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Giáo trình môn học Anh văn chuyên ngành Kế toán (Nghề: Kế toán doanh nghiệp)

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Giáo trình môn học Anh văn chuyên ngành Kế toán (Nghề: Kế toán doanh nghiệp)

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Giáo trình “English for accounting” gồm 18 bài với thời lượng 60 tiết được sử dụng làm phương tiện giảng dạy cho giáo viên và học tập cho sinh viên. Giáo trình được sắp xếp theo các chủ đề như: kinh tế, tiền tệ, tài chính - ngân hàng, kiểm toán, marketing và kinh doanh quốc tế. Mời các bạn cùng tham khảo để biết thêm các nội dung chi tiết.

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Nội dung Text: Giáo trình môn học Anh văn chuyên ngành Kế toán (Nghề: Kế toán doanh nghiệp)

  1. BỘ GIAO THÔNG VẬN TẢI TRƯỜNG CAO ĐẲNG GIAO THÔNG VẬN TẢI TRUNG ƯƠNG I GIÁO TRÌNH MÔN HỌC ANH VĂN CHUYÊN NGHÀNH TRÌNH ĐỘ CAO ĐẲNG NGHỀ: KẾ TOÁN DOANH NGHIỆP Ban hành theo Quyết định số 1661/QĐ-CĐGTVTTWI ngày 31/10/2017 của Hiệu trưởng Trường Cao đẳng GTVT Trung ương I Hà Nội, 2017
  2. BỘ GIAO THÔNG VẬN TẢI TRƢỜNG CAO ĐẲNG GIAO THÔNG VẬN TẢI TRUNG ƢƠNG I GIÁO TRÌNH Môn học: Anh văn chuyên nghành NGHỀ: KẾ TOÁN DOANH NGHIỆP TRÌNH ĐỘ: CAO ĐẲNG Hà nội, 2017 1
  3. TABLE OF CONTENTS Contents Page Foreword (Lời nói đầu) 1 Unit 1 Marketing economy 2 Unit 2 Microeconomics and macroeconomics 7 Unit 3 Supply and demand 10 Unit 4 Money and its functions 13 Unit 5 Banks and business 17 Unit 6 Marketing, analysis of marketing opportunities 21 Unit 7 Pricing 26 Unit 8 Finance 28 Unit 9 Funding the business 31 Unit 10 Taxation 35 Unit 11 Insurance 38 Unit 12 Management of working capital 43 Unit 13 The foreign exchange market 47 Unit 14 The stock exchange 51 Unit 15 Accounting, the balance sheet 55 Unit 16 The role of auditors 60 Unit 17 Project planning 64 Unit 18 International business 68 Tài liệu tham khảo 74 2
  4. LỜI NÓI ĐẦU Giáo trình “English for accounting” đƣợc tổ chức biên soạn để giảng dạy cho sinh viên trình độ Cao đẳng nghề tại Trƣờng Cao đẳng nghề Giao thông vận tải Trung ƣơng I. Giáo trình đã tập hợp đƣợc nhiều kiến thức từ nhiều tài liệu và giáo trình gốc của các tác giả ở các nƣớc Anh, Pháp, Mỹ,… Việc hoàn thành giáo trình này sẽ đáp ứng đƣợc nhu cầu về tài liệu học tập của sinh viên, giúp sinh viên đọc hiểu, dịch thuật và rèn luyện đƣợc các kỹ năng ngôn ngữ về các lĩnh vực kế toán, tài chính, ngân hàng. Giáo trình “English for accounting” gồm 18 bài với thời lƣợng 60 tiết đƣợc sử dụng làm phƣơng tiện giảng dạy cho giáo viên và học tập cho sinh viên. Giáo trình đƣợc sắp xếp theo các chủ đề nhƣ: kinh tế, tiền tệ, tài chính - ngân hàng, kiểm toán, marketing và kinh doanh quốc tế. Giáo trình đƣợc hoàn thành là kết quả của quá trình lao động nghiêm túc, tập thể tác giả đã cố gắng xây dựng cuốn giáo trình có nội dung thiết thực, gần gũi với nội dung kiến thức đơn giản nhƣng cập nhật phù hợp với qui trình đào tạo chuyên ngành kế toán tại Trƣờng. Tuy nhiên do thời gian biên soạn còn hạn chế, nguồn tài liệu chƣa thật dồi dào và là lần biên soạn đầu tiên nên giáo trình không tránh khỏi còn nhiều thiếu sót. Vì vậy, tập thể tác giả mong nhận đƣợc nhiều ý kiến đóng góp chân thành của các Thầy, Cô giáo cùng bạn đọc trong và ngoài Trƣờng để giáo trình đƣợc hoàn thiện hơn. Xin chân thành cảm ơn! 3
  5. UNIT 1: MARKETING ECONOMY 1. Vocabulary Economy (n) [ikɔʼnəmi:] : nền kinh tế Marketing economy (n) [ʼma:kitiɡ ikɔʼnəmi:] : nền kinh tế thị trƣờng Planned economy (n) [plænd ikɔʼnəmi] : nền kinh kế hoạch hóa Investment (n) [inʼvestmənt] : sự đầu tƣ Production (n) [prəʼdʌkʃən] : sự sản xuất Producer (n) [prəʼdju:sə] : ngƣời sản xuất Consumers (n) [kənʼsju:mə] : ngƣời tiêu dùng Distribution (n) [distriʼbju:ʃn] : sự phân phối Goods (n) [ɡʊdz] : hàng hóa Services (n) [ʼsə:visiz] : dịch vụ Determine (v) [diˊtə:min] : xác định Supply (n) [ʼsəplai] : cung Demand (n) [ʹdima:nd] : cầu Negotiation (n) [niˏɡəʊʃiʹeiʃn] : đàm phán Mean (n) [mi:n] : phƣơng tiện Private (adj) [ʹpraivit] : tƣ nhân Property (n) [ʹprɔpəti] : sở hữu Cooperatives (n) [kəʊˊɒpərətiv] : hợp tác xã Collectives (n) : tổ chức [kəˊlekʃn] State (n) : nhà nƣớc [ˊsteit] Socialism (n) : chủ nghĩa xã hội [ˊsouʃəlizəm] Enterprise (n) : doanh nghiệp [ˊentəpraiz] Self-management (n) : tự quản lý [ self ˊmæniʤmənt] Income (n) : thu nhập [ˊinkʌm] Gross (adj) : tổng, toàn bộ [ɡrəʊs] Domestic (adj) : nội địa [dəˊmestik] Plus (v) : cộng [plʌs] Nation (adj) : quốc gia [ˊneiʃn] 2. Reading 2.1. Marketing economy A market economy is an economy in which decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are based on supply and demand, and prices of goods and services are determined in a free price system. The major defining characteristic of a market economy is 4
