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Giáo trình Kỹ thuật soạn thảo văn bản kinh tế và quản trị kinh doanh: Phần 1 - Lương Văn Úc

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Giáo trình Kỹ thuật soạn thảo văn bản kinh tế và quản trị kinh doanh: Phần 1 trình bày những vấn đề chung về văn bản, sử dụng ngôn ngữ trong văn bản, soạn thảo văn bản tác nghiệp hành chính, soạn thảo hợp đồng kinh tế - thương mại. Cuối mỗi chương có ôn tập lại hệ thống kiến thức, câu hỏi ôn tập và bài tập thực hành.

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Nội dung Text: Giáo trình Kỹ thuật soạn thảo văn bản kinh tế và quản trị kinh doanh: Phần 1 - Lương Văn Úc

  1. LU’O’NG VAN UC GIAO TRINH KY THU AT SO AN THAO VAN BAN • • KINH TE VA QUAN TRj DOANH NGHIEP DAI HOC KINH TE QUOC DAN
  2. Af(/c tyc M VC LUC Lori gioi th ieu ....................................................................................................... 1 Chiirongl: NHlTNG VAN DE CHUNG VE VAN BAN............................... 3 I. KHAINIEM CUA VAN BAN...................................................................4 1. Khai niem ve van ban............................................................................ 4 2. Chuc nang cua van ban.......................................................................... 5 3. Phan loai van ban...............................................................................10 II. NHLTNG YEU CAU CHUNG VE SOAN THAO VAN BA N ......... 13 1. Cac yeu cau ve hinh thuc van b an....................................................13 \ ^ 2. Cac yeu cau ve noi dung cua van ban................................................. 14 3. Yeu cau ve the thuc van ban................................................................ 16 III. QUY TRINH SOAN THAO VAN BAN..............................................24 1. Giai doan chuan b i............................................................................... 25 2. Giai doan soan thao de cucmg..............................................................25 3. Giai doan viet thanh van ban.............................................................. 28 4. Giai doan sura van b a n ......................................................................... 28 4. Giai doan xet duyet, ki va ban hanh van ban......................................28 TOM LU’ OC CUOI B A l.............................................................................. 29 Cau hoi 3n ta p ............................................................................................... 30 Chiirong II: SU* DUNG NGON NGLfTRONG VAN BAN........................31 I. TAO LAP VA TRINH BAY NOl DUNG VAN BAN...........................32 1. Xa; dinh chu de chung va chu de bo phan cua van b an ................... 32 2. Xa/ dung ca so lap luan cho van ban................................................. 33 3. Ca;h thuc trinh bay noi dung van ban................................................35 4. Viet doan van va lien ket doan van.....................................................38 II. PHONG CACH NGON NGLf TRONG VAN BAN.............................41 1. Phong cach khoa hoc........................................................................... 41 2. Phong cach bao chi - cong luan.......................................................... 42 3. Phong cach chinh luan.........................................................................43 4. Phong cach van hoc nghe thuat.......................................................... 43 5. Phong cach hanh chinh - cong v u .......................................................44 III. NHVNG QUY DINH NGON NGU TRONG VAN B A N ................. 45 \ r 1. Ntong yeu cau doi vai ngon ngu trong van b a n .............................45 2. Met so quy dinh doi voi ngon ngu trong van b a n .............................47 TRl/dNG O^I HQC KINH TE QU6c DAN jjj l
  3. Gteo trinh KY THUAT S P A N THAO VAN B A N KlNH T& VA QUAN T RID O AN H NGHI$3 TOM Ll/OC CUOI B A I..............................................................................55 Cau hoi on ta p .............................................................................................. 57 Bai tap thuc hanh.......................................................................................... -S C huoug III: SOAN THAO VAN BAN TAC NGHIEP HANH CHINH......59 I. NHUNG VAN BE CHUNG VE VAN BAN TAC NGHIEP HANH CTINT (0 1. Khai niem va vai tro cua van ban tac nghiep hanh chinh............. . 63 2. Bac diem cua van ban tac nghiep hanh chinh.................................. 