.1.1. Type of printer 2.1.2. Language focus: Connectors 2.1.3. Choosing the right computer 2.2. The eyes of computer 2.1. The eyes of computer
  6. 2.2. Language focus: Superlative 3. Configurating a Computer 3.1.Choosing the right display device 3.2 Disk drive 3.2.1. The type of magnetic drive 3.2.2. Magnetic storage 3.2.3. Language work: Precautions Chapter 2: Software Thời gian: 21 giờ * Mục tiêu: - Cung cấp vốn từ liên quan phần mềm trong máy tính, vốn từ liên quan đến hệ điều hành, đến các ứng dụng phổ biến như soạn văn bản, lập bảng tính chương trình trình chiếu. Cung cấp vốn từ về chương trình tiện ích như quản lý file, folder, diệt virus, nén, giải nén và cơ sở dữ liệu. * Nội dung: 1. Operating systems 1.1. GUI operating systems 1.1.1.Translate these terms and expressions into your own language. Use a dictionary or the internet to help you. 1.1.2. Label the interface features (a-j) on the screenshot of Apple’s Mac OS X operating system with words in bold from this list. 1.1.3. Compare the Mac OS X user interface with a Window or Linux interface. What are the similarities and differences? Which features do you prefer from interface? 1. 2. Language work: countable and uncountable nouns 1.2.1 Look at the HELP box and decide if these nouns from the fact file are countable, uncountable or either, depending on the context. Write C, U, or C and U. 1.2.2 Complete this text with a, an, the or nothing. 2. Application programs 2.1. Word processing features 2.1.1. In pairs, discuss these questions. 2.1.2. Look at this screenshot from Microsoft Word and translate the labeled features and functions into your language. 2.1.3. Complete these sentences with the correct features and functions above. 2.2. Word Sudoku 2.3. Language work: giving and following instructions 2.4. WP tools 3. Utility programs 3.1. Spreadsheet programs 3.1.1. In pairs, discuss these questions. 3.1.2. Look at the worksheet and label a, b and c with column, row and cell. 3.2. An invoice, a business letter and a fax
  7. 3.2.1. Spreadsheets are also used to generate invoices. Complete the invoice below with words from the box. If you have a spreadsheet program, try to produce a similar invoice. 3.2.2. Look at this letter which accompanies the invoice. Complete the letter with phrases from the box. 3.2.3. Imagine you are Ruth Atkinson. When you try to use the laser printer, it gives continuous error messages. You are also having problems installing the database. Write a fax to Media Market to complain. Ask for a new printer and an upgraded version of the database. Look at the Useful Language box to help you. 4. Databases 4.1. Databases 4.1.1. In groups make a list of as many possible applications for databases as you can think of. 4.1.2. Look at the illustration, which represents a database file. Can you identify a record and a field 4.1.3. Read the text and check your answers to 4.1.4. Complete these statements about databases using information from the text 4.1.5. Solve the clues and complete the crossword 4.1.6. In pairs, discuss what fields you would include in a database for your music collection. 4.2. Language work: plurals 4.2.3. Look at the HELP box and then write the plural of these words. 4.2.3. Put the plurals into the correct pronunciation column. Chapter 3: Network Thời gian: 20 giờ * Mục tiêu: - Cung cấp vốn từ về các thiết bị mạng cục bộ (LAN), mạng toàn cục (WAN); quá trình truyền dữ liệu trên mạng; nguyên lý hoạt động của Internet, Intranet, các dịch vụ phổ biến trên Internet. * Nội dung: 1. Internet 1.1. Internet basics 1.1.1. Internet FAQs 1.1.2. Language work: questions 1.2. Email features: Read the text 1.3. A typical web page 1.4. Online chatting 2. Communication 2.1. Information and communications technologies (ICT) 2.1.1. In pairs, discuss these questions. 2.2.2. Label the picture (1-7) with the ICT systems and services in the box.
