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Giáo trình thực hành Ngữ âm học và âm vị học tiếng Anh (tái bán lần thứ 3): Phần 2

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Nối tiếp nội dung phần 1, phần 2 cuốn giáo trình thực hành Ngữ âm học và âm vị học tiếng Anh giới thiệu tới người đọc các nội dung: Complex wordstress, wcak forms, problems in phonemic analysis, aspects of connected speech, functions ofintonation, intonation, further areas ofstudy in phonetics ancl phonology.

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Nội dung Text: Giáo trình thực hành Ngữ âm học và âm vị học tiếng Anh (tái bán lần thứ 3): Phần 2

  1. 134 CHUONG 11 affi x / 'efrk s / (n) phu to co mp l ex w o rd /'k n mp l ek s ' w 3 : d / tu phric co n s t itu en t / b n ' s t 1 tj u : mt / (n ) thanh to, thanh phan en cou n t er / rn ' k au n t :i/ ( v) gi,ip phdi i n q u es t i o n / rn ' k w estJan / dang dugc xet den i n it i al IT ' mj1/ (adj ) kht i ddu, a ddu mot tt n atu re/ ' n eTtJa/ (n ) t[nh chiit, hdn chat p refi x / ' p ri : fT ks / (n ) tin t6, ti @ p ddu ngit p ro d u ct i v e / p ro ' d x k trv / (ad j ) tr;.o sinh p ropo rt i o n / p ra' p : [n / (n ) ty le regu l arit y / regju l a: ratT/ tinh ph6 bien, thumng xuyen ro o t / ru : t / (n ) can to: tu ct'in s ak e-> fo r t h e s ak e o f / fa aa ' s e1 k av / d i d11(1 C s t e m I s t e m / (n ) tit goc, tt can, than tt s u ffi x / ' s A fT ks / (n ) hau to, tie v i ng@ t reat men t / ' tri : t man t / (n ) sf!/cdch it l
  2. 135 11 Complex word stress 1 1 Trgng am c ua tu phuc tap 11.1 Co mplex wo rds 1 1 .1 Ca c tu phuc tap In Ch ap ter 10 th e n ature o f s tres s was Chuong 10 da giai thich ban chat cl a exp lain ed an d s o me b road g en eral rules trc;rng am va neu mot so qui ti c ph6 bien were g iv en for d ecid in g which s y llab le in a rong rai de quyet dinh am tiet nao trong wo rd s h o u ld receiv e p rimary s tres s . Th e mc)t W nen nh~n trong am chinh. Cac tt wo rd s th at were d es crib ed were called da duo·c mieu ta dLlc;IC goi la w "don gian"; "s imp le" wo rd s ; "s imp le" in th is con tex t "don gian" trong ngu canh nay c6 nghia mean s "n o t co mp o s ed o f mo re th an o n e la "khong dugc cau tao tr nhieu hon mot g rammatical u n it" , s o th at, for ex amp le, th e ddn vi ngu phap", vl the, vi du nhu tu wo rd ' care' is s imp le wh ile 'careful' an d 'care' la tu ddn gian trong khi 'careful' ' careles s ' (b ein g co mp o s ed o f two va 'careless' (m6i w du'(JC cau t
  3. 136 nhan rang rat kh6 d e dua ra su khac biet gil a cac tu "don gian" va "pht c tap" va su khac biet do khong phai luc nao cung huu fch. Co mp l ex w o rd s are o f t w o maj o r t yp es : Cac tu pht c tap thuoc hai loai chinh: i ) w o rd s mad e fro m a b as i c w o rd fo rm (w hich i) cac tu dugc tao ra tu mot dang tu co w e w i ll call t h e s tem ), w i t h t h e ad d i ti o n b an (dang ma chung ta goi la go'c o f an a ffi x ; and tu ), c:6 them m9t p h y to'; va i i) comp ou n d words, w h i ch are mad e o f t w o ii) cac tu gh e p , duoc tao ra tu' hai (doi (o r o ccas i on ally mo re) i n d ep en d en t khi nhieu hon) tt tieng Anh doc lap E ng lis h w o rd s (e.g . ' i ce-cream', 'armch ai r' ). (vi du: 'ice-cream', 'armchair'). W e w ill l o o k fi rs t at t h e w o rd s mad e w i t h Tntac tien chung ta se xem cac tu affi x es . A ffi x es are o f t w o s o rt s i n E ng lis h : dudc tao ra voi cac phu to. Trong tie'ng prefix es , wh i ch co me b efo re t h e s t em (e.g . Anh, cac phu t6 thuoc hai loai: tien t6, p refi x 'u n -' + s t em ' p l eas an t'-> 'u n pl eas an t ' ) dung truoc goc tu (vi du ti&n to 'un-' + an d s uffi x es, w hi ch co me aft er t h e s t em ( e.g . goc W 'pleasant' --> 'unpleasant') va h ~u . s t em 'g ood ' + s u ffi x ' -n es s ' 'g oo d n ess ). to, dung sau goc tu vi du: goc W 'good' + h~u toe -ness' --> 'goodness'). 1 A ffi x es h av e o n e o f t h ree p o ss i b l e effect s C ac phu to co the' co ba anh huang o n w o rd s t re s s : len trong am ca tr: i ) T h e affi x i t s el f recei v es t h e p ri mary i) Ban than phu to nhan trong am chinh s t ress (e.g . 's emi -' + 'ci rcl e' s a :kl --> (vi du: 'semi-' + 'circle' 's a :kl --> l; 's emi ci rcl e' 's em 1 s a : ' p ers o n ' 'pa :s ~ 'semicircle' 's em 1 s a :l ; 'person' 'pa:s ~ 'p ers o n alit y ' pa :s ~ 'rel a ti). 'personality' pa :s frelati ). ii) T h e w o rd i s s t ress ed j u s t as i f t h e affi x ii) Tu duqc nhan giong nhu the' khong w ere n o t t h ere (e.g . ' p l eas an t' 'pl eznt, co phu t6 d d6 (vi du: 'pleasant' ' un p l eas an t ' A n' pl eznt; 'mark et ' m a :kTt, ' pl eznt, 'unpleasant ' A n' pl eznt; 'mark et i ng ' m a :k1 tJ g ) 'market' m a :k1 t, 'marketing' m a :kTtJ o l. i ii ) Th e s t res s remai n s o n t h e s t em, n o t t h e iii) Trong am van d tr@n goc tut, khong affi x, b u t i s s hi ft ed t o a d i fferen t s y llabl e phi phu to, nhung duoc doi den mot (e.g . ' magn et ' 'm reg na t, ' mag n eti c' am tiet khac (vi du: 'magnet' 'm reg na t, m reg ' neti k). 'magnetic' m reg ' nehk). 11.2 Suffixes 11.2 Hau t6 T h ere are s o man y s u ffi x es t h at it w ill C 6 nhi@u h~u t 6 den n6i d day chl c6 o n ly b e p o ss i b l e h ere t o ex ami n e a s mall the' xem xet mot phcin nho cua chung; p ro p o rti on o f t h em; w e w ill con cen t rat e on chung ta se tap trung vao nhmng hau to t ho s e w h i ch are co mmo n an d pro ducti v e pho bien va h u u (ch (nghia la duoc ap (t h at i s, are app lied t o a co n s i d erabl e n u mb er dung vao mot s6 luqng dang ke' cac geic o f s t ems an d cou l d b e ap p lied t o mo re t o tu va c6 the' dugc ap dung vao nhieu tu mak e n ew En g lis h w o rd s ). In t h e cas e o f t h e hon de tao thanh nhang tu mdi trong tieng o th ers , fo rei g n l earn ers w o ul d p ro b ab l y b e Anh). Trong trl/ong hqp cua nhung tu b etter adv i s ed t o l earn t h e 's t em + affi x ' khac, co le nhung nguoi hQc ngoc1- i ngu co mb i n at i o n as an i n d i v i d u al i t em. nen hoc each ke't hqp 'g6c W + plw to'' n hu mot muc rieng.