60 II. KY THUAT SOAN THAO M 0T SO LOAI VAN BAN t A c NGHIEP HANH CHINH............................................................................. (I 1. Ky thuat soan thao cong van.............................................................. (1 2. Ky thuat soan thao thong b a o ........................................................... (7 3. Ky thuat soan thao bao cao................................................................(8 4. Ky thuat soan thao to trinh................................................................'4 5. Ky thuat soan thao bien b a n .............................................................. '5 6. Ky thuat soan thao don cac loai.........................................................'8 t o m L iro c c u b i b A i .............................................................................. n Cau hoi on ta p ............................................................................................... B Bai tap tinh huong......................................................................................... thuat.........................................................................................................L6 5. Ky thuat soan thao hop dong lien ket kinh doanh...........................1.3 * f n 6. Ky thuat soan thao hop dong uy thac xuat nhap khau.................... 14 ii TRUdNG DAI HQC KINH TE QUOC DAN
  4. Afy c ly c \ ^ 1. Ky thuat soan thao hop dong giao nhan thau xay dung co ban.... 154 r * 3. Ky thuat soan thao hop dong mua ban hang hoa quoc te ...............165 \ \ f ). Ky thuat soan thao hop dong mua ban ban quyen sang che...... 197 10. Ky thuat soan thao hop dong gia cong dat hang......................207 T(M LUOC C U 6l B A l................................... ....................................... 216 Ca hoi on ta p ............................................................................................ 219 B; tap thuc hanh........................................................................................220 Chiraig V: SOAN THAO HOP DONG DAN S \f....................................221 I. IHLfNG VAN DE CHUNG VE HOP DONG DAN SU'................... 222 i . Khai n ie m .......................................................................................... 222 I. Chu the cua hop dong dan s ir..........................................................223 L Nguyen tac ky ket, sira doi, cham dut, huy hop dong dan su ........225 Cac bien phap bao dam thuc hien hop dong dan s u ..................... 228 > Hop dong dan sir hop phap.............................................................. 229 . _ 7 ' ). The thuc chung cua van ban hop dong dan s ir...............................230 II.CI THUAT SOAN THAO M 0T SO HOP DONG DAN S U ......... 232 I. Ky thuat soan thao hop dong dai ly ................................................ 232 \ Ky thuat soan thao hop dong khoan viec (khoan thuc hien mot cong /iec nao d o )............................................................................................241 5. Ky thuat soan thao hop dong lao dong.......................................... 247 Ky thuat soan thao hop dong thue n h a...........................................253 5. Ky thuat soan thao hop dong mua ban taisan................................ 260 * > Ky thuat soan thao hop dong cho v a y ........................................... 268 . 7 Ky thuat soan thao hop dong bao hiem ......................................... 273 . ?. Ky thuat soan thao hop dong gui giCr taisan .................................. 279 R M LUOC CUOI B A l........................................................................... 284 Ca hoi on ta p ............................................................................................ 286 Be tap thuc hanh........................................................................................ 286 C h u n g VI: SOAN THAO VAN BAN QUAN LY TO CHUC DOANH N G H E P .......................................................................................................... 287 1.1HLTNG VAN BE CHUNG VE VAN BAN QUAN LY TO CHU*C D(ANH NGHIEP........................................................................... .......... 288 . Doanh nghiep va van ban quan ly doanh nghiep............................288 ’. Van ban quan ly to chuc doanh nghiep........................................... 301 Phan loai van ban quan ly to chuc................................................... 302 7 k Dac diem cua van ban quan ly to chuc............................................ 303 TRUdNQ D*! H pC KINH Tl'QUOC