  8. 2.2.3. Complete these sentences with words and phrases from B and then read the text to check your answers. 2.2.4. Read the text again and find the following. 2.3. Language work: the passive 2.3.1. Look at the HELP box. How do you make the passive in your language? How different is it to English? 2.3.2. Read the article and underline all the examples of the passive. What are tenses are they? 2.3.2. Complete these sentences with the passive form of the verbs in brackets. 2.4. Mobile phones 2.4.1. Label the mobile phone with features from the box. 2.4.2. In pairs, describe your mobile phone. 2.4.3. In pairs, discuss these questions 3. Networks 3.1. Networking FAQs 3.1.1. Look at the FAQs (i-vi) without reading the whole text. In pairs, try to answer as many of the questions as you can. 3.1.2. Read the whole text and answer these questions. 3.1.3. In pairs, do this network quiz. See which pair can fish first. 3.2. Language work: Phrasal verbs 3.2.1. Look at the HELP box. Do you have the equivalent of phrasal verbs in your luggage? How do you say the phrasal verbs in the HELP box? 3.2.2. Complete these sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the HELP box. 3.2.3. Match the questions (1-6) with the answers (a-f). 3.3. WANs and satellites Chapter 4: Graphics design Thời gian: 29 giờ * Mục tiêu: - Cung cấp vốn từ liên quan đến các dạng dữ liệu multimedia, các định nghĩa, thuật ngữ liên quan đến đồ hoạ máy tính, các định nghĩa, thuật ngữ liên quan đến thiết kế các sản phẩm đồ hoạ mỹ thuật, đồ hoạ trong kỹ thuật * Nội dung: 1. Computer graphics 1.1.Computer graphics 1.1.1. In pairs, look at the computer graphics (a-d) and discuss these questions. 1.1.2. Read the text and check your answer to 3 and 4 in A. 1.1.3. Read the text again and answer these questions. 1.1.4. Match the words (1-6) with the definitions (a-f). 1.2. Language work: the –ing form 1.3. Toolbox 1.3.1. Read an extract from an online tutorial about graphics programs and answer these questions.
  9. 1.3.2. Match the tools from the Photoshop toolbox (1-10) with the functions (a-j). 1.4. Choosing the graphic software. 1.5. Describing graphics 2. Multimedia Data 2.1. Multiple forms of media 2.2. Multimedia magic 2.3. Language work: conditional sentences 2.4. Applications of multimedia 3. Fundamentions of Art 3.1. A typical home page 3.2.Web page design 3.2.1. Read the text on page 115 and find the following. 3.2.2. Read the text again and then match the sentence beginnings (1-6) with the correct endings (a – f). 3.3. Language work: modal verbs 3.3.1. Underline all the modal verbs in the text and then look at the HELP box. Which modal verb from the HELP box does not appear in the text? Can you think of any other modal verbs? 3.3.2. Complete these sentences with suitable modal verbs from the HELP box. There may be more than one possible answer. 3.3.3. In pairs, discuss at least two things 3.3. Designing a website 4. Technical Design 4.1. What is desktop publishing? 4.1.1. In pairs, discuss these questions. 4.1.2. Read the text and check your answers to A. 4.1.3. Read the text again and answer these questions. 4.1.4. Find words in the text with the following meanings 4.2. Language work: order of adjectives 4.3. Steps on a DTP publication 4.3.1. Look at this extract from an online tutorial for DTP publishing. Put the steps in the reaction of a DTP document (a-f)in to the correct order. 4.3.2. Label the features of this page designed with Adobe In Design(1-6) with words from the box.
