Giáo trình Phương pháp giảng dạy tiếng Anh 2 - Trường ĐH Thủ Dầu Một

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Teaching English – from theory to practice is designed to provide a detailed account of major issues in language teaching, of ways of teaching English and of ways to plan a lesson. To avoid too much reading, each part is designed into various activities ranging from filling the blanks to jigsaw reading.

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  2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS A number of research paper, academic journals and coursebooks from famous authors, i.e. Asher, Celce-Murcia, Chomsky, Cunningsworth, Doff, Harmer, Nunan, etc. have been adapted for the development of Teaching English – from theory to practice and have changed the theories into something much more pedagogical and practical for those who are interested in how to teach English in reality – whether directly or indirectly. I am grateful to Dr. Ly Quyet Tien of Thu Dau Mot University for inviting me to compose this book and to our editors for their helps in shaping the book. I only hope that they will like the way it has turned out. Trần Thị Thanh Mai i
  3. AUTHORS’ PREFACE With the ever-increasing development of technology, the classroom teacher and the program coordinator have been approaching a wider variety of methodological options for learning and teaching than ever before. They can choose methods and materials according to the learners’ needs, the teachers’ preferences and the constraints of the school or educational setting. To others, however, the wide variety of method options currently available confuses rather than comforts. Methods appear to be based on very different views of what language is and how a language is learned. Some methods recommend apparently strange and unfamiliar classroom techniques and practices. This book is written in response to synthesize and organize popular and practical approaches and methods in language teaching as well as to review some useful techniques and principles to deal with a particular teaching skill. Teaching English – from theory to practice is designed to provide a detailed account of major issues in language teaching, of ways of teaching English and of ways to plan a lesson. To avoid too much reading, each part is designed into various activities ranging from filling the blanks to jigsaw reading. Further references are also recommended right after each session. This book is designed for prospective or novice teachers who are not yet familiar with the basic theories, methods, and basic practices of teaching English as a Foreign Language or for those experienced teachers needing a further grounding in the most current, up-to-date methods and practices to be more successful in their current teaching. The book introduces the basic skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing as well as issues in language teaching and lesson planning. It also introduces the teaching of the micro-skills of pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, and discourse. ii
  4. CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i AUTHORS’ PREFACE ii CONTENTS iii INTRODUCTION v ISSUES ABOUT LANGUAGE TEACHING 1 Chapter 1: How to choose a coursebook 1.1. Criteria to choose a coursebook 2 1.2. The role of coursebook in language teaching 6 Chapter 2: How to deal with content of language 2.1. Language form 8 2.2. Language function 9 HOW TO TEACH ENGLISH 12 Chapter 3: How to teach vocabulary 3.1. Methodology in teaching vocabulary 13 3.2. Principles of teaching vocabulary 20 3.3. Techniques in teaching vocabulary 3.4. Strategies in teaching vocabulary 23 3.5. Error correction in teaching vocabulary 24 3.6. Suggested activities in teaching vocabulary 25 3.7. Further reading 35 Chapter 4: How to teach pronunciation 4.1. Methodology in teaching pronunciation 38 4.2. Principles of teaching pronunciation 39 4.3. Techniques in teaching pronunciation 4.4. Strategies in teaching pronunciation 42 4.5. Error correction in teaching pronunciation 45 4.6. Suggested activities in teaching pronunciation 46 4.7. Further reading 55 Chapter 5: How to teach grammar 5.1. Methodology in teaching grammar 57 5.2. Principles of teaching grammar 59 5.3. Techniques in teaching grammar 60 5.4. Strategies in teaching grammar 63 5.5. Error correction in teaching grammar 65 5.6. Suggested activities in teaching grammar 66 5.7. Further reading 68 Chapter 6: How to teach listening 6.1. Methodology in teaching listening 72 6.2. Principles of teaching listening 74 iii