  5. GiSo t r M k t t i m f S P A N THAO W ± B A N K M t T i v A W M fR fb O A N H NGHI$P II. SOAN THAO VAN BAN QUAN LY TO CHUC........ ..................... 304 f 1. Soan thao cac quyet dinh quan ly ......................................................304 r 2. Soan thao nghj quyet.......................................................................... 305 3. Soan thao dieu le doanh nghiep.........................................................307 / 4. Soan thao quy che va noi quy quan ly doanh nghiep......................312 TOM LU'OC CUOI B A I..... ....................................................................... 316 Cau hoi on ta p .............................................................................................. 317 Bai thuc h an h ............................................................................................... 318 Chuong VII: SOAN THAO VAN BAN QUAN LY KINH TE DOANH NGHIEP............................................................................................................319 I. NHUNG VAN BE CHUNG VE VAN BAN QUAN LY KINH TE BOANH NGHIEP........................................................................................320 1. Khai niem va vai tro cua van ban quan ly kinh te doanh nghiep.. 320 7 / 2. Bac diem cua van ban quan ly kinh te doanh nghiep..................... 322 3. Cac loai van ban quan ly kinh te doanh nghiep...............................322 4. Ngon ngu va van phong trong van ban quan ly kinh te doanh nghiep / / r 323 5. Ket cau chung cua mot van ban quan ly kinh te doanh nghiep .... 326 II. Kl THUAT SOAN THAO M 0T SO VAN BAN QUAN LY KINH TE BOANH NGHIEP............................................................................... 329 1. Chien luge san xuat kinh doanh cua doanh nghiep...................... 329 2. Ke hoach sanxuat kinh doanh cua doanh nghiep...........................335 3. Bu an sanxuat kinh doanh m di.......................................................... 339 / / 4. Cac giai phap kinh te kT thuat trong quan ly kinh te doanh nghiep 342 TOM LUOC CUOI BAl........................................... 345 Cau hoi on ta p .............................................................................................. 347 Bai thuc h an h ............................................................................................... 347 PHU L y e ......................................................................................................... 349 DANH MVC TAI LIEU THAM KHAO................... ................................ 377 iv TRUdNG D I HQC K HT QU6c D N A IN E A
  6. Loi gi&i thi$u Loi gi&i thieu Cac ca quan, to chuc hoat dong tren ca so cua nhung quy dinh nhat r r dinh cua he thong van ban. He thong van ban quy dinh toan bo cac nguyen ' 1 ? tac, thu tuc, phuong phap, phuang huong va cac hoat dong cu the cua to chuc. Ve phuomg dien quan ly nha nuac, nguai ta goi toan bo he thong van \ f ■ > ban do la nen hanh chinh quoc gia. Trong cac to chuc, nguai ta goi la he thong van ban quan ly hanh chinh - kinh te - to chuc. Day la cong cu dac luc * cho cac nha lanh dao va quan ly dieu hanh hoat dong cua to chuc. Do vay ky thuat soan thao van ban kinh te va quan tri doanh nghiep la cong cu dac lire r cho cac nha lanh dao va quan ly soan thao ra duac cac van ban co chat luang cao dung vao quan ly tc chuc. Truong dai hoc Kinh te Quoc dan da day cong nghien cuu va xuat ban giao trinh Ky thuat soan thao van ban quan ly kinh te va quan tri doanh nghiep nam 2003 de giang day cac ky nang soan thao van ban cho sinh vien. f f f \ Cho den nay, giao trinh da phat huy duac tac dung rat Ion, dac biet rat nhieu sinh vien tham gia hoc tap mon hoc nay va nhieu doanh nghiep su dung no nhu cam nang cho soan thao van ban cua doanh nghiep. Dung truoc yeu cau ngay cang nang cao chat luang cong tac quan ly, tham gia vao hoan thien nen hanh chinh quoc gia, Bo mon Tam ly - Xa hoi hoc Truong Dai hoc Kinh te Quoc dan mot buac chinh ly va hoan thicn giao trinh Ky thuat soan thao van ban quan ly kinh te va quan tri doanh nghiep thanh cuon giao trinh / 7 Ky thuat soan thao van ban kinh te va quan tri doanh nghiep de cho sinh vien va cac doanh nghiep tham khao. Cuon sach nay chu yeu di sau vao hirang dan cach soan thao mot van ban co chat luang cao phuc vu cho cong tac quan ly doanh nghiep (Di sau vao ky nang cua ky thuat soan thao). Chung toi coi nhung van de luat phap cua soan thao van ban la co so cho soan thao van ban. Vi vay ngoai nhung ky nang soan thao van ban ra, chung \ r r \ f toi con de cap den nhihig van de luat phap cua van ban nhung khong sau sac lam. Do vay ngoai nhung van de chung toi da de cap, ngucri soan thao van TRtfdNG £>AI Hpc KINH TE Qu6c £>AN t I