  10. MODULE 1: HARDWARE Mã môn học: MH08.1 * Mục tiêu: Cung cấp vốn từ liên quan đến các thiết bị bên trong máy tính, các thiết bị ngoại vi kết nối với máy tính. LESSON 1: COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE I. WHAT IS A COMPUTER? 1. Computer hardware A. In pairs, discuss these questions. 1. Have you got a computer at home, school or work? What kind is it? 2. How often do you use it? What do you use it for? 3. What are the main components and features of your computer system? B. In pairs, label the elements of this computer system. 2. What is a computer? A. Read the text A Computer is an electronic machine which can accept data in a certain form, process the data, and give the results of the processing in a specified format as information. First data is fed into the computer’s memory. Then, when the program is run, the computer performs a set of instructions and processes the data. Finally, we can see the results (the output) on the screen or in printed form (see Fig. 1 below). A computer system consists of two parts: hardware and software. Hardware is any electronic or mechanical part you can see or touch. Software is a set of instructions, called a program, which tells the computer what to do. There are three basic hardware sections: the central processing unit (CPU), main memory and peripherals. Perhaps the most influential component is the
  11. central processing unit. Its function is to execute program instructions and coordinate the activities of all the other units. In a way, it is the “brain” of the computer. The main memory ( a collection of RAM chips) holds the instructions and data which are being processed by the CPU. Peripherals are the physical units attached to the computer. They include storage devices and input/ output devices. Storage devices (hard drives, DVD drives or flash drives) provide a permanent storage of both data and programs. Disk drives are used to read and write data on disks. Input devices enable data to go into the computer’s memory. The most common input devices are the mouse and the keyboard. Output devices enable us to extract the finished product from the system. For example, the computer shows the output on the monitor or prints the results onto paper by means of a printer. On the rear panel of the computer there are several ports into which we can plug a wide range of peripherals – a modem, a digital camera, a scanner, etc. They allow communication between the computer and the devices. Modern desktop PCs have USB ports and memory card readers on the front panel. B. Match these words from the text(1-9) with the correct meanings(a-i). 1. software a. the brain of the computer 2. peripherals b. physical parts that make up a computer system 3. main memory c. programs which can be used on a particular computer 4. hard drive(also system known as hard disk) d. the information which is presented to the computer 5. hardware e. result produced by a computer 6. input f. input devices attached to the CPU 7. ports g. section that holds programs and data while they are 8. output executed or processed 9. central processing h. magnetic device used to store information. unit(CPU) i. sockets into which an external device may be connected.
  12. C. Language focus: Classifying Look at the help box and then use Help Box suitable classifying expressions to Classifying means putting things into complete these sentences. groups or classes. We can classify types of computers, parts of a PC, etc. 1. A computer …………………. some typical expressions for Hardware and software. classifying are: 2. Peripherals …………………...  …. Are classified into X three types: input, output and types/categories storage devices.  …. Are classified by … 3. A word processing program  …. Can be divided into X …………….. Software which types/categories lets the user create and edit text. Digital computers can be divided into 4. ……………………… of a five main types: mainframes, desktop network architecture: peer-to- PCs, laptops, tablet PCs and handheld peer, where all computers have PDAs. the same capabilities, and client-  …. Include (s) …. server (e.g. the internet), where  …. Consist (s) …. severs store and distribute data, The basic configuration of a main and clients access this data. frame consists of a central system which processes immense amounts of data very quickly.  There are X types/classes of …  X is a type of …. A tablet PC is a type of notebook computer II. INSIDE THE SYSTEM What is inside a PC system? Processing The nerve center of a PC is Processor, also called the CPU, or central processing unit. This is built into a single chip which executes program instructions and coordinates the activities that take place within the computer system. The chip itself is a small piece of silicon with a complex electrical circuit call integrated circuit. The processor consists of three main parts: + The control unit examines the instructions in the user’s program, interprets each instruction and causes the circuits and the rest of the components – monitor, disk drives, etc. – to execute the functions specified. + The arithmetic logic unit (ALU) performs mathematical calculations (+,-, etc.) and logical operations (AND, OR, NOT).