  5. 6.3. Techniques in teaching listening 76 6.4. Strategies in teaching listening 78 6.5. Error correction in teaching listening 79 6.6. Suggested activities in teaching listening 80 6.7. Further reading 86 Chapter 7: How to teach speaking 7.1. Methodology in teaching speaking 89 7.2. Principles of teaching speaking 7.3. Techniques in teaching speaking 90 7.4. Strategies in teaching speaking 95 7.5. Error correction in teaching speaking 96 7.6. Suggested activities in teaching speaking 97 7.7. Further reading 101 Chapter 8: How to teach reading 8.1. Methodology in teaching reading 102 8.2. Principles of teaching reading 104 8.3. Techniques in teaching reading 105 8.4. Strategies in teaching reading 109 8.5. Error correction in teaching reading 112 8.6. Suggested activities in teaching reading 8.7. Further reading 115 Chapter 9: How to teach writing 9.1. Methodology in teaching writing 117 9.2. Principles of teaching writing 119 9.3. Techniques in teaching writing 120 9.4. Strategies in teaching writing 123 9.5. Error correction in teaching writing 125 9.6. Suggested activities in teaching writing 9.7. Further reading 128 HOW TO PLAN A LESSON 130 CONCLUSION 139 BIBLIOGRAPHY 140 APPENDICES APPENDIX 1 143 APPENDIX 2 153 APPENDIX 3 159 APPENDIX 4 169 iv
  6. INTRODUCTION Who is the book for? Teaching English – from theory to practice is a book designed for those who are interested in teaching and are just about to teach mostly learners of whatever age. What is it about? Teaching English – from theory to practice is about teaching English as a foreign or second language: what it is about, and how to do it. Here is what it contains.  The first two chapters discuss general issues about teaching and learning: how to choose a coursebook, how to deal with content of language.  Chapter 3 discusses how to teach vocabulary with various aspects, i.e. methods, principles, techniques, strategy, error correction, suggested activities and further reading.  Chapter 4 deals with how to teach pronunciation with various aspects, i.e. methods, principles, techniques, strategy, error correction, suggested activities and further reading.  Chapter 5 looks at how to teach grammar with various aspects, i.e. methods, principles, techniques, strategy, error correction, suggested activities and further reading  Chapter 6 mentions how to teach listening with various aspects, i.e. methods, principles, techniques, strategy, error correction, suggested activities and further reading.  Chapter 7 suggests ways to teach speaking with various aspects, i.e. methods, principles, techniques, strategy, error correction, suggested activities and further reading.  Chapter 8 is about how to teach reading with various aspects, i.e. methods, principles, techniques, strategy, error correction, suggested activities and further reading.  Chapter 9 is concerned with how to teach writing with various aspects, i.e. methods, principles, techniques, strategy, error correction, suggested activities and further reading.  The last session is about how to plan a lesson.  A list of references provides the authenticity and validity of the contents in the book.  The book ends with four appendices of lesson plan designed for a whole lesson from grade 6 to 9. v
  8. CHAPTER 1: HOW TO CHOOSE A COURSEBOOK Aims of the chapter: In this chapter, the learners will be provided with some criteria to choose a cousebook as well as the role of a coursebook. Chapter 1 includes two main parts: + Part 1.1. Criteria to choose a coursebook. This part consists of five activities presenting various criteria to choose a coursebook. + Part 1.2. The role of coursebook in language teaching. Two activities will be included in this part to deal with the role of coursebook in language teaching. 1.1. Criteria to choose a coursebook Choosing a coursebook is a daunting, sometimes overwhelming prospect for both program administrators and teachers. Nevertheless, it is a prospect that must be respected as it has significant impact on the ability of students to meet their language learning objectives, and affects both the process of how they learn and the outcomes. Many researchers have compiled checklists and guidelines for choosing appropriate course books for different students. Some are more detailed and some are less so, but all deal with more or less the same issues. It is very important to know what to look for when choosing a book. Before choosing a course book for the students in any course, it is important to create a needs-analysis for your own students. What will the students need to know by the end of the course or school year? Once the needs-analysis is done, it's a good idea to create a list of items that you consider desirable in a course book. Based on these lists, any course book can then be analyzed. Below are a few basic questions (to help get you started) that should be asked when we are in the process of choosing a course book for our classes and our students. Initial Questions  Do the principles stated in the introduction or teacher's guide reflect my own principles?  Is the teacher's guide comprehensive and does it offer many extra ideas?  