  4. 137 O n e o f t h e p ro b l ems t h at w i ll b e Mqt t ro n g n h an g v an d e s e g ap l a en co u n t ered i s t h at w e may fi n d w o rd s w h i ch ch u n g t a c6 t h e t h ay n h mng tu r6 ran g l a are o bvi o u s l y co mp l ex b u t w h i ch , w h en w e p h u c t q p n h u n g , k h i chu n g t a ch i a ch u n g d i v i d e t h em i n t o s t em + affi x , t u rn o u t t o t h an h g o c tu + p h u t o t h l h 6 a ra chu n g h av e a s t em t h at i s d i ffi cu lt t o i mag i n e as an co mot g o c tu ma t a k h 6 t t fong t L(Q'n g d 6 E n g li s h w o rd . Fo r ex amp l e, t h e w o rd l a tu t i en g A n h . V i d u : t u ' au d aci t y ' c6 ' aud aci ty ' s eems t o b e a co mp l ex wo rd - v e n hu l a mQ t tu p h t c t ap n h u ng d au l a b u t wh at i s i t s s t em? Anoth er p ro bl em i s t h at g o c tu cu a n 6 ? MQ t v an d e k h ac l a t ro n g i t i s . d i ffi cu l t i n s o me cas es t o kno w w h et h er mo t s o t ru i n g h o p t h at k h 6 b i et d ug c mot a wo rd h as o n e, o r mo re t h an o n e, s u ffi x (e.g . tu co mo t h ay n h i eu h o n mot h au t o (v i s h o u ld w e an al y s e ' p ers o n alit y ' , fro m t h e d 1_1: tu q u an d i em v e cach d at t ro n g am, p oint o f v i ew o f s t res s as sign men t, as pa s n + ch u n g t a co n en ph an tich ' p ers o n al i t y ' rel;,ti o r as p3 :s n + rel + ;,ti?). In t h e s t u d y o f l a pa s n + relati h ay la pa :s n +rel + ati?) K h i E n g lis h w o rd fo rmat i on at a d eep er le v el t h an n g h i en cu u cach th an h l ap tu tien g A n h w e can g o i n t o h ere, it i s n eces s ary fo r s u ch o cap do s au h o n cap d Q ch un g t a x em reas o n s t o d i s t i n g u i s h b etw een a s t em (w hich x et o d ay , v i n h u n g ly d o n hu t h e d n i s w h at remain s w h en affi x es are remo v ed ), p h ai p h an b i @t g i l a mo t g o c tu (l a p h an an d a root, w h ic h i s t h e s mallest pi ece o f co n l ai k h i l o ai b p h u t 6 ) v a g o c (l a l ex ic al mat eri al t h at a s t em can b e redu ced p h an n h o n h at cl a t ai l i eu tu v u n g ma t o . So , i n 'p ers o n al it y ' , w e co u l d s ay t h at t h e mo t g o c tu c6 the g i an l u g c t h an h . V ay , suff "ix '-it y ' i s attach ed t o t h e ste m 'p ers o n al' t ro n g t u ' p ers o n ali ty ' , ch u n g t a c6 th € n 6 i w hich co n t ain s t h e root 'p ers o n ' . W e w ill no t ran g h a u t6 ' -ity ' d u c g an v ao g o c tt s p en d mo re t i me h ere on l o o k i n g at t h es e ' p e rs o n a l ' ch d a g o c ' p e rs o n ' . O d a y p ro b le ms, b u t g o o n t o l ook at s o me chu n g t a s e k h o n g d an h n h i eu th o i g i an g en eralis at i o n s ab o u t s u ffi x es an d s t res s , de x em x et n h u n g v an d e n ay , m a s e u s i n g o nly t h e t erm ' s t em' fo r t h e s ak e o f t i ep t i c x em mot s 6 d i eu t o n g qu at v e s i mp l i ci t y . Th e s u ffi x es are referred t o i n h au t o v a t ro n g am, d€ d o n g i an ch i d un g t h ei r s p elli n g fo rm. t h u at n g d ' g 6 c tu'. Cac h u t 6 d u o;c d e cap o d an g ch i n h t a cd a chu n g . gA U 7 , EX 3 Suf fi xes carrying primary str ess Ca c hau t c6 sin trqng a m ch in h themselves In t h e ex amp l es g i v en , w h ic h s eem t o b e T ro ng cac v i d u d u ; c cho , d uong n hu t h e mo s t co mmo n , t h e p ripiary s t res s i s o n p h 6 bin n h at, t ro n g am ch i n h n am o t h e fi rs t s y llab l e o f t h e s u ffi x . If t h e s t em am t i et d au t i en cu a h au t o . N eu g o c tt cons i st s o f mo re t h an o n e s y llabl e t h ere w ill c6 h o n mot am t i et t h i s e co mQ t t rQ n g b e a s eco n d ary s t res s o n o n e o f t h e s y llab l es am p h v a mQ t t ro ng s o cac am t i &t cl a o f t h e s t em. T h i s can n o t fall o n t h e l as t g o c tt d 6 . T rQ n g am n ay k h on g t h € ro i s y llab l e o f t h e s t em an d is , i f n ecess ary , v ao am t i et cu o i cd a g o c tu v a n eu can , mo v ed t o an earl i er s y llab l e. Fo r ex amp l e, n o d u g c d i d en am t i et p h i a t ru ck . V i i n 'Ja p an ' d3a'pen t h e p ri mary s t res s i s o n d u , t ro n g tu ' J ap an ' d3a'pan, am t i et t h e l as t s y llab l e, b u t w h en w e ad d t h e s t ress ­ ch i n h n am o am t i e t c u 6 i , n h u n g k h i carry i n g s u ffi x ' -es e' t h e p ri mary s tr es s i s on c h u n g t a t h e m h a u t o m a n g t ro n g a m t h e s u ffi x an d t h e s eco nd ary s t res s i s p l aced ' -e s e ' t h i t ro n g a m c h i n h n a m & h u t o n o t o n t h e s eco nd s y llab l e b u t o n t h e fi rs t: v a t r o n g a m p h u du o c d a t k h o n g p h a i o 'Jap an es e' ,d3apa'ni:z. am t i et t h t h ai ma o am t i et t h & n h at: 'J ap an es e' ,d3apa'ni:z.