  13. + The registers are high-speed units of memory used to store and control data. One of the registers (the program counter, or PC) keeps track of the next instruction to be performed in the main memory. The other (the instruction register or IR) holds the instruction that is being executed (see Fig. 1 and page 13). The power and performance of a computer is partly determined by the speed of its processor. A system clock sends out signals at fixed intervals to measure and synchronize the flow of data. Clock speed is measured in gigahertz (GHz). For example, a CPU running at 4 GHz (four thousand million hertz, or cycles, per second) will enable your PC to handle the most demanding applications. RAM and ROM The programs and data which pass through the processor must be loaded into the main memory in order to be processed. Therefore, when the user runs a program, the CPU looks for it on the hard disk and transfers a copy into the RAM chips. RAM (random access memory) is volatile – that is, it information is lost when the computer is turned off. However ROM (read only memory) is non- volatile, containing instructions and routines for the basic operations of the CPU. The BIOS (basic input/ output system) uses ROM to control communication with peripherals. RAM capacity can be expanded by adding extra chips, usually contained in small circuit boards call dual in-line memory modules (DIMMs). Buses and cards The main circuit board inside your system is called the motherboard and contains the processor, the memory chips, expansions slots, and controllers for peripherals, connected by buses – electrical channels which allow devices inside the computer to communicate with each other. For example, the front side bus carries all data that passes from the CPU to other devices. The size of a bus, called bus width, determines how much data can be transmitted. It can be compared to the number of lanes on a motorway – the larger the width, the more data can travel along the bus. For example, a 64-bit bus can transmit 64 bits of data.
  14. Expansion slots allow users to install expansion cards, adding features like sound, memory and network capabilities. A. Read the text and then answer these questions. 1. What are the main parts of the CPU? 2. What does ALU stand for? What does it do? 3. What is the function of the system clock? 4. How much is one gigahertz? 5. What type of memory is temporary? 6. What type of memory is permanent and includes instructions needed by the CPU? 7. How can RAM be increased? 8. What term is used to refer the main printed circuit board? 9. What is a bus? 10.What is benefit of having expansion slot? B. Look at these extracts from the text. What do the words in bold refer to? 1. This is built into single chip. 2. …. Which executes program instructions and coordinates…. 3. …. That is being executed. 4. …. Performance of a computer is partly determined by the speed of its processor. 5. …. The CPU looks for it on the hard disk …. 6. …. Inside the computer to communicate with each other. C. Language Focus: Defining Relative Clauses
  15. Look at the HELP box and then complete the sentences below with suitable relative pronouns. Give alternative options if possible. Put brackets roud the relative pronouns you can leave out. 1. That’s the computer_______________ I’d like to buy. 2. Core 2 Duo is a new Intel processor________________ contains about 291 million transistors. 3. A webmaster is a person__________ design, develops and maintains a website. 4. A bus is an electronic pathway ______ carries signals between computer devices. 5. Here’s the DVD __________ you lent me! 6. Last night I met someone __________ works for GM as a software engineer. HELP box Defining relative clauses * We can define people or things with a defining( restrictive) relative clause. We use the relative pronoun who to refer to a person; we can also use that. A blogger is a person who/that keeps a web log(blog) or publishes an online diary. * We use the relative pronoun which( or that) to refer to a thing, not a person. This is built into a single chip which/that executes program instructions and coordinatesthe activities that take place withinthe computer system. * Relative pronouns can be left out when they are the object of the relative clause. The main circuit board(which/that) you have inside your system is called the motherboard… III. DISPLAY SCREEN 1. Your computer screen In pairs, discuss these questions. 1. What type of display do you have: a cathode ray tube or an LCD flat screen? 2. What size is the screen? 3. How can you change the picture using the controls? 4. Can you watch TV on your PC monitor? 2. How screen displays work Displays, often called monitors or screens, are the most-used output device on a computer. They provide instant feedback by showing you text and graphic images as you work or play. Most desktop displays use Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) or Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) technology, while nearly, all