Does the book follow the rationale of the current English curriculum? o How do I know this? o Where can I check it?  Are the topics covered in the book appropriate for my students?  Is the material appropriate for my students?  Are there enough reading passages and tasks in the book? Are they varied?  Are there enough listening comprehension tasks in the book? Are they varied?  Are there enough writing tasks in the book? Are they varied?  Is grammar presented, taught and practiced in the book? Is there enough practice of grammar in the book?  Are there performance-based tasks in the book? Are these varied and include both oral presentations and written ones?  Is the language authentic?  Is the book appealing to me? Do I think the students will also find it appealing?  Is the font size or style appropriate for the age group of my students?  Do I think I would enjoy using this book? 2
  9. Checklist for choosing a coursebook Use the checklist below to grade each book you inspect. This will help you to judge all the books by the same criteria. It will also help you to see what you may need to add, substitute, adapt or ignore in the coursebook. What does the book offer the teacher? 1 2 3 4 5 1. Do the book’s priorities match with your priorities? 2. Does the book seem to do what it claims to do? 3. Is it clear how to use the book? 4. Is the book clearly sequenced and structured? 5. Does it provide integrated revision of key items? 6. Are there any useful, additional materials? 7. Does it offer lots of practical ideas? 8. How does the book develop a balance of all 4 skills? Does this meet your needs? 9. Does it provide plenty of varied practice of any one set of language items? 10. Does it help you to set tests? 11. Does the book manage to avoid sexual, racial and cultural stereotypes? What does the book offer the students? 12. Does the book look interesting and fun? 13. Can the students easily see what they have to do? 14. Does the book provide much for them to do independently? 15. Does it give them activities and tasks which are interesting and worthwhile in themselves not just language exercises? 16. Does it provide plenty for those children who cannot read and write with confidence? When completing the questions from the table, teachers should then follow this 4- stage procedure. Step 1: Analysis. The teacher can look through the various books to analyze each for answer to the questions on the next page. It helps to have a chart to write down the answers for this so that the information is clearly displayed. Step 2: Piloting. By far the best way to find a book’s strengths and weaknesses is to try it out with a class, seeing which lessons work and which don’t work. The teachers are teaching more than one group at the same level, they may choose to teach two different books to compare them. Step 3: Consultation. Before choosing a book, teachers should try and find out any of their colleagues have used the book before and how well they succeed with it. Through discussion, they can get an idea about whether or no book is likely to be right for them. Step 4: Gathering opinions. Anyone who might have an opinion on the textbook is worth speaking to, from the publisher and bookshop owners, to colleagues and friends. It is also a good idea to let students look through the book to see how they react to a first sight of it. They they express a preference with what you agree with, they are likely to be more committed to the textbook. 3
  10.  Practice Read carefully the following Areas to consider a coursebook and compare these kinds of coursebook: New American Streamline - Connections (Bernard Harley & Peter Viney); Face 2 Face – Pre-intermediate (Chris Redston & Gillie Cunningham); American Headway 2 (Joan & Liz Soars) and Upstream– pre-intermediate (Virginia Evans & Jenny Dooley) based on mentioned nine areas to consider a coursebook. Areas to consider a coursebook Area Questions to consider Price How expensive is the textbook? Can the students afford it? Will they have to buy an accompanying workbook? Can they afford both? What about the teacher? Can he or she pay for the teacher’s book and tapes? Available Is the coursebook available? Are all its components (students’ book, teacher’s book, workbook, etc.) in the shops now? What about the next level (for the next term/semester)? Has it boon published? Is it available? What about tapes, videos, etc.? Layout and Is the book attractive? Does the teacher feel comfortable with it? Do the students like it? How design user-friendly is the design? Does it get in the way of what the book is trying to do or does it enhance it? Methodology What kind of teaching and learning does the book promote? Can teachers and students build appropriate ESA sequences from it? Is there a good balance between Study and Activation? Skills Does the book cover the four skills (reading, writing, listening