  6. that investment decisions and the allocation of producer goods are mainly made by negotiation through markets.[3] This is contrasted with a planned economy, where investment and production decisions are embodied in a plan of production. Market economies do not logically presuppose the existence of private property in the means of production. A market economy can consist of various types of cooperatives, collectives or autonomous state agencies that acquire and exchange capital goods in capital markets, utilizing a free price system to allocate capital goods and labor. There are many variations of market socialism, some of which involve employee-owned enterprises based on self-management; as well as models that involve public ownership of the means of production where capital goods are allocated through markets. 2.2. The gross national income The gross national income (GNI) is the total domestic and foreign output claimed by residents of a country, consisting of gross domestic product (GDP) plus factor incomes earned by foreign residents, minus income earned in the domestic economy by nonresidents. Comparing the GNI and GDP shows us whether the nation resources are put to capital creation or declining toward abroad. 3. Comprehension 1. What is a market economy? 4. What is the major defining characteristic of a market economy? 2. What are differences between a market economy and a planned economy? 4. What does a market economy consist of? 5. What is GNI? What is GDP 4. Grammatical point Relative clauses: Defining relative clauses and non-defining relative clauses 4.1. Relative clauses Clauses beginning with questions words (e.g. who, which, where) are often used: - To modify nouns and some pronouns - To identify people and things or give more information about them. Clauses used like this are called “Relative clauses”. There are 2 types of relative clauses: Defining relative clauses and non-defining relative clauses. Positions: - Follow by a verb (subject relative clause). We must keep relative pronouns. The man who robbed you has been arrested. The car which/that caused last night is being in the police station. Follow by a noun or pronoun + V (object relative clause). We can leave out relative pronouns. The man who I love got married. (The man I love got married.) This is the best school that I know. (This is the best school I know.) 5
  7. 4.2. Defining relative clauses Defining relative clauses used to give essential information about someone or something in order to understand what or who is being referred to. A defining relative clause usually comes immediately after the noun it describes. Children who hate chocolate are uncommon. They live in a house whose roof is full of holes. 4.3. Non-defining relative clauses Non-defining relative clauses used to give extra information about the person or thing. It is not necessary information. We don‟t need it to understand who or what is being referred to. Commas or parentheses are always used to separate non-defining relative clauses from the rest of the sentence. John's mother, who lives in Scotland, has 6 grandchildren. My friend John, who went to the same school as me, has just written a best-selling novel. 5. Word study 5.1. Fill each of the numbered blanks in the following passage. Use only one word from the box in each space. principles the at anything what for issues training how What is economics? Economics …………(1) study of how individuals and nations make choices about how to use scarce resources to fill their needs and wants. A resource is ……………(2) that people can use to make and obtain ………….(3) they need and want. You may be asking yourself………….. (4) this point how economics will help you, a student. Also, you may be wondering how scarce resource is a problem………… (5) a nation like United States that has such abundant resources. It may surprise you to know that many of the decisions you will face as a citizen deal with………. (6) The Unites States should use its resources. Learning economic ………….(7) can help you make decition about candidates for political office, political and social…………..(8), and the goals the Unitad States should sets for itself, such as how to spend government revenues. Many people are familiar with the benefits of government programs such as job………… (9) and Medicare, but how many people aware of the costs of these programs? Economics can help you to understand………… (10) costs and benefits and, therefore, help you make better decisions. 5.2. Circle the correct phrase that describe the sentences 1. This is the house that was broken into. A. relative pronoun is necessary B. relative pronoun is not necessary 2. Is this the boy who plays the piano? 6