  5. 138 • ' -ee': 'refu g ee' ,refju'd3:: 'ev acu ee' 1,vrekju'i: ' -eer': 'mou n tain eer' ,maunh'ma; 'v o l~n teer' , vnlan'lTa I • '-es e' : 'Po rtu gu es e' ,p:,:tJa'gi:z; 'jou rnales e' , dJ3:nl'i:z • '-ette' : 'cig arette' ,s1gi;'et; ' laun d erette' ,b:nd~et • '-es qu e': 'p ictu res q u e' ,pktfr'esk ~·uffixes that do not af f ect st ress Cac hau to khong anh huong de'n placement cach dat trong am • ' -ab le' : 'co mfort' 'kAmfat; 'co mfortab le' 'kAmftabi • '-ag e' : 'an oho r' 'aenka; ' an ch o rag e' 'ankarrd3 • '-al': 'refus e' (v erb ) n'fjuz; 'refus al' n'fju:z! • '-en ' : 'wid e' ward; 'wid en ' 'wardn • ' -ful' : 'wond er' 'wAnda; 'wond erfu l' 'wAvdaft '-in g ' : ' amaze' a'me1z; 'amazing ' a'me1z10 • '-is h' : 'd ev il' 'devl ; 'd ev ilis h ' 'devhf (Th is is th e rule for adjectiv es ; v erb s with (Day la q u y tac d an h ch o cac tin h tu; s tems o f mo re th an o n e s y llab le alway s h av e cac d on g tt co cac g o c tu n h ieu h o n th e s tres s o n th e s y llab le immed iately mot am tiet lu o n co tro n g am n am & am p reced in g 'is h ' , e.g . ' rep len is h ' n'plemJ, tiet d u n g n g ay tru o c ' is h ' , v i d u : ' rep len is h ' 'd emo lis h ' dr'mhf.) n'plemJ, ' d emo lis h ' d11mnhJ.) '-lik e' : 'b ird ' 'b3:d; 'b ird lik e' 'b3:dla1k • '-les s' : 'p o wer' 'paua; 'po werles s ' 'paualas • '-ly': 'tu rried 'hAnd; 'h urried ly ' 'hurdli • ' -men e' (no u n ): 'p u n is h ' 'pAmJ; 'pu n is h men t'. 'pAmJmant • 1 -n ess ': ' y ello w' 'jelau; 'y ello wn es s ' 'jelaunas • '-o u s ': 'po is on ' 'przn; 'p o is ono u s ' 'prznas • '-fy ' : 'g lo ry ' 'gb:ri; 'g lo ri[y ' 'gb:nfa1 ' -wis e' : ' o th er' 'Ada; ' o th erwis e' 'A0NWa1z ' -y ' (adjectiv e o r no u n ): 'fu n ' 'fAn; 'fu nny ' 'fAni g AUl 1, EX 3 Suffixes that infl uence stress in the Cac hau to anh hu ng den trong am st em trong go'c tu In th es e ex amp les p rimary s tres s is o n Tran g cac v f d u n ay , tron g am ch fn h th e las t s y llab le o f th e s tem . n am & am tit cu 6 i cia g o c tt. • ' -eo u s' : 'adv an tag e' ad'vo:ntTdJ; ' ad v an tag eo u s ' ,redvan'te1d3as .' -g raph y': 'pho to ' 'fautau; 'p ho to g rap h y ' fa'tografi 'ial': 'p rov erb ' 'prva:b; 'p rov erb ial' pro'vs:biol
  6. 139 ' -io n ' : 'climate' 'kla,mit; ' climatic' kla1'mret1k '-ion ' : ' p erfect' 'pa:f1kt; ' p erfectio n ' pa'fekJ'} '·-io u s ': ' inju re' 'md3a; 'inju rio u s ' m'd3J:rias ' -ty': 'tran q u il' 'tngkwil; ' tran q u illity ' trreo'kwdati ' -iv e': 'reflex ' 'ri:leks; 'reflex iv e' n'fleks1v Fin ally , wh en th e s u ffix es ' -an ce' , '-an t' Cu 6 i cmn g , k h i cac h au to ' -an ce' , ' -an t' an d ' -ary ' are attach ed to s ing le-s y llab le v a ' -ary ' d u o c g an v ao cac g 6 c tu d o n s tems, th e s tres s is almo s t alway s p laced o n am tiet, tron g am h au n h u lu c n ao cu n g th e s tem. Wh en th e s tem h as mo re th an o n e d at len g o c tu. Kh i g 6 c tu co h o n mot s y llab le, th e s tres s is o n o n e o f th e s y llab les am ti&t, tro n g am n am o mot tron g s o in th e s tem. To exp lain th is we n eed to u s e a cac am tiet tron g g 6 c tu d o . 0 € g iai th ich rule b as ed on s y llab le s tructu re, as was d o n e d ieu n ay , chu n g ta can d un g mot qu y for s imp le wo rd s in th e p rev io u s ch ap ter. If tac d u a tren cau tru c am tiet, gio n g n hu th e fin al s y llab le o f th e s tem is s tro n g, th at d 15'i v o i cac tu d o n g in tron g ch l.id n g s y llab le receiv es th e s tress . Fo r ex amp le: tru o c. Neu am ti&t cu o i cla g o c tu man h 'impo rtan ce' mm'p:tns; 'cen ten ary ' sen'ti:nri. th i am ti@t d o n h an tro n g am. Vi d u : Oth erwis e th e s y llab le b efore th e las t o n e ' imp ortan ce' 1m'pJ:tns; ' cen ten ary ' receiv es th e s tress : ' in h eritan ce' 1n'her1fans; sen'ti:nri. Ng u o c lai, am tie' t d u n g truo c ' military ' 'm1htri. am tiet cu o i n h an tro n g am: ' in h eritan ce' m'hentans; ' military ' 'm1htri. 11.3 Prefixes 11.3 Tie n t 6 We will o n ly d eal b riefly with p refix es . Chun g ta s e ch i b an n g iln g o n v e cac Th eir effect o n s tres s d o es n o t h av e th e tien to . Su tac d on g cla ch un g len tro n g co mp arativ e reg u larity, ind ep en d en ce an d am co tin h qu y tile tu o n g d 6 i, tfn h - d q c p red ictab ility o f s u ffix es , an d th ere is no lap v a tfn h co th e d o an truo c cd a cac p refix o f o n e o r two s y llab les th at alway s h au to , v a k h o n g co tien t6 n ao cla mo t carries p rimary s tres s . Co n s eq u en tly, th e b es t h o ac h ai am tiet lu o n man g tron