  16. portable computing devices, such as laptops, incorporate LCDs. Because of their slimmer design and lower energy consumption, LCD monitors (also called flat panel or flat screen displays) are replacing CRTs. Basic features Resolution refers to the number of dots of color, known as pixels (picture elements), contained in a display. It is expressed by identifying the number of pixels on the horizontal and vertical axes. A typical resolution is 1024 x 768. Two measurements describe the size of your display: the aspect ratio and the screen size. Historically, computer displays, like most televisions, have had an aspect ratio of 4:3 – the width of the screen to the height is four to three. For widescreen LCD displays, the aspect ratio is 16:9, very useful for viewing DVD movies, playing games and displaying multiple windows side by side. High- definition TV also uses this format. The viewable screen size is measured diagonally, so a 19” screen measures 19” from the top left to the bottom right. Inside the computer there is a video adapter, or graphics card, which processes images and sends signals to the monitor. CRT monitors use VGA (video graphics adapter) cable, which converts digital signals into analogue signals. LCD monitors use DVI (digital video interface) connection. Color depth refers to the number of colors a monitor can display. This depends on the number of bits used to describe the color of single pixel. For example, an old VGA monitor with an 8-bit depth can generate 256 colors and Super VGA with a 24-bit depth can generate 16.7 million colors. Monitors with a 32-bit depth are used in digital video, animation and video games to get certain effects. Display technologies An LCD is made of two glass plates with a liquid crystal material between them. The crystals block the light in different quantities to create the image. Active-matrix LCDs use TFT (thin film transistor) technology, in which each pixel has its own switch. The amount of light the LCD monitor produces is called brightness or luminance, measured in cd/m2 (candela per square meter). A CRT monitor is similar to a traditional TV set. It contains millions of tiny red, green and blue phosphor dots that glow when struck by an electron beam that travels across the screen and create a visible image. PCs can be connected to video projectors, which project the image onto a large screen. They are used for presentations and home theatre applications. In a plasma screen, images are created by a plasma discharge which contains noble (non-harmful) gases. Plasma TVs allow for larger screens and wide viewing angles, making them ideal for movies. Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) are thin-film LED displays that don’t require a backlist to function. The material emits light when stimulated by an electrical current, which is known as electroluminescence. They consume less energy, produce brighter colors and flexible – i.e. they can be bent and rolled up when they’re not being used. A. Complete these definitions
  17. Resolution pixcel aspect ratio colour depth video adater plasma screen 1. __________________ - the smallest unit on a display screen or bitmapped image(usually a coloured dot). 2. __________________ - an expansion card that generates the video signal sent to a computer display. 3. __________________ - the width of the screen in proportion to its height. 4. ___________________ - also called gas discharge display 5. __________________ - the number of pixels contained in a display, horizontally and vertically 6. __________________ - the number of bits used to hold a colour pixel; this determines the maximum number of colours that can be displayed. B. Read the text again and answer these questions. 1. What do CRT and LCD stand for? 2. How is the screen size measured? 3. What technology is used by active-matrix LCDs? 4. Which unit of frequency is used to measure the brightness of a display? 5. What substance produces light and color when hit by electrons in a CRT monitor? 6. What are the three advantages of OLED displays? C. Language work: instructions and advice A. Look at the HELP box and then complete these health and safety guidelines with should/shouldn’t. 1. If you type a lot at your computer each day, you_______ buy an ergonomic keyboard; it can help reduce the risk of repetitive strain injury. 2. You __________place your mouse within easy reach and support your forearm. 3. If you decide to build your own PC, protect yourself from electric shocks. You _________ touch any components unnecessarily. 4. You ______ always use a copyholder if you are working from documents. The best position is between the screen and the keyboard, or at the same height as the screen; this can reduce neck, back and eyestrain. 5. Irresponsible disposal of electronic waste can cause severe environmental and health problems. You _________ just throw your old monitor or video system into bin. B. In pairs, practise giving advice about how to use a monitor safety using should/shouln’t or It’s a good/bad idea to. Look at these guidelines for help. 1. Don’t open the monitor. It’s dangerous. 2. Don’t stare at the screen for long period of time. 3. Position the monitor at eye level or just below. 4. Leave enough space behind the monitor for unostructed movement. 5. Don’t sit near the sides or back of CRT monitors. Use LCD screens instead- they’re from radiation. 6. Keep the screen clean to prevent distorting shadows.