  8. A. relative pronoun is necessary B. relative pronoun is not necessary 3. We ate the sweets which my mother had bought. A. relative pronoun is necessary B. relative pronoun is not necessary 4. Do you know the man who is speaking on the phone? A. relative pronoun is necessary B. relative pronoun is not necessary 5. This is the picture that Jane painted. A. relative pronoun is necessary B. relative pronoun is not necessary 5.3. Decide the clauses in bold are defining relative clauses or non-defining relative clauses 1. An elephant is an animal that lives in hot countries. 2. My grandmother, who is dead now, came from the North of England. 3. Let's go to a country where the sun always shines. 4. I've just come back from London, where John lives. 5. We stopped at the museum, which we had never visited before. 6. The reason why I came here today is not important. 7. Yesterday I met a woman named Susan, whose husband works in London. 5.4. Rewrite each of the sentences so that the meaning stays the same. 1. A man phoned and asked for yọu. He spoke with a foreign accent -> The man who …………………………………………………………………………... 2. The Night Manager was written by John le Carre. It's about a man who works in a hotẹl -> John le Carre which…………………………………………………………………….. 3. Our party belives in that idea. I say this from the bottom of my heart. -> That is an idea................................................................................................................... 4. Atlanta is a city. The Olympic Games were held in Atlanta. -> Atlanta where…………………………………………………………………………… 5. Both her sons work abroad. They ring her up every week. -> Her sons, who ………………………………………………………………………….. 6. I told you about a person. She is at the door. -> The person who………………………………………………………………………… 7. Jack's car had broken down. He had to take a bus -> Jack, whose car…………………………………………………………………………. 8. I bought a new computer. It cost me a lot of money -> The new computer which ……………………………………………………………… 9. I got a train. I wanted to go to a station. The train didn‟t stop there. -> The train which ………………………………………………………………………… 10. This is the bank. We borrowed the money from it -> This is the bank from which ……………………………………………………………… 5.5. Translate into Vietnamese: What is economics? 7
  9. Unit 2: MICROECONOMICS AND MACROECONOMICS 1. Vocabulary Microeconomics (n) [ˏmaikəʊi:kəˊnɔmiks] : kinh tế vi mô Behavior (n) [biˊheiviə] : hành vi Output (n) [ˊautput] : sản lƣợng Scarce (adj) [skeəs] : khan hiếm Scarcity (n) [ˊskeəsəti] : sự khan hiếm Alternative (adj) [ɔ:lˊtə:nətiv] : khác nhau Typical (adj) [ˊtipikl] : đặc trƣng, điển hình Equilibrium (n) [ˏi:kwiˊlibriəm] : sự cân bằng Ex:Generalequilibrium theory : thuyết cân bằng tổng thể Quantity (n) [ˊkwɔntəti] : số lƣợng Interference (n) [ˏinˊtəfiərəns] : sự can thiệp Shortage (n) [ˊʃɔ:tiʤ] : sự thiếu Dominate (v) [ˊdɒmineit] : chiếm ƣu thế Macroeconomics (n) [ˏmækəʊi:kəˊnɔmiks] : kinh tế vĩ mô Trends (n) [trend] : xu hƣớng Level (n) [ˊlevl] : mức Inflation (n) [inˊfleiʃn] : lạm phát Performance (n) [pəˊfɔ:məns] : sự thực hiện Balance (n) [ˊbæləns] : cân bằng, cán cân, số dƣ Ex: Balance of payment : cán cân thanh toán Imbalance (n) [ˏimˊbæləns] : mất cân bằng Admire (v) [ədˊmaiə] : khâm phục Extreme (adj) : thái cực [ikˊstri:m] Stagnate (v) : đọng, đình đốn [ˊstæɡneit] Stick (v) : sa lầy, mắc vào [stick] Deficit (n) : thâm hụt [ˊdefisit] Impact (n) : tác động [ˊimpækt] Fiscal (adj) : tài chính, tài khóa, thu chi [ˊfiskəl] Focus (n) : trọng điểm, điểm [ˊfəʊkəs] Analysis (n) : sự phân tích [əˊnæləsis] Instrument (n) : phƣơng tiện [ˊinstrumənt] Tool (v) : công cụ [tu:l] Policy (n) : chính sách [ˊpɔləsi] Monetary (adj) : thuộc tiền tệ [ˊmʌnitəri] 2. Reading 2.1. Microeconomics 8