g am treatmen t s eems to b e to s ay th at s tres s in ch in h . Do d o , each g iai q u y et t6 t n h a' t wo rd s with p refix es is g ov erned by th e s ame co v e n h u la p h ai n o i ran g tro n g am tron g rules as tho s e for wo rd s with o u t p refix es . cac tu co tien to bi ch i p h o i b i cac qu y ., tac g io n g n h u qu y t a c d an h ch o cac tt k h o n g co ti@n t6 . I O AU11, EX4 11.4 Compound words 1 1 .4 Ca c tu ghep th e word s d is cu s s ed s o far in this ch ap ter Cac tu d a d uo c th o lu an ch o d en h av e all cons is ted o f a s tem p lu s an affix . We b ay g io o tron g ch u o ng n ay tat ca d eu n o w p as s o n to an o th er typ e o f wo rd . Th is is co mot g o c tu con g mo t p h u t6 . Bay g id , called co mp o und , an d its main ch aracteris tic ch u n g ta chu y € n q u a mt lo ai tu k h ac. is th at it can_ b e an aly s ed in to two wo rd s , bo th Lo ai tut n ay d u g c g o i la tu ghep v a d ac o f wh ich can ex is t ind ep end en tly as Eng lis h d i€ m ch in h cd a n o la n o co th € d L((JC wo rds . (So me co mpou n d s are mad e o f mo re p h an tich th an h h ai tu , ca h ai tu n ay d eu th an two wo rd s , b u t \v e will, n o t con s id er co th € t6 n ti! i d o c lap n h u cac tt tie' n g th es e.) As with man y o f th e d is tin ctio n s b eing An h . (Mot s o tu g h ep dug c tao ra tut n h ieu mad e in con n ection with s tres s , th ere are h d n h ai tu, 11h u n g ch u n g ta s e k h o n g x em areas o f u n certain ty . Fo r ex amp le, it cou ld x et 11h Cl11g w n ay .) Co n g co n h iJ u s u k h ac b e arg u ed th at 'p h o tog rap h ' may b e d iv id ed b i~t v ~ tron g am, c6 cac ITn h VI/ C k h 6 n g
  7. 14 0 in to two in d ep en d en t wo rd s, ' p h o to ' an d chac chan. Vi du, ngudi ta c6 the lap 'g raph ' ; y et we u s u ally d o n o t reg ard it as a luan rang 'photograph' c6 the' dl.iQ'c chia co mp o u n d , b u t as a s imp le wo rd . (If, thanh hai tu doc lap, 'photo' va 'graph'; ho wev er, s o meon e d rew a g raph d is p lay in g nhung, chung ta thuong khong xem no n u merical in formatio n abou t p h o to s, th is la tu ghep, ma la mot tt don gian. (Song, wou ld p erh ap s b e called a 'p h o to -g rap h ' an d nu mot ngudi nao do ve bieu do bi&u th e wo rd wo u ld b e reg ard ed as a co mp ound ). dien thong tin bling so ve cac hinh anh, Co mp o u n d s are written in d ifferen t way s ; thl co le no dllQ'c gc;>i la 'photo-graph' va s 01n:etimes th ey are written as o n e wo rd - tu nay duoc xem la W ghep.) Cac W ghep e.g . ' armch air' , 's u n flo wer' - s o metimes with du@c viet theo nhieu cach khac nhau; th e wo rd s s ep arated b y a h yph en - e.g . 'g ear­ d6i khi chung duoc viet du@i dang mot ch ang e', 'fru it-cak e', an d s o metimes with two tu - vi du: 'armchair', 'sunflower' - d6i wo rd s s ep arated b y a s p ace - e.g . ' d es k lamp ' , khi v6i cac tu dudc tach rdi bang dau 'b attery ch arg er' . In this las t cas e th ere wou ld, gqch ngang - vi du: 'gear-change', 'fr uit­ o f co u rs e, b e no in d icatio n to th e foreig n cake' - va d6i khi voi cac tu dudc tach learner th at th e p air o f wo rd s was to b e treated rdi bang mot khoang trong - vi du: 'desk as a co mpo und . Th ere is n o clear d iv id ing lamp', 'battery charger'. Di nhien trllong lin e b etween two -wo rd co mp o u n d s an d p airs hqp cuo'i cung khong cho nglloi hoc o f wo rd s th at s imp ly h app en to o ccu r to g eth er ngoai ng@ thay rang cap tu nay phai du;c q u ite freq u en tly . xem la tu ghep. Khong co duong phan chia ro rang gil a cac tu ghep hai tu va cac cap tu von don gian xuat hien voi nhau kha thllong xuyen. As far as s tres s is con cerned, th e q u es tio n Ve mat trong am, cau hoi nay kha is q u ite s imp le. Wh en is p rimary s tres s p laced don gian. Khi nao trong am chinh dLiQC o n th e firs t cons titu en t wo rd o f th e co mp o u n d dat & tu thanh phan dau tien cua tu ghep and wh en o n th e s econ d ? Bo th p atterns are va khi nao duoc dat o tu thanh phan tht fou nd . A few rules can b e g iv en , althou g h hai? C a hai mau deu du;c tim thay. C6 th es e are n o t co mp letely reliab le. Wo rd s the' c6 m9t vai qui tile dl.ic;Jc dl.ia ra, mac wh ich do n o t receiv e p rimary s tress n o rmally du nhung qui tfr nay kh6ng hoan toan h av e s eco n d ary s tres s , alth o u g h for th e s ak e dang tin cay. C ac tr khong nhan trong o f s imp licity th is is n o t mark ed h ere. Perh ap s am chinh thuong co trong am phu, mac th e mo s t Iamiliar ty p e o f co mp ou n d is th e du de don gin no khong duoc danh dau o n e wh ich