  7. Giao trinh KY THUA T SP A N THAO VAN BAN KINH T£ VA QUAN TRf DOANH NGHI$P ban can tham khao them luat phap de soan thao van ban co chat luang cao lion. Giao trinh Ky thuat soan thao van ban kinh te va quan tri doanh nghiep nay do Thac Sy Luang Van Uc - Truong Bo mon Tam ly - Xa hoi ____ f r t hoc Truong Dai hoc Kinh te Quoc dan chu bien va cung tap the can bo giang day sau day cua bo mon bien soan: - Th.s Luang Van Uc chu bien va bien soan chuang I, VI, VII; - Th.s Tran Cao Khai bien soan chuang II; / ____ > - Th.s Luang Van Uc va Th.s Dang Hong Son bien soan chuang IV; / \ - Th.s Luang Van Uc va Th.s Tran Kim Thanh bien soan chuang V; - Th.s Nguyen Thi Bich bien soan chuong III; Giao trinh Ky thuat soan thao van ban kinh te va quan tri doanh nghiep nay duoc dung giang day bac dai hoc cho cac doi tuang dai han, tai chuc, van bang II, chuyen doi... tai Truong Dai hoc Kinh te Quoc dan. \ Bien soan giao trinh nay, chung toi da tham khao nhieu tai lieu, giao trinh va cac cuon sach khac cua cac tac gia trong va ngoai nude. Trong qua \ f trinh bien soan giao trinh nay chung toi da nhan duac nhieu y kien dong gop cua cac dong nghiep va cac nha lanh dao doanh nghiep. Xin tran trong cam an PGS.TS Nguyen The Phan va PGS.TS Nguyen Cao Thuong la nguai co / r cong lao Ion trong cac cuon giao trinh cu. Xin tran trong cam on tat ca cac % / dong chi' da tan tam giup do bo mon hoan thien giao trinh nay. Cuon giao / / \ f f f ' trinh nay chac chan con nhieu khiem khuyet, rat mong duac cac dong nghiep chi bao de hoan thien lan sau. Bo mon Tam ly - Xa hoi hoc Traong Dai hoc Kinh te Quoc dan 2 TRtfdNG0^1 HQ K HT QUdC D N C IN E A
  8. Chuxmg van tfl chung vffiliHr? feii|||| Chuffng I n h O n g v A n b £ c h u n g v £ v a n b a n Ky thuat soan thao van ban la cong cu dac luc cho cac nha lanh dao dieu lanh va quan ly doanh nghiep. Ky thuat soan thao van ban giup cac nha linh dao va quan ly soan thao ra cac van ban co chat luang cao dung ^ f t vao quan ly doanh nghiep. Vi vay no chiem vi tri het sue quan trong trong / / r ^ he th3ng cac mon hoc cho sinh vien cac truong kinh te. Nhung van de chung ve van ban giup chung ta hieu ro duac gia tri chung cua van ban dung trong quan ly to chuc. Noi dung cua chiroug bao gom: V Lich su ra doi van ban; S Nhung khai niem chung ve van ban; S Cac loai van ban; S Cac yeu cau doi voi noi dung van ban; 7 > * The thuc chung ve van ban; V Quy trinh soan thao van ban. * * Muc tieu co ban cua chuang la hieu duac cac loai van ban, the thuc chung cia van ban va quy trinh soan thao van ban. Muc tieu cu the la: S Hieu duac cac khai niem co ban cua van ban; S Hieu duac cac v&n ban dung trong quan ly doanh nghiep; ^ Hieu duac yeu cau ve noi dung cua van ban; * * * Hieu duac the thuc chung cua van ban va ap dung vao cac loai van ban; V Hi§u duac quy trinh soan thao van ban va ap dung vao soan thao cac van ban Ion. m u d N G 0 * 1 HQCKINHTEQUOC dan
  9. Giao trinh KY THUATSOAN THAO VAN B A N KINH T£ VA QUAN TRi DOANH NGHI$P I. KHAI NIEM CUA VAN BAN 1. Khai niem ve van ban a) Ljch su- pit at trien van ban f f t Tir khi che do cong san nguyen thuy tan ra, giai cap xuat hien, con ' ' * \ t ngudi bat dau co nhu cau ghi chep nhung cong viec can thiet cua ca nhan, gia dinh hay cong dong. Cong dong can co phuong tien de ghi chep cong A 7 9 * ng, ghi chep nhung thoa thuan ve viec trao doi, mua ban cua cai vat chat, dat ' 9 9 9 dai... Nhung yeu cau do da lam xuat hien chu viet. Tir khi co chu viet, con ngudi da sir dung nhieu loai vat lieu khac nhau de ghi va truyen dat thong tin cho nhau, van ban xuat hien. Luc dau con ngudi sir dung van ban vao viec ghi chep cong no, sau do su dung vao ghi chep cac quy djnh cua cong > t f dong trong ddi song xa hoi chung, sau nua sir dung vao quan ly quoc gia va * t r r hinh thanh nen nen hanh chinh quoc gia da tao ra sir thong nhat hanh dong \ > 't xa hoi, lam tien de cho sir on djnh va phat trien xa hoi, va cao han cac doanh nghiep da su dung he thong van ban nhu la cong cu quan ly doanh nghiep. t * t t * Den nay, chung ta thay van ban chum len ddi song cua con ngudi trong tat ca cac lTnh vuc hanh dong xa hoi. b) Khai niem ve van ban / t \ \ Theo nghla chung nhat, van ban la tap hap ngon ngu viet nhcim truyen t t r \ di nhung thong tin nhat dinh den nguai su dung. Neu xet ve mat ngon ngu / f thi van ban la don vi ngon ngu ldn nhat, bac cao nhat mang tinh toan van, f f toan nghla va tiep do den cau, tir, hinh vi, am vi (van ban cau -> tu t hinh vi -> am vi). Song, neu xet nhu vay, van ban duac coi nhu mot ban van ^ t vdi nhieu nghia sir dung khac nhau trong ddi song hang ngay. Khi van ban duac sir dung hep lai vdi vai tro la cong cu quan ly van hoa xa hoi va to t chuc, thi no chua dung thong tin hep trong cac pham vi nhat dinh. Vi vay, t \ \ theo nghia hep, van ban la tap hap ngon ngu viet nhdm truyen dat y chi cua ca nhan hay to chirc tai cac ca nhan hay to chuc khac vai muc dich thong t t f bao hay ddi hoi doi tuang tiep nhan phai thuc hien nhung hanh dong nhat \ * > dinh, dap ungyeu cau cua ngudi hay to chuc soan thao. 4 TR dN 0*1 H CK HT QU6c D N U G Q IN E A