  10. Microeconomics deals with the economic behavior of individual economic agents- mainly households and firms, and of particular markets and industries. The focus is on the prices and outputs of particular goods and services and on how markets interact to determine the allocation of scarce resources among millions of alternative uses. Typical microeconomics questions include: What determines the relative prices of particular goods, the prices of cars and stereos and bread and books? How does the total national output get divided among various goods and services? Through microeconomics theory, one can see how the system of market prices allows equilibrium to be reached between people‟s tastes for different goods and scarcity of total resources to produce them. Supply and demand analyses are two of basic tools of microeconomics analysis and can be used to see how taxes affect prices and quantities, how government interference with markets can cause shortages, and what happens when a small number of producers come to dominate a market. 2.2. Macroeconomics Macroeconomics is the study of overall economic trends such as employment levels, economic growth, balance of payment, and inflation. It is an important subject for many reasons. For one, macroeconomics performance is a central factor affecting the success or failure of nations. Countries that grow rapidly and without imbalances are admired because their citizents enjoy high and rising living standards. At the opposite extreme are countries that stagnate and seem stuck in a situation of high inflation and high trade deficits. In addition, macroeconomics is an important topic because a government can have a major impact on its economic performance through its economic policies – through fiscal policy (government spending and taxing) and monetary policy (changing the money supply). The central focus of macroeconomics analysis and policy is on four main areas: gross national product (GNP), employment, inflation and the balance of payments. As modern macroeconomics has developed, knowledge has grown about how public policies affect the economy. We now understand better the instruments or tools of macroeconomics policy. They include fiscal policy, monetary policy, income policy and foreign economic policy. 3. Comprehension 3.1. Read the text about microeconemics and answer these questions 1. What does microeconemics deal with? 2. What does microeconemics focus on? 3. Does microeconemics analyze what influences the prices of particular goods? 4. What can bring about a balance between people‟s tastes for different goods and the scarce resources needed to produce them? 5. In microeconemics what are supply and damand analyses considered to be? 3.2. Read the text and answer these questions 1. What is the important of macroeconemics? 2. What does macroeconomics study? 3. The article discusses countries at 2 opposite extreme, what are they? 4. What does fiscal policy deal with? 5. How can the government have a major inpact on a country‟s economic performance? 6. What are the 4 main areas that macroeconemics focus on? 7. What are 4 tools of macroeconemics policy? 8. What do modern economists know more about than in the past? 9. What is the difference between microeconemics and macroeconemics? 9
  11. 4. Grammatical point: Get + past participle When get is followed by a past participle, the meaning is very similar to that of a passive form. Get + past participle can be used in two cases: - When we are talking about things that are done suddenly, unexpectedly or by chance: My brother got hit by a ball. - When we are talking about things that we do to ourselves. When the alarm clock rang, he got up quickly and got dressed. 5. Word study 5.1. Find a word to complete the following sentences 1. A rapid rise in prices is called …………….. 2. Macroeceonomics is study of overall economic ………. 3. Increases in real GNP are called government‟s…………... 4. Monetary policy should be constracted without Fiscal ………..which refers to government borrowing, spending and taxation. 5. Fiscal policy consits of …………..and …………... 6. The central bank has ability to alter the money……. and thus influence the interest rate. 7. They………. The prices of their goods by calculating total costs and adding a little bit more for profit. 8. The total profits of that conpany………….among the different owners according to how much they invested in the company. 9. Even though that factory consumes more inputs than this one, the……….is less. 10. The ………..of water in that area makes it difficult to plan rice. 5.2. Turn the following sentences into the passive using get+past participle 1. Somebody broke the window last night. 2. The burglars cut a big hole in the door. 3. A rainstorm flooded our camp. 4. Students are doing a lot of the work. 5. Somebody stole my dog this morning. 6. They feed the tigers at the zoo twice a day. 7. People must not leave bicycles in the hall. 8. Lightning struck the big tree. 9. He hurt his thumb when using the stapler. 10. She stucks her fingers in a bowling ball. 5.3. Fill in the blanks with "get"+ the past participle. The tenses indicated in the brackets. 1. The window ______________ very easily. (break - past tense) 2. It ________________ sometime next week. (fix - future tense) 3. Pedro __________________ on Friday. (pay - present tense) 4. The cake _____________. (frost - present continuous tense) 5. The lights ________________incorrectly. (install - past tense) 5.4. Translate into Vietnamese: What is Macroeconomics? (yêu cầu dịch nên rõ ràng và đúng với tiêu đề bài đọc hơn) 10