co mb in es two n o un s, an d d day. C o le loq i tu ghep quen thuoc n o rmally h as th e s tres s on th e firs t elemen t, nhat la loai kt hop hai danh tu va thllong as in : c6 trong am & thanh phan dau tien, nhu trong: 'ty p ewriter' 'ta rpra rto 's u itcas e' 's u:tke1 s 'car-ferry ' 'ko :feri 'tea-cu p ' 'ti :kA p ' s u nris e' 's A nra 1 z It is p rob ab ly s afes t for foreign learners C6 le an toan nhat la gia st ding tn:rng to ass u me th at s tres s will n o rmally fall in th is am thudng se roi vao cac tu ghep khac way on o th er co mpo u n d s; ho wev er, a v ariety theo each nay; tuy nhien, co du loqi tu o f co mp o u n d s receiv e s tres •, in s tead o n th e ghep nhan trong am thay vi roi vao thanh s econd elemen t. Fo r ex all' p le, co mpou n d s phan thCt hai. Vi du, cac tu ghep voi thanh with an adjectiv al firs t elemen t an d th e -ed phan th& nhat co ch&c nang tinh t u t va mo rp h eme at th e en d h av e this p attern (g iv en am vi -ed o cuoi co mau nay (chi dL(Q'C in s p ellin g o n ly ): cho o dang chinh ta):
  8. 1 41 b ad -' temp ered bad-'tempered h alf-' timb ered half-'timbered h e a v y -' h a n d e d heavy-' handed Co mpound s in wh ich th e firs t elemen t is Cac tu ghep ma trong d6 thanh phan a n u mb er in s o me form als o tend to h av e th& nhat la so theo mot dang no do cung fin al s tress : co khuynh huong co trong am cu6i: th ree-' wh eeler th ree-' wh eeler s eco n d -' clas s s econd -' clas s fiv e-' fin g er fiv c-' fing er Co mpou n d s fun ctio n ing as adv erb s are C ac tu ghep thuc hi@en cht c nang la u s u ally fin al-s tress ed : tinh tu thuong dugc nhan o tu cu6i: h ead -' firs t h ead -' firs t No rth -' Eas t No rth -' Eas t do wn ' s tream do wn's tream Fin ally , co mp ou nd s wh ich fun ctio n as C u6i cung, cac tu ghep thuc hien v erb s an d h av e an ad v erb ial firs t elemen t ch(c nang la dong tu va co thanh phan tak e fin al s tress : tht nhat thuc hi@en ch(c nang lam trang tu nhan trong am cuoi: d o wn -' g rad e d o wn -' g rad e b a ck -' p e d a l b a ck -' p e d a l ill-' treat ill-' treat 11.5 Variable stress 1 1 .5 Trqng a m bie n dfii It wo u ld b e wron g to imag in e th at th e That sai lam khi nghT rang mau trong s tres s p allern is alway s fix ed and u n ch an g in g am lun co dinh va khong thay di trong in En g lis h wo rd s . Stres s p o s itio n may v ary cac tu tieng Anh. Vi tri trong am c6 th€ for on e o f two reas o n s : eith er as a res u lt o f thay do'i vi mot trong hai ly do: la do th e s tres s o n o th er wo rd s o ccu rrin g n ex t to trong am trn cac tu khac xuat hien ke th e wo rd in q u es tio n , o r b ecau s e n o t all ben tu dang de cap, hoac vi khong phai s p eak ers ag ree o n th e p lacemen t o f s tres s in tat ca nhung ngudi noi deu chap nhan s o me wo rd s . Th e former cas e is an as p ect o f cach dat trong am o mot s6 tt . Truong con n ected s p eech th at will b e en co un tered hop dau la khia canh noi am ma chung ag ain in Ch ap ter 1 4 : th e main effect is th at ta se gap lai trong chuong 14: su tac dong th e s tres s o n a fin al-s tress ed co mpoun d ten d s chfnh la trong am o tu ghep dugc nhan to mo v e to th e p reced in g s y llab le if th e cuoi co khuynh huong chuyen sang am follo win g wo rd b eg in s with a s trong ly ti&t dung truoc neu tu theo Sall ba' t du s tres s ed s y llab le. Thu s (us in g s o me ex amp les bang mot am tiet dugc nhan manh. Vay fro m th e p rev io u s s ectio n ): (mot so vi du tu phan truoc): b ad -' temp ered but a 'b ad -temp ered 'teach er h alf-' timb ered but a ' h alf-timb ered 'h o u s e h eavy -' h an d ed but a ' h eavy -h an d ed 's en ten ce
  9. 1 42 Th e s econ d is n o t a s eriou s p rob lem, b u t Ly do th& hai khong phai la van de is o n e th at foreig n learners s h o u ld b e aware nghiem trong, nhung la ly do ma ngudi o f. A well-k n o wn ex amp le is 'co n trov ers y ' , hoc ngoai ngd nen biet . Mot vi du pho wh ich is p ronoun ced b y s o me s p eak ers as bien la 'controversy', duoc mot so ngudi 'kuntrav3:si an d b y o th ers as kan'truvasi; it noi phat am la 'kntrava:si va mot so wou ld b e q u ite wron g to say th at o n e v ers io n khac phat am la kon'trvasi; se that sai was co rrect an d o n e in co rrect. Oth er lam khi n6i rang mot phien ban dung va ex amp les o f d ifferen t p os s ib ilities are 'ice­ mot phien ban sai. Cac vi du khac ve cream' (eith er ,a1s'kri:m o r 'a1skri:m) nhung kha nang khac nhau la 'ice-cream' ' k ilo metre' ('k1lami:ta. o r k1'lum1ta) an d ,ars'kri:m hoac 'arskri:m ), 'kilometre' 'formid ab le' ('fa:m,dabl o r fa:'mrdabl'). ('krlami:ta ho~c k1'lnm1ta) va 'formidable' ('fa:mrdabf ho~c fa:'mrdabp. " AUll, EX 5 11.6 Word-class pairs 11.6 Cac cap tu loai On e as p ect o f wo :d s tres s is b es t treated Mot khfa canh ci a trong am tt tot as a s ep arate is s u e. Th ere are s ev eral d o zen nha't dt1:t(N). 