  10. ChuvmgI. Nh&ngvan chung v e v a n b in c) Vai tro cua van ban 7 f Xa hoi cang van minh, cang phat trien thi cac moi quan he xa hoi cang / / / phong phu, phuc tap va da dang. Ngoai moi quan he giCra cac quoc gia, moi quan he trong nude cung ngay cang nhieu tang, nhieu lop, da phuomg, da tuyen. Ngay trong mot doanh nghiep hay co quan to chuc kinh te xa hoi thi / f cac moi quan he cung phuc tap han. Mat khac, cuoc song hang ngay cung doi hoi con ngudi gan bo ngay cang mat thiet han trong nhieu moi quan he hop tac, trao doi, mua ban... Su xuat hien va phat trien cua he thong van ban / / 7 quan ly - kinh doanh - giao dich la tat yeu cua qua trinh phat trien cua xa hoi loai nguoi. Do vay, Nha nuoc sir dung he thong van ban de hinh thanh nen A \ r ' * ' r ' ' nen hanh chinh quoc gia nham thong nhat qua trinh quan ly kinh te, van hoa, xa hoi va hanh chinh. Cac doanh nghiep sir dung van ban nhu la cong cu dac r luc trong viec quan ly toan bo qua trinh san xuat kinh doanh ciia minh. Cong • > 7 \ r dan thi dung van ban de chuyen nhung nguyen vong, nhu cau, mong muon cua minh cho nhau hoac cho cac co quan co trong trach. Vi the, xa hoi cang 7 / phat trien cao, thi van ban cang chiem vj tri quan trong trong hoat dong xa hoi, no la thudc do sir phat trien cua xa hoi, la phuong tien de dieu chinh cac 7 r quan he xa hoi, la can cu, chuan muc cho moi hoat dong cua cac cap, cac 7 f nganh, cac don vi, co quan, to chuc kinh te xa hoi. 2. Chu-c nang cua van ban a) Chuc nang thong tin n \ r Van ban chira dung cac thong tin the hien bang ngon ngu viet. Chung 7 7 ta dung van ban de chuyen cac thong tin do cho nhung ngudi su dung vdi / \ r nhung muc dich nhat dinh tuy thuoc vao y do cua ngudi viet. Do vay, van ban la cong cu truyen tin duac Nha nude, cac to chuc, ca nhan su dung 7 7 trong qua trinh quan ly to chuc va xa hoi. De van ban co hieu dung cao trong cong tac quan ly, thong tin trong van ban phai dap ung duac cac yeu cau sau: S Thong tin trong van ban phai phan anh dung va trung thuc ban chat cua cac sir kien, hien tuong xa hoi da xay ra. S Thong tin trong van ban phai the hien chinh xac cac hoat dong r trong logic cua khong gian va thdi gian nhat dinh. TRUd&KSfiiAl HpCKJNB Tl QU6C OAN
  11. Gf'io trinh_KY THUATSO£N THAO VAN BAN M M T£ VA QUAN TR[ DOANH N G H § P S Thong tin trong van ban phai phan anh day du cac mat hoat dong, cac moi quan he lien quan toi sir kien hien tuong dien ra. S Thong tin trong van ban phai duac thu thap va xir lv theo phuang phap khoa hoc. ^ \ 9 f •S Thong tin trong van ban phai co nguon goc xuat xir ro rang va dang tin cay. 9 \ 9 \ Vi the, sir can tjiiet phai co day du thong tin, xur ly mot cach khoa hoc cac thong tin de soan thao van ban cung nhu khai thac moi thong tin qua he r \ 9 9 thong van ban la mot yeu cau bat buoc doi vai ngudi lanh dao, ngudi quan li, dac biet la trong nen kinh te thj trudng. b) Chuc nang phap li *> Chuc nang phap If cua van ban duac the hien trong noi dung cac van ban chua dung cac quy pham phap luat va cac quan he luat phap ton tai • trong xa hoi, trong viec van dung cac quy pham phap luat vao ddi song thuc iV A f tien cung nhu viec giai quyet cac nhiem vu co tinh bat buoc theo quy dinh cua phap luat. Noi dung trong van ban chinh la nhung phat ngon chinh thuc *> 9 f cua ca quan, dan vj, to chuc kinh te, chinh tri, xa hoi. Vi the, van ban la ca sd phap li cho hoat dong cua moi ca nhan, dan vj, to chuc kinh te, chinh tri ' 9 I \ xa hoi. Cac moi quan he xa hoi, cac rang buoc ve mat phap li giira cac nganh cac cap, giua cac ca quan cung nhu trong noi bo deu duac thirc hien thong qua he thong van ban. Van ban la sd sd phap li mang tinh chuan muc 0 / r \ va cudng che trong viec van dung, giai quyet moi van de nay sinh trong xa f f ■ > hoi, trong ddi song thuc te. Vi vay, de quan triet va nang cao tinh phap li cua van ban, de van ban thuc sir la cong cu sac ben thi viec soan thao van * t r \ ban can phai chu y den nhung van de sau: r r * Van ban phai dung the thuc theo quy dinh thong nhat chung duac the hien trong van ban chuan cua Nha nude. 'f Ban hanh van ban phai dung tham quyen. Theo quy dinh chung, moi ca quan, dan vi, to chuc kinh te, chinh trj, xa hoi deu co nhung chirc nang, nhiem vu va quyen han cu the nhat dinh. Phap luat thira nhan tham quyen ban hanh van ban cua moi ca quan, moi cap, moi nganh. 6 TRUONG t)AI HQC KINH TE Q U 6c DAN