  12. Unit 3: SUPPLY AND DEMAND 1. Vocabulary Demand (n) [diˊma:nd] : cầu Demand curve (n) [diˊma:nd kɜv] : đƣờng cầu Quantity (n) [ˊkwɔntəti] : lƣợng Quantity demanded (n) : lƣợng cầu Movement along a demand curve (n) [ˊkwɔntəti diˊma:ndid] : sự di chuyển dọc đƣờng cầu Shift in demand (v) [ʃift in diˊma:nd] : dịch chuyển đƣờng cầu Illustrate (v) [ˊiləstreit] : dẫn giải/ chứng, minh họa Supply (n) [səˊplai] : cung Shift factors of supply (n) [ʃift ˊfæktə əf səˊplai ] : các yếu tố ngoài giá tác động tới cung Shift in supply (v) [ʃift in səˊplai] : dịch chuyển đƣờng cung Price ceilling (n) [prais ˊseiliŋ] : giá trần Price floor (n) [prais flɔ:] : giá sàn Factors of production (n) [ˊfæktə əf prəˊdʌkʃən] : các yếu tố sản xuất 2. Reading 2.1. Demand Demand decribes how price influences buyer behavier. If the price of a specific good or service increases, the quantity a buyer will purchase will decrease. If the price decreases, the quantity a buyer will purchase will incresse. However, more than just price influences how much a buyer wishes to purchase. In order to focus on the influence of price on a buyer, we must hold all the other possible influences constant. Economists call factors other than the price of the specific good that influences how much a buyer purchases the shift factors of the demand, or society‟s income, prices of the other good, expectations, and tastes. Demand curve shows the price influence on buyers. In the terminology of economics, a price change causes a movement along a given demand curve. An increase in price will decrease the quantity demanded. We must be able to illustrate on our model how influences other than price, called shift factors, affect decisions to buy. On our demand model, we illustrate a change in one of these factors by a shift of the entire demand curve to the right or to the left. In the language of economics, if higher incomes cause the buyers of a specific good to be willing and able to buy moreat various prices, this event is expressed as an increase in demand and is modeled as a shift of the demand curve to the right. If buyers are willing and to buy less at all of the various prices, there is a decrease in demand, and the demand curve shift to the left. 2.2. Supply 11
  13. The seller, just like the buyer, will be influenced by prices when deciding how much to provide or produce. But for the seller, as the price of a good or service rises, the quantity supplied will increase. As price decreases, the seller will produce less and the quantity supplied will decrease. Other forces besides price affect sellers‟ willingness and ability to sell at various prices. These forces are called shift factors and include changes in prices of inputs, technology, taxes, and suppliers‟ expectations. These factors are held constant as we discuss how price influences the seller. In the language of economics, any change in price will cause a change in quantity supplied. On the graph this is shown as a movement along a given supply curve. However, our model must also illustrate how the shift factor influence seller decision-making. A change in one of these factors is said to cause a change in supply and is modeled as a shift of the entire curve. An increase in the costs of producing a good result in a decrease in supply. We would model it by shifting the supply curve to the left. You need to be clear on the difference between an increase in supply and an increase in quantity supplied. An improvement in production technology would cause an increase in quantity supplied. 3. Comprehension 1. Which of the following statements about the law of demand is false? a. Price and quantity demanded are inversely related. b. An increase in price results in a decrease in quantity demanded. c. A decrease in price results in a decrease in demand. d. The shift factors in demand are held 2. The law of supply states that as price increases, a. sellers are motivated to product more. b. supply increases c. quantity supplied increases d. supply decrease e. a and c 3. Which of the following is shift factor of supply? a. A change in price b. A reduction in production costs c. Higher family incomes d. Government-imposed price ceilling 4. Which of the following indicates a change in supply? a. Technological improvement in the production process b. Movement along a particular supply curve. c. Higher prices, causing an increase in quantity supplied. d. Quantity supplied decreases as price increases. e. b and c 5. If the demand for tennis rackets increases, which of the following is not likely to happen? a. The price of rackets will increase. 12