1s'k:>:t (V) 'expo rt' 'eksp:>:t (N), 1k'sp:>t (V) 'imp o rt' '1mp:>t (N), 1m'p:>:t (V) ' in s u lt' 'msAlt ( N) , m'sAlt (V) ' o b ject' 'nbd31kt (N), ab'd3ekt (V) 'p erfect' 'p3:fkt (A ), pa'fckt (V) 'p ermit' 'pa:mt (N), po'm t (V) 'p res en t' 'preznt (N. A), pn'zcnt (V) 'p rodu ce' 'prudju:s ( N) . pra'dju:s (V) 'p rotes t' 'prautest (N), pr a' tcst ( V) 'reb el' 'rebl ( N). n ' b el (V) ' re co rd ' 'rek:>:d(N). n ' k:,:d (V) 'sub ject' 'sAbd31kt ( N) , sob' d3ekt ( V)
  10. 14 3 Not es on problems and further reading Mo s t o f t h e readin g reco mmen d ed i n t h e n o t es fo r t h e p rev i o u s ch ap t er i s rel ev an t fo r t h i s o n e t o o . Lo o k i n g s p eci fi cally at co mp o u nds, i t i s w o rt h read i n g Fu d g e (1 9 8 4 : Ch ap t er 5). See al s o Cru ttend en (1994: 207-9). If y ou w i s h t o g o mo re d eep l y i n t o co mpou n d -wo rd s t res s, y o u s h ou l d fi rs t s tu d y E ng l i sh w o rd fo rmat i o n . Reco mmen d ed read ing fo r t h i s i s Bau er (1983). O n t h e d i s tin cti o n b et w een ste m and root, s ee Rad fo rd e t al. (1999), pp. 67-8. Written exercises Bai tap viet Pu t s t res s mark s o n t h e fo llo w in g w o rd s 1. Eat dau nhn len cac t! sau day (cung (t ry t o p u t s eco n d ary s t res s mark s o n as co gang dat cac dau trong am phu). w ell). a) s h o p -fi tt er b ) o p en -end ed c) Ja v an es e d) b i rt h -mark e ) an ti -cl o ck w is e f ) confi rmat i o n g) ei gh t -s i d ed h ) fru it -cak e i ) d e fec t i v e j ) ro o f-timb er 2 W rit e t h e w o rd s i n p h on emi c 2. P hi@n am cac tu nay theo am v i hoc, t ran s cri pt i o n , i n cl u d i n g t h e s t res s mark s . bao gom cac dau nhan.
  11. 144 CHU'dNG 12 cite /sari/ (v) tr[ch d d n contracted form /bn' trrektrd ' fo:m/ dq ng tfnh llt(IC co-ordinate /bu' :-i:drnert/ (v) phoi hap co-ordinated use /bu' :-i:drnertrd 'ju:s/ d un g ph6i hap deduction /dr' dAkJn/ (n) st suy luan demonstrative function /d1monstr;it1v ' fAnk.fn/ chute nang chi dinh (chi r6 nay, kia, day, d()) demonstrative sense /dr' mpnstratrv ' sens/ nghi chi dinh (chi r6 nay, kia. day, dr5) devote /dr' v;iut/ (v) d iin h clw function word TfAnkfn wa:d/ ht ti t imply 1Tm' pla1/ (v) ngam chi st ton tai (mot thut gi ) in conjunction with /in bn' d3A1Jk.fn w10/ ding v di practically /' prrekt1kh/ (adv) (all) h a u nh (t at ca) pre-consonantal /' pri :,kuns;i ' nrentl/ (adj) dting trurJc ph(t c7m roughly /' rAfl1/ (adv) khodng (= about) sense /sens/ (n) _v nghia severely /sr'v1;ilr/ (adv) m;i.ng ni, trdm tr(mg
  12. 1 45 12 Weak forms 12 Cac dang yeu Chapter 9 discussed the difference Chlldng 9 da ban ve su khac nhau between strong and weak syllables in gil a cac am tiet manh va yu trong tieng English. We have now moved on from Anh. Bay gi chung ta se chuyen tu viec looking at syllables to looking at words. We xem xet cac am tiet sang xem xet cac will now consider certain well-known tu. Chung ta se xem xet mot so tu ting English words that can be pronounced in two Anh ph6 bien c6 the duoc phat am theo different ways; these are called strong forms hai cach khac nhau; nhung tu nay duoc and weak forms. As an example, the word goi la dang manh va dang yeu. Vi du: 'that' can be pronounced ilret (strong form) or tu 'that' c6 the duoc phat am la ilret (dqng ila t (weak form). The sentence 'I like that' is manh) hoac 0a t (dang yeu). Cau 'I like pronounced a1 la1k o ret (strong form); the that' duoc phcl t am la ax lark 0 a t (dang sentence 'I hope that she will' is pronounced mqnh) ; cau 'I hope that she will' dtl(Jc a1 ha o p ila t Ji wII (weak form). There are phat am la ax ha up ila t Ji w rl (dang yeu). roughly forty such words in English. It is C6 khoang bon muoi W nhu the trong possible to use only strong forms in speaking, tieng Anh. Chung ta c6 the chi st'I dLJng and some foreigners do this. Usually they dang manh trong van noi va mt so can still be understood by other speakers of nguoi nuoc ngoai lam nhu vay. Thuong English, so why is it important to learn how thl nht ng ngudi noi ting Anh khac van weak forms are used? There are two main c6 the' hie'u ho, vay tai sao hoc cclch reasons; first, most native speakers of English dung cac dang yeu lai quan trong? C6 find an "all-strong-form" pronunciation hai ly do chinh; tht