  18. III. KEYBOARD AND MOUSE 1. The keyboard A. Label the picture of a standard keyboard with the groups of keys (1-5) 1. Cursor control keys include arrow keys that move the insertion point up, down, right and left, and keys such as End, Home, Page Up and Page Down, which are used in word processing to move around a long document. 2 Alphanumeric keys represent letters and numbers, as arranged on a typewriter. 3. Function keys appear at the top of the keyboard and can be programmed to do special tasks. 4. Dedicated keys are used to issue commands or to produce alternative characters, e.g. the Ctrl key or the Alt key. 5. A numeric keypad appears to the right of the main keyboard. The Num Lock key is used to switch from numbers to editing keys. B. Match the descriptions (1-8) with the names of the keys (a-h). Then find them on the keyboard. 1. A long key at the bottom of the keyboard. Each time it a. arrow keys is pressed, it produces a blank space. 2. It moves the cursor to the beginning of a new line. It is b. return/enter also used to confirm commands. 3. It works in combination with other keys. For example, c. Caps Lock you press this key and C to copy the selected text. 4. It removes the character to the left of the cursor or any d. shift selected text. 5. It produces UPPER CASE characters. e. tab 6. It produces UPPER CASE letters but it does not affect f. space bar numbers. 7. It moves the cursor horizontally to the right for a fixed g. backspace number of spaces (in tabulations and data fields). 8. They are used to move the cursor, as an alternative to h. Ctrl
  19. the mouse. 2. Mouse Action Complete this text about the mouse with verbs from the box. Click double-click drag grab select move control A mouse allows you to ____________ the cursor and move around the screen very quickly. Making the same movements with the arrow keys on the keyboard would take much longer. As you ________ the mouse on your desk, the pointer usually looks like an I-bar, an arrow, or a pointing hand, depending on what you are doing. A mouse has one or more buttons to communicate with the computer. For example, if you want to place the insertion point or choose a menu option, you just ________ (press and release) on the mouse button, and the option is chosen. The mouse is also used to (4) __________ text and items on the screen. You can highlight text to be deleted, copied or edited in some way. The mouse is widely used in graphics and design. When you want to move an image, you position the pointer on the object you want to move, press the mouse button, and (5)_______ the image to a new location on the screen. Similarly, the mouse is used to change the shape of a graphic object. For example, if you want to convert a square into a rectangle, you (6) _________ one corner of the square and stretch it into a rectangle. The mouse is also used to start a program or open a document: you put the pointer on the file name and (7) ________ on the name – that is, you rapidly press and release the mouse button twice. 3. Describing functions and features Look at the Help box and then use the notes below to write a description of the Sony PlayStation 3 controller. Sony PlayStation 3 controller Functions  Control videogames  Hold it with both hands, use thumbs to handle directional sticks and face buttons Features  Six-axis sensing system( capable of sensing motion in six directions: up,down,left,right,forwards and backwards)  Wireless controller( Bluetooth)  USB mini port and cable for wired play and automatic battery charging.
  20. HELP box Describing functions In the listening, the mouse was described using for+ gerund: This is device for controlling the cursor and selecting items on the screen. There are other ways of describing a device’s function:  Used + to+ infinitive It’s used to control…  Relative pronoun + verb This is a device which controls…..  Relative pronoun + used + to + infinitive This is a device which/that is used to control…  work by+ geround It works by detecting light from the computer screen. Describing features We can describe features like this: An optical mouse has an optical sensor instead of a ball underneath. It usually features two buttonsand a wheel. You can connect it to a USB port. A wireless mouse works/operates without cables. It allows the user to answer multiple-choice questions and… LESSON 2: PERIPHERICAL DEVICES I. CHOOSING A PRINTER 1. Type of printer A. How many types of printer can you think of? B. Read the article and then label the types of printer (1-5). Which types of printer aren’t pictured? The quality (resolution) of the images goes up to 2,400 dots per inch(dpi) 1________________________
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