  14. b. The price of rackets will decrease. c. The racket demand curve will shift to the right. d. The quantity of rackets sold will increase. 6. An increase in supply occurs if a. demand inreases b. price increas c. prodution costs decrease d. a and b 4. Grammatical point: The first conditional sentence 4.1. Form if + S + V(present simple), S + will + + V(infinitive) 4.2. Use: The first conditional used to talk about future events that are likely to happen. If you give me some money, I'll pay you back tomorrow. If they tell us they want it, we'll have to give it to them. If you put your money in a saving account, it will earn interest. 5. Word study 5.1. Match the sentences halves 1. If we pay late, a. they‟ll give you a bonus. 2. If you deliver this week, b. we‟ll give you an extra discount. 3. If you give us a 10% discount, c. they‟ll close our account. 4. If you exceed the sale target, d. we‟ll pay all transport costs. 5. If you pay cash, e. we‟ll place our order early next week. 5.2. Complete the conditional sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. 1. We‟______ (give) her a free gift if she ________ (increase) her order. 2. If you _______ (place) regular order, we__________ (cover) transport costs. 3. If you ____ (not increase) the discount, we____ (not be able to increase) the size of order. 4. If I (lose) _________ this order, I‟m afraid it _________ (affect) my commission. 5. If she (plan)_________ to borrow money, she_________(want) to know the interest rate. 6. If sales (continue) to fall, we‟re afraid we______(have to) discontinue this model. 7. If a product (be) economical, it __________(not cost) a lot of money to use. 8. They_______(need) to be paid overtime if they________( have to) work weekends. 9. If they __________(be) paid overtime, our product costs__________ (increase). 10. If we ___(place) an order this week, you____(be able to) ship the goods within ten days? 11. You_____(have to) pay within 30 days and cover insurance as well if we ____(agree) to let you pay by letter of credit. 12. If we ________ (pay) by bank transfer, you __________(give) us a bigger discount? 13. If you ____(ship) the goods quickly, we_____(place) regular order with your company. 14. If you ____(be) independent, you ____(can/work) well withour the help of other people. 15. If they_____(have) an online catalogue, we_____(not/ have to) ask them to send us one. 5.3. Translate into Vietnamese: Demand 13
  15. UNIT 4: MONEY AND ITS FUNCTIONS 1. Vocabulary Consent (n) [kənˊsent] : sự ƣng thuận, sự chấp thuận Medium (n) [ˊmi:diəm] : phƣơng tiện Circulate (v) [ˊsə:kjuleit] : luân chuyển, lƣu hành Standard (n) [ˊstændəd] : bản vị Eg: money standard : bản vị tiền tệ commodity standard : bản vị hàng hóa Barter (n) [ˊba:tə] : sự đối lƣu hàng hóa Barter economic system (n) [ˊba:tə ikəˊnɔmik : hệ thống kinh tế hàng đổi ˊsistəm] hàng Token (adj) [ˊtəʊkən] : quy ƣớc Eg: token money: : đồng tiền quy ƣớc Instalment (n) [inˊstɔ:lmənt] : trả góp Eg: instalment buying : mua trả góp Quote (v) [kwout] : định giá, báo giá Eg: quoted price : yết giá (ví dụ có liên quan?) Commodity money (n) [kəˊmɔditi ˊmʌni] : tiền hàng Token money (n) [ˊtəʊkən ˊmʌni] : tiền thẻ 2. Reading 2.1. The concept of money: Money is a commodity accepted by general consent as a medium of economic exchange. It is the medium in which prices and values are expressed. It circulates from person to person and from country to country, then facilitating trade, and it is the principal measure of wealth. 2.2. The functions of money: All modern societies use money. With money people can easily trade goods and services with one another. That is money promotes trade. Money serves a medium of exchange, a measure of value, a store of value, and standard of deferred payments. We discuss each of these functions of money in turn. a. Money as a medium of exchange Workers exchange labour services for money. People buy or sell goods in exchange for money. Money is a medium through which people exchange goods and services. What is a medium exchange? A medium of exchange is anything that is widely accepted in payment for goods and services and in settlement of debts. Money is the most common medium of exchange. 14