  12. Chipong I. Nhfrng van (T chung ve van ban & S Van ban cua ca quan cap dirai khong duac trai vai van ban cua ca r f quan cap tren, trai vai luat phap. 1lay noi cach khac phai dam bao tinh thong * / r nhat cua he thong van ban tir trung uang den dia phuang. c) Chitc nang quan ly > r Van ban la phuang tien chira dung va truyen dat cac quyet dinh quan f y \ ■» k ly. Quan ly la he thong cac bien phap nham dieu khien hoat dong cua mot f doi tuong nao do theo nhung muc tieu da djnh trudc, tren ca sd tinh toan \ ^ r \ day du nhung dieu kien, nhung nhan to anh hudng nham dat hieu qua kinh r r / \ te cac. He thong cac bien phap do chu yeu duac chuyen tai va truyen dat r * m r r \ thong qua he thong van ban. O bat ki quoc gia nao, Nha nude cung deu quan f r r ly dat nude thong qua he thong van ban. He thong van ban luon chira dung *> *w nhirng chuan muc va gia tri xa hoi thich hap vdi moi giai doan cua lich sir. Moi chu the ciia xa hoi, de thuc hien viec quan ly trong pham vi dam nhiem ' ' * f . cua rr.inli, deu can phaithong qua he thong van ban. He tnongvan ban do ’> / / r i \ f the che hoa cac van delien quanden ca cau to chuc, le loilam viec, quan he / ■ > / r giua cac cap, giua cac bo phan trong dan vi... de tao ra su thong nhat trong moi boat dong chung. Ngudi lanh dao, ngudi quan ly luon phai ra nhirng * \ quyet djnh quan ly (sau khi da thu thap, xir ly, phan tich mot cach day du va \ r \ / toan cien nh&ng thong tin can thiet) bang he thong van ban quan ly - giao dich. Cap dudi cung nhu ngudi lanh dao, doi tac cung phai thuc hien nhirng hoat Cong theo nhirng quyet djnh quan ly trong he thong cac loai van ban quan ly. Do vay, van ban duac xac djnh la cong cu cho Nha nude quan ly va X *» t dieu hanh xa hoi, cung nhu cac nha lanh dao quan ly to chuc. Dc van ban thuc sj la cong cu quan ly dieu hanh, cac nha lanh dao can phai to chirc cac / he thcng van ban sau: / He thong van ban phan anh dinh hudng hoat dong trong ngan han cung nhu dai han (nhu: chicn luoc, ke lioacn, du an, chuang trinh, cac giai r phap linh te, ky thuat...). ' He thong van ban the hien cac quy dinh trong hoat dong, la ca sd tien de cho cac hoat dong dien ra (nhu: luat, nghi dinh, thong tu, nghi quyet, f \ f quyet 3inh, dieu le, quy che, noi quy, quy trinh, quy pham ...). TRUONG OAI HQC KINH TE Q U6c DAN a
  13. Gt'ao irmh KY THUATSOAN THAO VANJBAi^ T i VA QUAN TR[J)OANH NGHtgP s ' * * He thong cac van ban phan anh ket qua hoat dong (nhu: bao cao cac loai, bien ban...). y t t -t * ^ * He thong cac van ban the hien trao doi thong tin qua lai giua cac to chuc vai nhau, giua cac ca nhan vdi nhau va vdi to chuc, to chuc vdi ca nhan, giua cac bo phan trong to chuc (nhu: cong van cac loai, thong bao, td trinh, dan,..). f f r Qua he thong van ban, ta co the phat hien duac nhirng bat cap, bat hap ly trong hoat dong cua guong may quan ly cua moi co quan. Dieu do cung cho phep danh gia trinh do to chuc, kha nang sang tao, tinh than chap hanh, y thuc ton trong phap luat, chap hanh nhirng quy dinh, quyet dinh quan ly cua cap tren va su van dung cac van ban cap tren vao thuc tien chi dao hoat dong cua ca quan, dan vi minh. Vi vay, he thong van ban trong moi ca quan # • » • 9 ' phai quan triet duac viec giai quyet hai hoa cac moi quan he trong noi bo ca f quan, quan he tren dudi, cung nhu cac moi quan he khac cua toan xa hoi. Noi cach khac, khi mot van ban mdi ra ddi phai cung vdi cac loai van ban / 7 f r / khac trudc do tao thanh mot he thong, mot the thong nhat, tao ra nhirng moi quan he hap ly trong noi bo cung nhu toan xa hoi; dong thdi the hien su tac dong qua lai giua nhirng ngudi lanh dao va nhirng ngudi bi lanh dao, giua cac cap, cac nganh. •> \ / / r \ Kiem tra la dieu kien tien quyet va tat yeu nham dam bao cho bo may ^ * 9 hoat dong co hieu qua. Thong qua cong tac kiem tra, cac cap cac nganh co the phat hien duac nhirng hien tuang quan lieu, giay td, danh gia dung dan nang lire lanh dao, tinh than trach nhiem, tinh nang dong, y tlurc chap hanh 9 phap luat Nha nude cua nhung ca quan, can bo cap dudi. Tren ca sd phat hien nhung thieu sot do, tirng ca quan se ngan chan duac nhung sai lam va X / n r de ra nhung bienphap khacphuc. Vdi cong tac kiem tra thi he thong van / 1 ban co y nghia rat quan trong, no duac kiem tra xem xet tren cac giac do sau day: S Kiem tra tinh hap ly cua viec xuat hien hay ban hanh van ban. Mot r \ ^ van ban mdi raddi laphai xuat phat tiryeu cau cua thuc tien, phu hap vdi ' 7 9 dieu kien hoan canh cu the nhat dinh. No khong duac trai vdi noi dung cua van ban cua cap tren cung nhu vdi nhung van ban da ban hanh trudc do. B f ® N G OAJ HQC KINH T QU^C DAN E
  14. IIM IIf jl: j 8* •Chrnrng Kkh&ng vin cfl chung ve van d& i l|l| l ; / Kiem tra thuc hien noi dung cua van ban va ket qua dat duac. Dieu do co nghia la phai xet xem van ban co tinh kha thi hay khong, noi each * f \ khac a co phii hap vai yeu cau cua cuoc song, quyen lai va kha nang cua doi tumg thi hanh hay khong. 