nhat, hau het nht ng unnatural and foreign-sounding, something nguc'li ban nga noi tieng Anh thay cach that most learners would wish to avoid. phat am "dqng tat ca deu manh" la khong Second, and more importantly, speakers who tu nhien va nghe co ve ngoai lai, dieu are not familiar with the use of weak forms ma hiiu het nhung ngttoi hoc muon tranh. are likely to have difficulty understanding Thu hai, va quan trong hon, ngudi n6 i speakers who do use weak forms; since khong quen dung dang yeu co the gap practically all native speakers of British kh6 khan trong viec hieu nht ng ngttc'li English use them, learners of the language noi dung dang yeu; vi trn thuc te tat ca need to learn about these weak forms to help tat ca nhL7ng nglloi n6i Anh ban nga deu them to understand what they hear. st dung chung, nguoi hoc ngon ng@ nay can phi hoc ve nhung dang yeu nay de giup ho h ie'u nhung dieu ho nghe. We must distinguish between weak forms Chung ta phai phan biet gida cac dang and contracted forms. Certain English yeu va d an g ru t gon . M o t so t u tieng words are shoctcned so severely (usually to Anh dll(JC rut gon qua mLIC (thllc'lng con a single phoneme) and so consistently that m o t am vi don) va kien dinh den n6i they are represented differently in informal chung duoc trlnh bay khac nhau trong writing. e.g. ' it is' - ' it' s' ; ·we have' - ' we' ve' ; van viet than mat, vi du: 'it is' - 'it's'; ' do not' - ' don' t' . These contracted forms are 'we have' - 'we've'; 'do not' - 'don't'. discussed in a later chapter, and are not Nhung dang rut gon nay duoc thao luan included here. trong cac chuong sau va khong duoc trinh bay a day.
  13. 14 6 A l mo s t all t h e w o rd s wh i ch h av e bo t h a H au h et t at ca cac tu co ca d an g s t ro n g an d w eak fo rm b elo n g t o a cat ego ry m an h l an y eu d eu t h u o c v e m o t p h am t h at may b e called function words - w o rd s t ru ma c6 t h e g o i la tu ch& c na ng - tuc t h at d o n o t h av e a d ic ti on ary meani ng i n t h e l a cac tr k h on g co n g h i a t u d i en t h eo w ay t h at w e n o rmally ex p ect n o un s , v erbs, cach ch un g t a t h u on g mu o n c6 ci' d an h ad j ecti v es an d ad v erb s t o h av e. T h es e tu, d o n g tu, tf n h tu v a t ran g tu. Cac tt fu n ct ion wo rd s are w o rd s s u ch as au x i li ary ch u c n an g n ay la n h u ng W n hu t re;1 d l) n g v erb s , p repo s i ti o n s, co nj u n ct i o n s , et c., all o f tu, g i ai W, l i en tu, v .v ., t a' t ca cac t t w h i ch are i n cert ai n ci rcu ms t ari ces d 6 , t ro n g m
  14. 14 7 'Y ou must g i v e me mo re mon ey ' ju 'mas t 'grv mi 'm: 'mAni i v ) W h en a w eak -fo rm w o rd i s b ein g "ci t ed " i v ) K h i mo t tu d an g y eu d an g d u d c t ri ch o r "qu o t ed " , fo r ex amp l e: d an ; v i d u : 'Y o u s h o u l d n ' t p u t "and " at t h e en d o f a s en t en ce' ju 'fodnt po t 'rend a t Di 'end a v a 's entans A no t h er p oi n t t o rememb er i s t h at w h en Mo t d i em k h ac can n h o l a k h i cac tu w eak -fo rm w o rd s w ho s e s p elli n g b eg i n s w i t h d an g y eu co d an g v i et b at d au b an g 'h' 'h' (e.g . ' h er' , ' h av e' ) o ccu r at t h e b eg i nn i n g o f (v i d u : ' h er' , ' h av e' ) x u at h i en o d au cau , a s en t en ce, t h e p ro n u n ci at i o n i s w i t h i n iti al cach p h at am co h o vi tri d au , mac d u h, ev en t ho u gh t h i s i s u s u ally o mi tted i n n o t h uon g bi l u o c b t ro n g n h u n g n g @ o t h er con t ex ts. can h k h ac. O AU1 2 , EX 1 -2 In t h e res t o f t h i s ch ap t er, t h e mo s t Ph an co n l ai cl a ch u o ng n ay s e g i o i co mmo n w eak -fo rm w o rd s w i ll b e t h i eu cac tu d an g y eu ph 6 b i en n h at. i n t ro d u ced . ' t h e' ' t h e' W eak fo rms : ila (b efo re co n s on an t s ) D an g y eu : d» (tru o c ph u am) ' Shu t t h e do o r' 'JA t ila 'd:>: ' Sh u t t h e do o r' 'JA t il3 'd;,: iii (b efo re v o w el s ) d i (t ruo c n g uy en am) 'W ai t fo r t h e en d ' 'we,t fa iii 'end ' W ai t fo r t h e en d ' 'we,t fa iii 'end 2 ' a' , ' a n ' 2 'a', 'an ' W eak fo rms : a (b efo re co n s on ant s ) D an g y eu : s (t ruo c p h u am) 'Read a b ook ' 'ri:d a 'buk ' Read a b o ok ' 'ri:d a 'buk a n (b efo re v ow el s ) a n (t r u o c n g u y e n a m ) 'E at an app l e' 'i:t a n 'repl 'E at an appl e' 'i:t a n 'repl 3 ' an d ' 3 ' an d ' W eak fo rm: a n (s o met i mes n aft er t, d, s, D a n g y e u : a n (d o i k h i n sa u t, d, s , z,J ) z,J) ' Co me an d s ee' 'kAm a n 's i: ' Co me and s ee' 'ka m a n ' s i: ' Fi s h an d ch i p s ' 'if n 'fps ' Fi s h an d ch i p s ' 'tiJ ~ 'tJ1 ps 4 ' bu t ' 4 'b u t ' W eak fo rm: ba t D an g y eu : b a t ' It ' s g o o d b u t ex p en s i v e' ,ts 'g o d ba t ' It ' s good b u t ex p en s i v e' ,ts 'g o d ba t 1 k's pens 1 v 1 k's pens 1 v 5 ' th at ' 5 ' t h at ' Th i s w o rd o nly h as a w eak fo rm w h en Tr n ay ch i co d an g y eu k h i du o c d un g u s ed i n a rel ati v e cl au s e; w h en u s ed w it h t ro n g men h d e q u an h e; k h i d u g c du n g