  16. b. Money as a measure of value: The second function money is a measure of value. Just as we need measure for distances, weights, and energy, so we need measure for the value of things offerred at the market. Money measures value in it units of accounts. The unit of account is the unit in which prices are quoted and account are kept. In Britain prices are quoted in pound sterling. In the United States dollar, and in Vietnam VND. c. Money as a store of value: Money also functions as a store of value. Money is a store of value because it can be used to make purchases in the future. This means that if we choose not to buy with our money today, we can save it to buy in the future. If money were a perfect store of value, we could buy the same items next year as we could today with the same amount of money. But money does function poorly as a store of value when there is inflation in the economy. d. Money as a standard of deferred Payments: The last function of money is a standard of deferred payments or unit of account over time. When you buy something but do not pay for it immediately, your payment is expressed in terms of money to be paid in the future. With the wide use of instalment buying, this function of money has become increasing important. Different kinds of money: The most important types of money are commodity money, and token money. Commodity Money: commodity money is a useful good that serves as a medium of exchange. As a result, the value of commodity money is about aqual to the value of the material contained in it. The principle materials used for this type of money have been gold, silve and copper. In accient times various articles made of these metals, as well as of iron and bronze, were used as money, while among primitive people such commodities as shell, beads, elephant, tusks, furs, skins, and livestock served as a medium of exchange. The gold coins in circulation in the US beefore 1933 were examples of commodities money. Token money: Token money is a mean of payment whose value or purchasing power as money greatly exceeds its cost of production or value in uses other than as money. A $10 note is worth far more as money than as a 3x6 inch piece of high quality paper. Similary, the monetary value of the most coins exceeds the amount you would get by melting them down and selling off the metal they cotain. 3. Comprehension 1. What is money? 2. What are functions of money? 3. What is a medium of exchange? 4. What is a unit of account? 5. Why is it said that money is as a store of value? 15
  17. 6. Why is it said that money is as a standard of deferred payment ? 4. Grammatical point: Relative pronouns and relative adverbs 4.1. Relative pronouns - Relative pronouns are used to introduce relative clauses, which are a type of dependent clause. Relative clauses modify a word, phrase, or idea in the main clause. - In English, the relative pronouns are: That, which, who, whom, whose People Subjective case Objective case Possessive case or things People who whom whose (The boy who rang the bell) (The boy whom you met) (The boy whose bike was stolen) Things which which whose (The candle which melted) (The candle which you made) (The candle whose wick had snapped) People or that that whose Things (The dog that bit the postman) (The dog that the postman (The dog whose bark sounds like hates) cough) 4.2. Relative adverbs - The relative adverbs can be used to join sentences or clauses. They replace the more formal structure of preposition + which used to introduce a relative clause. - In English, the relative adverbs are: where, when & why Relative Position Examples Function adverbs * where after nouns that - The house where Mozart was - defining relative refer to places born is now a museum. clause - I flew to Munich, where I had to - non-defining catch another plane to Oslo. relative clause * when after nouns that - I can't remember a time when I - defining relative refer to times was so happy. clause and dates - The most stressful day of the - non-defining week is Monday, when people go relative clause back to work. * why after “reason” - The reason why I didn't call you is - only in defining that I've lost your phone number. relative clauses 5. Word study 5.1. Circle the correct option 1. This is the time of the year ________ many people suffer from hayfever. a. when b. where c. which d. that 2. This is the girl ________mother is from Canada. a. who b. whose c. which d. when 3. An actress is a woman_______ plays in films or theatre plays. a. who b. whose c. what d. that 4. A castle is a place ______ a king or queen lives. a. who b. where c. whose d. that 16