26 the noi, qua kiem tra, nghien cuu van ban mod phat hien ra duac / / / nhunj; khiem khuyet, nhung thieu sot cua van ban, rut ra duac nhung >v t \ •> f nguyei nhan dan den sai lam de khac phuc, rut ra nhung kinh nghiem thanh cong lay that bai trong cong tac quan ly. Tir do danh gia duac nang luc, trach lhiem cua timg bo phan, cua timg can bo, cung nhu cua ca bo may quan y. i) Chuc nang van hod - xa hoi va sir lieu Van ban la san pham sang tao cua con ngudi, san pham cua cac ca •J r f quan,dan vi, to chuc... trong qua trinh dau tranh vuon den Chan - Thien - * f My. Oua van ban, ta co the thay duac su img xir cua con ngudi, cua xa hoi f / r r \ doi vri thien nhien, doi vdi chinh con ngudi cung nhu doi vdi moi van de thuc ten. Toan bo hoat dong, tri thuc hay kinh nghiem cua con ngudi, cua xa ho deu duac the hien d he thong van ban. Thong qua he thong van ban, i •> f / f r r ta co he hieu duac nhung dinh che ca ban trong loi song, nep song van hoa cua ting thdi ki lich su. Thong qua he thong van ban, chu the ban hanh co the dia vao cac yeu to van hoa, cac gia tri truyen thong, cac phong tuc tap quan dt dep cua dan toe nham giao due cong dan. Chu the ban hanh van ban co the dua vao van ban nhirng kien thuc phap luat va nhd do nang cao y thuc sa su hieu biet phap luat cua nhan dan, hudng cach xir su cua moi ca nhan lay tap the phu hap vdi cac quy dinh cua phap luat va phu hap vdi ban sac vin hoa dan toe. \ r \ \ \ Moi van ban ra ddi deu bat nguon tir nhu cau xa hoi, tir yeu cau cua / f t cac mbi quan he xa hoi, chung phan anh cac moi quan he xa hoi. Bat ki mot van bin mdi nao do ra ddi cung deu phai hudng vao mot quan he, hoac la chung, hoac la cu the nhat dinh. Do vay, qua van ban, ta co the nhan biet duac nhirng van de xa hoi da va dang nay sinh tren thuc tien va cach thuc f P \ \ i f giai quyet nhung van de do trong nhirng dieu kien hoan canh cu the nhat X f f dinh. Sau khi ra ra dai, van ban se dieu chinh mot hay mot so moi quan he
  15. Giao trinh K ? THUA T SP A N THAO VAN B A N KINH T t VA QUAN TR[ DOANH NGHI$P \ \ t xa hoi nao do dang ton tai, hay nham tao ra nhirng moi quan he xa hoi mai cho phu hap vai hoan canh va vai su tien bo cua xa hoi. Chuc nang sir lieu cua van ban duac the hien a cho, chung phan anh / / / nhung bien co xa hoi, nhung su kien lich sir da hoac dang xay ra. Moi bien f f r f \ co lich sir, moi bien co ciia cuoc song, xa hoi duong dai deu duac phan anh trong noi dung cua he thong van ban. Thong qua he thong van ban, nguai ta *> f f r r y r co the nhan biet duac nhirng bien co, nhung su kien, nhung van de kinh te, chinh tri, van hoa va xa hoi ciia thai diem ban hanh van ban. Chung nhu nhung buc tranh ljch sir phan anh thuc tai xa hoi. Nhung van ban chira dung chung duac luu giu, qua thai gian, chung tra thanh nhirng vat chira sir lieu f quan trong. Qua nghien cini he thong van ban, ta co the thu luam duac \ nhieu thong tin hiru l'ch cho cong tac nghien ciru. No phan anh moi hoat r dong ciia mot xa hoi hay cua tirng ca quan, dan vi qua cac moc thai gian \ mot cach tron ven, khong he bi them bat hay bop meo. Vi vay, khi nghien ciru lich sir, nguai ta can phai dua vao he thong van ban. 3. Phan loai van ban t r \ He thong van ban rat phong phu, phuc tap, can phai phan loai chung de co phuang phap soan thao va quan li chung cho thi'ch hap. Co nhieu cach f phan loai, a day ta chi nghien ciru mot so cach phan loai ca ban sau: a) Phan loai chung Phan loai van ban theo loai hinh quan li * Van ban quy pham phap luat Van ban quy pham phap luat la van ban do ca quan Nha nuac co tham quyen ban hanh theo thu tuc, trinh tu luat dinh, nham ban hanh cac quy tac xir sir chung, duac Nha nuac bao dam thuc hien de dieu chinh cac quan he f r 7 r xa hoi theo djnh huang thong nhat vai muc tieu phat trien xa hoi trong hien f > phap quy dinh. He thong van ban quy pham phap luat bao gom: S Hien phap, luat, nghi quyet do Quoc hoi ban hanh; V Phap lenh, nghi quyet do Uy ban thuong vu Quoc hoi ban hanh; S Lenh, quyet dinh cua Chu tich nuac; 10 TRUdNG OAI HQC KINH TE Q U 6c DAN
  16. Ctnrcmg I. Nhung van chung ye vanban S Nghi djnh cua Chinh phu, quyet dinh cua Thu tuang Chi'nh phu; •/ Thong tu cua Bo truang, Thu truang ca quan ngang Bo; S Nghi quyet cua Hoi dong Tham phan Toa an nhan dan toi cao, Thong tu cua Chanh an toa an nhan dan toi cao; S m 9 > • * 9 * Nghi quyet lien tich giua Uy ban thuong vu quoc hoi hoac giua
  17. Gfao trintr ft? T H ^ T S O ^ N THAO V BAN t M H ] t VA QUAN m fD O A N H WOfflgf* ,4n kinh te, dir an dau tu... • Van ban kT thuat: Day la nhung van ban co tinh ky thuat thuan tuy nhu: Luan chung ky thuat, dinh muc, tieu chuan ky thuat... • Van ban ngoai giao: Do la nhung van ban dung trong llnh vuc f 9 r ngoai giao nhu: cong uoc quoc te, cong ham, hiep uac, hiep dinh, toi hue thu... • Ngoai ra con co cac loai van ban khac nhu: Van ban phap luat, van 9 ban an ninh, quoc phong... Phan loai theo ky thuat che tac / / • Van ban giay: Do la nhung van ban duoc soan thao tren chat lieu 9 giay thong thuong. Day la loai van ban co ban trong lich su cua nhan loai, gan lien vai kT nghe giay va in an. • Van ban dien tu: Do la loai van ban duac soan thao tren cac phuang kT thuat thong tin vien thong mai gan lien vai