and speaking) adequately? Is there a decent balance between the skills? Are there opportunities for both Study and Activation in the skills work? Is the language of the reading and listening texts appropriate? Are the speaking and writing tasks likely to Engage the students’ interest? Syllabus Is the syllabus of the book appropriate for your students? Does it cover the language points you would expect? Are they in the right order? Do the reading and listening texts increase in difficulty as the book progresses? Topic Does the book contain a variety of topics? Are they likely to engage the students’ interest? Does the teacher respond to them well? Are they culturally appropriate for the students? Are they too adult or too childish? Stereotyping Does the book represent people and situations in a fair and equal way? Are various categories of people treated equally? Is there stereotyping of certain nationalities? Does the book display conscious or unconscious racism or sexism? Teacher’s Is there a good teacher’s guide? Is it easy to use? Does it have all the answers the teacher might guide need? Does it offer alternatives to lesson procedures? Does it contain a statement of intention which the teacher and students feel happy with? 4
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  12. 1.2. The role of coursebook in language teaching Together with the impact of new technologies, there is no doubt that textbooks remain essential in language teaching and serve as ''a framework'' for both teachers and learners. In fact, the role of the textbook in the language classroom is a difficult one to define perfectly and exactly. Apart from the fact that teachers are required using materials by program administrators, it is beneficial to make use of materials in language teaching. In other words, materials play a crucial role in teaching and learning situation. A textbook is a cheap way of providing learning materials in terms of ready-made teaching texts and learning tasks. Also, materials, as Allright (1981) suggests, are only part of the co-operative management of language learning. Allright also adds a further dimension to the role of the textbook by characterizing the lesson as an interaction between the three elements of teachers, learners and materials. In his opinions, this interaction enhances the opportunities to learn. Figure 1.2: A model of the lesson (adapted from Allwright 1981) Allwright (1990) argues that materials should teach students to learn, that they should be resource books for ideas and activities for instruction/learning, and that they 6
  13. should give teachers rationales for what they do. From his point of view, textbooks are too inflexible to be used directly as instructional material. Similarly, Cunningsworth (1995) considers the coursebook a useful factor in teaching and learning as it can serve as a syllabus for teaching and a guide for students' self-study. According to him, textbooks play a prominent role in the teaching/learning process and they are the primary agents of conveying the knowledge to learners. One more thing, textbooks' function is to make knowledge available and apparent to its learners in a selected, easy and organized way. Also, the role of coursebooks in language teaching can be categorized as follows i. a source for presentation materials, ii. a source of activities for learner practice and communicative interaction, iii. reference source for learners on grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation and so on, iv. a source of stimulation and ideas for classroom language activities, v. a syllabus reflecting determined learning objectives, vi. a resource for self-directed learning or self-access work and vii. a support for less experienced teachers. The author also emphasized that coursebooks can serve as a resource in achieving aims and objectives set in advance in terms of learner needs. Hutchinson (1994) and Richards (2001) state that textbooks are a key component in most language teaching situations because learners consider textbooks the backbones of language input, with a balance of skills taught and of language practice while teachers, especially inexperienced ones, may find textbooks a form of guidance to plan and teach lessons. Mention to this issue, Betsy Parrish (2004, p.227) describes benefits of using a textbook: It assures a measure of structure, consistency, and logical progression in a class. It minimizes preparation time for teachers. It allows learners to review material or preview other lessons. It meets a learner’s needs or expectations of having something concrete to work from and take home for further study. It provides novice teachers with guidance in course and activity design. It may provide multiple resources such as tapes, CDs, videos, self-study workbooks, etc. As a matter of fact, textbooks alone cannot provide students with all the knowledge they require, but they are a major tool in helping learners to make progress. Theoretically, experienced teachers can teach English without a textbook. However, it is not easy to do it all the time, though they may do it sometimes. Many teachers do not have enough time to make supplementary materials, so they just follow the textbook. Textbooks therefore take on a very important role in language classes, and it is important to select a good textbook. 7