  18. 5. My friend, Jack, _____ parents live in Glasgow, invited me to spend Christmas in Scotland. a. who b. where c. whose d. that 6. A warehouse is a large building_____goods are stored until they are distributed to shop. a. who b. where c. whose d. whom 7. A recession is a period of time__________the economy is doing badly. a. who b. whom c. when d. that 8. Peter comes from Witney________ is near Oxford. a. who b. where c. whose d. that 9. A brand is a name _______ makes it easy for customers to recognize a product. a. who b. which c. whose d. where 10. Is this the person _______ you asked me about? a. whom b. where c. whose d. that 11. Have you received the parcel _______ we sent you? a. who b. where c. whose d. that 12. That‟s the girl _______ brother sits next to me. a. who b. where c. whose d. that 13. The meal, ________ wasn‟t very tasty, was expensive. a. who b. where c. whose d. that 14. A retailer is a person______owns or runs a shop selling goods to members of the public. a. who b. where c. whose d. that 15. She gives her children everything_________ they want. a. who b. where c. what d. that 16. Tell me __________ you want and I‟ll give it to you. a. what b. where c. whose d. that 17. The reason __________ I phoned him was to invite him to party. a. who b. why c. whose d. that 18. Sick lease is a period of time_________you stay away from your job because you‟re ill. a. who b. whom c. when d. that 19. The day _________ they arrived was Sunday. a. who b. where c. when d. that 20. Noon is the time _________ we eat lunch. a. who b. where c. when d. that 5.2. Fill in the gaps with words from the box. corparate launch commerce circulate involve 1. Hong Kong has always been a center of__________. 2. How many people are ____________ in making the new product? 3. The lastes model of our electric car will be __________on 1 January 2005. 4. When a firm begins to do badly on the stock market, plans are often made to change its_____________ 5. A letter that is sent to many diferent people in company is called a __________ letter. 17
  19. Unit 5: BANK AND BUSINESS 1. Vocabulary Commecial bank (n) [kəmə:ʃl bæŋk] : ngân hàng thƣơng mại Bank for Investment and [ bæŋk fɔ investəmən] : ngân hàng đầu tƣ & PTVN Development of Vietnam(BIDV) ænd diveləpmənt] Vietnam Bank for Agriculture [ bæŋk fɔ æɡrikʌlʧə : ngân hàng NN & PTNTVN and Rural Development ænd ruərəl diveləpmənt] Deposit (n) [dipɔzit] : tiền gửi Deposit account (time deposit) (n) [dipɔzit əkaunt] : tiền gửi có kỳ hạn Checking account(demand deposit)(n) [ʧekiŋ əkaunt] : tiền gửi không kỳ hạn Saving account (n) [seiviŋ əkaunt] : tài khoản tiết kiệm Transfer(v) [trænsfə:] : chuyển tiền Interest rate(n) [intrəstreit] : lãi suất Loan (n) [loun] : khoản vay Balance sheet (n) [bæləns] : bảng tổng kết tài sản Reserve (n) [ri zə:v] : vốn dự trữ Premies (n) [primi:] : bất động sản 2. Reading Banks are sistitutions that accept various types of deposits and use the funds attracted primarily to gain loans. We use the terms “banks” generically here to encompass not only the commercial banks where the most people maintain checking accounts but other depository institutions such as saving and loan associations, mutual saving banks, and credit union as well. Formerly, commercial banks were distinct from other depository institutions in their activities and funtions, and differences still persist. However, as a result of deregulatory financial legislation in the 1980s, the distinctions have diminished- the depository institutions are today more homogeneneos in nature. For example, all these institutions are authorized to issue checking accounts and make loans. We will therefore consider all of them to be “banks”. Banks are key finacial intermediaries- institutions that serve as “middlemen” in the transfer of funds from savers to those who invest in real assets such as houses, equipment, and factories. Financial intermediaries promote economic efficiency by gatheing the surplus funds of millions of individual savers and performing this function, financial intermediaries improve the well-being of both savers and investors. By improving economic efficiency, they raise living standards. 18
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