cong nghe dien tir. Loai van 9 \ t ban nay xuat hien trong nhirng nam gan day khi ma tin hoc,che ban dien tir, sach dien tir duac sir dung. Loai van ban nay co uu diem gon, nhe va thuan tien trong ca soan thao, chuyen phat va khai thac sir dung. b) Phan loai van ban trong doanh nghiep Van ban trong doanh nghiep duac chia thanh cac lap nhu sau: • Van ban tac nghiep hanh chinh la cac van ban dung de trao doi thong * 9 9 tin qua lai nham phoi ket hap cong tac; ^ / • Van ban hap dong dan su la cac giao keo kinh te dich vu ma doanh 9 r nghiep ky ket vai cong dan hoac cac to chuc co dang kykinh doanh ky ket vai cong dan hoac cac cong dan ky ket vai nhau; > 9 • Van ban hap dong kinh te- thuang mai la cac giao keo giua cac doanh nghiep ky ket vai nhau nham th\rc hien cac trao doi hang hoa, dich vu hoac lien ket kinh te nham muc dich kinh doanh; • VSn ban quan ly kinh td la cac v&n ban quy dinh nhung hoat dong f 9 9 9 kinh te dien ra theo cac tinh to&n nhat dinh nhu: chien luac san xuat kinh doanh, ke hoach san xuat kinh doanh, cac de an, du an, chuang trinh hoat
  18. Chmmg /. NhCmg vih
  19. Glio trinh KY THUA t SOAN THAO VAN BANW NH T i VA QUAN TRI DOANH NGHIEP f 7 \ / f ban dai hay ngan ma co the dung chuang hay phan cho ket cau. Khi trinh ? r r f f bay theo kieu tu do chung ta phai thong nhat cach goi ten cac ket cau trong # # r r van ban. Theo quy dinh goi ten theo ket cau sau: Chuong I Chirong I QUY DJNH CHUNG TINH HINH THUC HIEN NHIEM MUC 1 VV.. GIAI THICH LUAT,7PHAP LENH % « I. NHUNG KET QUA....... Dieu 1. Ban sao vin ban 1. Pham vi v& doi tupng ap dung 1...... a )............... a) ....... 2. Cac yeu cau ve noi dung cua van ban Noi dung cua van ban phai dap ung duac nhung yeu cau ca ban sau day: a) Ngi dung van ban phai co tinh muc dich Van ban phai the hien duac muc tieu va giai han cua no, tuc la phai tra lai duac cac cau hoi: Ban hanh de lam gi? Giai quyet moi quan he nao? Giai quyet den dau?. Ti'nh muc dich cua van ban con phai the hien trong kha nang phan anh duac muc tieu cua cac chu truang duang loi chi'nh sach cua f Dang, Nha nuac cung nhu nhung chu truang cua cac cap lanh dao va cac f 1 / cap quan ly. No phai la su cu the hoa cac van ban cua cap tren vao giai / 1 quyet nhung van de quan ly cu the cua ca quan mot cach sang tao va kip thai. Ngoai ra, tinh muc dich cua van ban con phai the hien ca a viec phan anh dung dan va day du nhung lai ich, tarn tu, nguyen vong cua nhung thanh vien trong ca quan, dan vi. b) Van ban phai co tinh khoa hoc Van ban co ti'nh khoa hoc la van ban co du luong thong tin quy pham f . \ f f f va thong tin thuc te can thiet. Cac su kien, bien co, hay noi cach khac noi 14 TRUdNG 0*1 HQC KINH TE QUdC DAN
  20. dung cua van ban phai chinh xac, khong dung nhung thong tin, su kien qua cu, qua lac hau. Noi dung cac menh lenh, y tuong phai ro rang, mach lac, khong bi nguai doc hieu nham. Do vay nguai soan thao can phai dua vao 7 O cac can cu khoa hoc sau de the hien noi dung: • Can cu vao cac vin ban phap quy cua Nha nuoc va cac quy djnh cua nganh; • Can cu vao y do cua cac nha lanh dao; • Can cu vao cac ly thuyet khoa hoc; • Can cu vao tinh hinh thuc te cua cac don vi. c) Van ban phai co tinh kha thi f \ Van ban co tinh kha thi la van ban phai dap ung cac van de nhu: Phai f \ f \ dua ra duoc nhung van de xuat phat tir yeu cau khach quan ciia thuc tien gan vcri nhung dieu kien cu the nhat dinh, tinh hinh cua doi tuong, kha nang moi mat ciia doi tuong thuc hien van ban, yeu cau ve trach nhiem thi hanh hop ly, nghia la phii hop voi trinh do, nang luc, kha nang moi mat cua doi tuong thi hanh, phu hop voi yeu cau cua cac quy luat khach quan. Moi quy r f h dinh trong van ban phai biet gan giua quyen voi nghia vu di doi voi nhung X 0 7 X dieu kien cu the de thuc hien nhung quyen va nghia vu do. Noi nhu vay co / nghia la van ban phai co kha nang thuc hien duoc thang loi va co hieu qua. Tren thuc te, co khong it van ban khong the hien duoc chuan muc do, co chang chi la y chii quan ciia nguoi ban hanh ma thoi. d) Van ban phai co tinh quy pham \ • > Van ban quan ly nhin chung la truyen dat y chi cua cac co quan. De X t chung co hieu luc, tuy theo loai van ban, chung ta can phai viet noi dung co t \ 0 ham chua nhirng van de co tinh quy pham. Tinh quy pham thuong duoc the hien duoi hinh thuc nhung menh lenh, nhirng yeu cau, nhirng cam doan va ca nhung huong dan hanh vi, cach xir su ciia doi tuong tiep nhan van ban. Mot van ban ma noi dung co tinh quy pham la van ban, ma trong do co chua * f \ nhung gia dinh (nhung dieu kien, hoan canh va chu the can tac dong), trong O f f truong do thi chu the phai xir su nhu the nao (quy dinh) va neu khong thuc hien duoc thi se bi xir ly nhu the nao (che tai). Tren thuc te, khong phai moi
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