  14. CHAPTER 2: HOW TO DEAL WITH CONTENT OF LANGUAGE Aims of this chapter This chapter clarifies the differences between language form and language content. It includes two main parts Part 2.1. Language form. This part gives a short summary about language form, i.e. morphology, syntax and phonology. Part 2.2. Language function. This part deals with three main functions of a language, i.e. performatory, expressive, informative. Language content refers to the topics and ideas that are encoded in linguistic messages. We all talk about the same things: objects, relationships between objects, and relationships between events. Content is, therefore, general and independent of any particular context. In contrast, topic is variable and changes with age, as well as culture. Language content is akin to semantics. Bloom and Lahey (1978) divide language into three separate but overlapping components:  Content  Form  Use The overlap of these in the centre of the diagram below represents knowledge of language and a successful integration of content, form and use to understand and transmit messages. Figure 2.1. The Integration of Content, Form and Use 2.1. Language form Language form refers to the surface features of language and how these are arranged according to the grammar of the language. As a means of connecting sound with meaning, it incorporates morphology, syntax and phonology. In general, form refers to the shape and structure of something. It can also mean the organization, placement and relationship between things. As such, language form refers to the so-called surface features of language and how these are arranged. The rules that govern how particular language features are arranged are the grammar of the language. Language form can be divided into at least two categories (Lahey, 1988): 8
  15. Morphology Syntax - Morphology examines how words are formed in any Syntax refers to the rules that govern how words particular language. It focuses especially on their combine to create meaningful utterances. Morphemes internal structure and how their meaning can be combine to form words, words combine into phrases altered through the addition of prefixes and suffixes. and phrases combine according to set rules into - A morpheme is the smallest element in a language clauses. capable of creating a distinction in meaning, as such it is central to an understanding of morphology. Now, in spoken language we are additionally concerned with the ways in which sound is connected to meaning. This, therefore, introduces a third category: Phonology Phonology is the study of the categorization of the speech sounds of a particular language and the rule system that governs how they are used to produce meaningful words. It describes the basic unit of speech in any language as the phoneme and examines how speech sounds change when they are combined. In addition, phonology examines other surface features of speech such as intonation, stress and pausing. There are also counterparts of these features in signed language, where the range and speed of movements (hand, arm, body, face) and hand configurations and emphasis, stress, pausing, and so on. 2.2. Language function What are language functions? A lot of what we say is for a specific purpose. Whether we are apologizing, expressing a wish or asking permission, we use language in order to fulfill that purpose. Each purpose can be known as a language function. Savignon describes a language function as “the use to which language is put, the purpose of an utterance rather than the particular grammatical form an utterance takes” (Savignon, 1983). By using this idea to structure teaching, the instructional focus becomes less about form and more about the meaning of an utterance. In this way, students use the language in order to fulfill a specific purpose, therefore making their speech more meaningful. There are at least three different basic functions of language: a. Informative – words can be used to pass on information + The informative function affirms or denies propositions, as in science or the statement of a fact. + This function is used to describe the world or reason about it (e.g. whether a state of affairs has occurred or not or what might have led to it). + These sentences have a truth value; that is, the sentences are either true or false (recognizing, of course, that we might not know what that truth value is). Hence, they are important for logic. b. Expressive – words can be used to evoke an emotion that is not a direct result of their meaning + Poetry and literature are among the best examples, but much of, perhaps most of, ordinary language discourse is the expression of emotions, feelings or attitudes. 9
  16. + Two main aspects of this function are generally noted: (1) evoking certain feelings and (2) expressing feelings. + Expressive discourse is best regarded as neither true nor false. c. Performative – words can be as a kind of symbol / action in and of themselves + The directive function is most commonly found in commands and requests. + Directive language is not normally considered true or false (although various logics of commands have been developed). + Example of this function: "Close the windows." The sentence "You're smoking in a nonsmoking area," although declarative, can be used to mean "Do not smoke in this area." What are some examples of functions of language? Language functions in many different ways. Its most familiar function is informative, i.e. it transmits information. But it also operates expressively, when we attend to the feelings evoked by the words rather than just their meaning. Poetry often combines the informative and the expressive: “The fair breeze blew, the white foam flew The furrow followed free We were the first that ever burst Into that silent sea.” Samuel Taylor Coleridge, “Rime of the Ancient Mariner” “When Ajax strives some rock’s vast weight to throw, The line, too, labors, and the words move slow; Not so when swift Camilla scours the plain, Flies o’er th’ unbending corn, and skims along the main.” Alexander Pope, “Essay on Criticism” “I sprang to the stirrup, and Joris and he; I galloped, Dirck galloped, we galloped all three.” Robert Browning, “How They Brought the Good News from Ghent to Aix” In these verses the rhythm and sound of the words are expressive in themselves. Language is also used expressively in prayer; and when a man whispers “sweet nothings” into his wife’s ear, or tells her she looks “scrumptious”; and in such sounds as “wow!” and “scram!”; and when a politician or preacher or salesman uses words to evoke emotional responses. A third area of language is the ceremonial. Here the words are not necessarily either informative or expressive, but performative, they are an action in themselves. Examples are “I thank you, apologize, warn, greet, guarantee, promise, welcome,” etc. These words are complete speech acts. They do not describe the acts of thanking, apologizing, warning, etc., but instead are those very acts. They are not propositions which can be true or false. If a man says, “I bid you good morning,” that does it (even though he may hate you). In its performative sense, language is like any other gesture 10
  17. or symbol: the handshake, the military salute or the gestures of the baseball umpire. Austin estimates that there are over a thousand performative verbs in English. Language also functions to tell a story, to declaim, to hypnotize, to play a part, to imagine, to soothe, to ask, to deceive, to demonstrate one’s feelings, and in endless other ways. If we think about a function of language as one that serves a purpose we can see that much of what we see can be considered to be functional. Let's take the example of going to a dinner party. Arriving at the dinner party we may introduce ourselves, thank the host and ask where to put our coats. During the dinner we may congratulate someone on a recent accomplishment, ask advice, express affection and compliment the host on the meal. Each of these individual utterances are considered functions of language. How can we teach functions of language? Krashen and Terrell (1983) suggest that basic communication goals can be expressed in terms of situations, functions and topics. It is up to the teacher to plan the situations within which students will be able to use their language for a purpose in the classroom context. For instance, if the topic being learned is family and relatives then the situation may be introductions or visiting relatives. By creating a situation the teacher is providing the necessary context students need to use the language for a function. In addition to creating situations, teachers must also be prepared to explain that there may be a large number of possible ways to fulfill each function of language. For instance greeting an elderly lady on the street would differ from greeting a peer in their home. Choosing the appropriate way in which to say something will partly depend on: 1. Your social standing relative to the person you are talking to; 2. How well you know the person; 3. Who is listening; and 4. The circumstances under which the communication occurs. 11
  19. CHAPTER 3: HOW TO TEACH VOCABULARY Aims of the chapter After dealing with chapter 3, learners will acquire some basic knowledge about + methodology in teaching vocabulary, + principles of teaching vocabulary, + techniques in teaching vocabulary, + strategies in teaching vocabulary. Also, learners can have some experience in error correction in teaching vocabulary as well as be recommended some suggested activities in teaching vocabulary. Part 3.1. Methodology in teaching vocabulary provides learners with direct and indirect vocabulary teaching as well as four different approaches to teaching vocabulary Part 3.2. Principles of teaching vocabulary deals with some basic principles in teaching vocabulary Part 3.3. Techniques in teaching vocabulary presents three stages in teaching vocabulary as well as some popular techniques which are very useful for teachers Part 3.4. Strategies in teaching vocabulary mentions to explicit and implicit instructions in teaching vocabulary Part 3.5. Error correction in teaching vocabulary discusses how to correct errors in teaching language, especially vocabulary. Part 3.6. Suggested activities in teaching vocabulary recommend some useful activities to teach vocabulary. Last but not least, a number of references are presented for learners to explore more aspects of teaching vocabulary. What is Vocabulary? According to Morris (1984) vocabulary refers to every word in a language that is used for making understanding especially between persons. Vocabulary is the list of words or phrases of a particular language along with their meanings. Richard (1985) defines vocabulary as every word of a language such as single words, compound words, and the idioms of the language. How many words are needed for effective communication in L2? Level Number of Words Text Coverage % High-frequency words 2,000 87 Academic vocabulary 800 8 Technical vocabulary 2,000 3 Total to be learned 4,800 98 Low-frequency words 123,200 2 Total 128,000 100 Adapted from Nation and Newton, 1997, p.239 3.1. Methodology in teaching vocabulary In the past, teachers used to select and present vocabulary from concrete to abstract. Words like ‘door’, ‘window’, ‘desk’, etc. which are concrete, used to be taught at beginning levels. However, words like ‘honesty’, ‘beauty’, etc., which are abstract words, used to be taught at advanced levels because they are not “physically represented” in the learning/teaching environment and are very difficult to explain. Nowadays, methodologists and linguists suggest that teachers can decide and select the 13
  20. words to be taught on the basis of how frequently they are used by speakers of the language. That is, the most commonly used words should be taught first. 3.1.1. Direct vocabulary teaching Direct vocabulary instruction involves 6 explicit steps which, when conducted consistently and over time, improves students' academic vocabulary knowledge. The six steps of direct vocabulary instruction, in brief, are: + Teacher provided description, explanation or example + Students restate in own words + Students construct non-linguistic representation + Participate in variety of activities + Student discussion + Games In direct vocabulary instruction, learners do many specific exercises and activities that focus their attention directly on certain words in lists, learning word parts, and vocabulary games. These techniques will benefit all learners, but have been shown to especially benefit learners with limited personal experience with words as well as limited knowledge of words (Vacca,Vacca and Gove, 2000; Omanson et al., 1984; Jenkins, Stein, and Wysocki, 1984; McKeown et al., 1983; Kameenui, Carnine, and Freschi, 1982). Direct vocabulary instruction is commonly done once prior to a reading and reviewed or assessed after the reading. Stahl suggests providing contextual information while addressing definitional information. Practice throughout the week with new vocabulary has historically revolved around writing definitions and sentences. Research, however, shows that in order to "learn" a word, it must be revisited approximately 8 to 10 times. Additionally, word learning is most effective when done in meaningful contexts. Owning a word is not getting a word right on a vocabulary quiz; owning a word is using it correctly in conversation and writing. Each activity listed below can be modified and used in an oral format for use with younger students. + Concept Maps + Word Cards + Four Square Vocabulary + Concept Sorting + List-Group-Label Teaching a word directly first involves providing definitional and contextual information. Stahl suggests various ways you can provide definitional information: + teaching synonyms and antonyms (requiring your students to consider the critical features of words); + rewriting definitions (allowing students to show their understanding of a word); 14



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