  15. 1 48 a demonstrative sense it is always voi nghia chi dinh, no luon duoc phat pronounced in its strong form. am o dang manh cla no. Weak form: oat Dang yeu: 0at 'The price is the thing that annoys me' d3 'The price is the thing that annoys me' oa 'praIs iz 0» '0 1 0at a'n;nz mi 'pra1s iz oa 'l h u oat a'nJIZ mi 6 ' than' 6 'than' Weak form: 0an Dang yeu: 0an 'Better than ever' beta 0an 'eva 'Better than ever' beta i'lan 'eva 7 'his' (when it occurs before a noun) 7 'his' (khi 116 xua't hien truck danh W) Weak form: rz (hrz at the beginning of a Dang yeu: rz (hrz d dau cau) sentence) 'Take his name' 'terk rz 'nerm 'Take his name' 'te1k TZ 'ne1m (Another sense of 'his', as in ' it was his', or (Mot y nghia khac cua 'his', nhv trong 'his was late', always has the strong form.) 'it was his' , ho,;ic 'his was late' , lu6n co dang manh.) 8 'her' 8 ' h e r' When used with possessive sense, Khi duoc dung voi y nghia so hL7u, preceding a noun; as an object pronoun, di.'tng trVoc danh W; lam da i W a vj this can also occur at the end of a tri tic tu, no cung c6 the xuat hi@n o sentence. cuoi cau. Weak forms: a (before consonants) Dang yeu: a (truoc phu am) 'Take her home' terk a 'haom 'Take her home' te1k a 'haom ar (before vowels) ar (truoc nguye 11 am) 'Take her out' 'terk r 'aot 'Take her out' 'te1k ar 'aot 9 'your' 9 'your' Weak forms: ja (before consonants) Dang yeu: j» (trL/o'c phu an , 'Take your time' 'tc1k ja 'ta1m 'Take your time' 'te1k ja 'ta1m jar (before vowels) jar (truoc nguye 11 a ml 'On your own' 'nn jar 'aon 'On your own' 'nn jar 'aon 1 0 ' she', 'he', 'we' , 'you' 1 0 'she', 'he' , 'we' , 'you' This group of pronouns has weak forms Nhom cac da i tu nay c6 dang ye'u pronounced with weaker vowels than the duoc phat am voi cac nguyen am yeu i: and u: of their strong forms. I will use hon i: va u: o dang manh cua chung. the symbol, i and u (in preference to I T6i st dung cac ky hi@u i va u (hon and o) to represent them. There is little la 1 va u) de trinh bay chung. Co it su difference in the pronunciation in khac biet ve cach phat am o nhung different places in the sentence, except vi tri khac nhau trong cau, ngoai trt in the case of 'he' . a truang hc:;1p cua 'he' . Weak forms: Cac dang yeu:
  16. 149 a) ' she' Ji a ) ' s h e' Ji 'Why did she read it?' 'wa1 did Ji 'ri:d 1t 'Why did she read it?' 'wa1 did Ji 'ri:d It 'Who is she?' 'hu: '1z Ji 'Who is she?' 'hu: '1z Ji b) 'he' i (the weak form is usually pronounced b ) ' h e' i (d an g y eu th u on g du@c ph at am without h except at the beginning of a k h o n g c6 h n g o a i t ru t ru i n g h o p o sentence) d au cau ) 'Which did he choose?' 'witJ did i 'tJu:z 'Which did he choose?' 'witJ did i 'tJu:z 'He was late, wasn't he?' hi waz 'lert 'wznti 'He was late, wasn't he?' hi waz 'lert 'wznt i c) 'we' wi c) 'we' wi ' How can we get there?' 'hau kan wi 'get ' How can we get there?' 'hau kan wi 'get 0e3 0ea ' We need that, don' t we?' wi 'ni:d det ' We need that, don' t we?' wi 'ni:d itret 'daunt wi 'daunt wi d ) ' y o u ' ju d ) 'y o u ' j u ' What do you think?' ' w o t d a j u '1110k ' What do you think?' 'w o t d a j u '1110k ' You like it, do you?' ju 'la1k 1t 'du: ju ' You like it, do you?' ju 'lark 1t 'du: ju 11 'him' 1 1 ' h i m' Weak form: nn D an g y eu : 1 ' Leave him alone' li:v mi a'laun ' Leave him alone' li:v mt a'laun 'I've seen him' a1v 'si:n 1m 'I've seen him' arv 'si:n rm 1 2 ' h e r' 1 2 ' h e r' Weak form: a (ha when sentence-initial) D a n g y e u : s (h a k h i d u n g o d au cau ) ' Ask her to come' o:sk a ta 'kAm ' Ask her to come' 'a:sk a ta 'kAm 'I've met her' arv 'met a 'I've met her' arv 'met a 1 3 ' t h em ' 1 3 ' t h em ' Weak form: 0am D an g y eu : 0am ' Leave them here' li:v itam 'h1a ' J_,eave them here' li:v dm 'hr ' Eat them' i:t ilam ' Eat them' i:t itam 14 'us' 14 ' u s ' Weak form: as D an g y eu : as ' Write us a letter' 'rait as a 'leta ' Write us a letter' 'rart as a 'leta ' They invited all of us' cle1 m'va1hd 'J:l ' They invited all of us' i)e1 m'va1tld 'J:l av as av ;,s The next group of words (some N h a m t u t i e p t h e o (m o t sog i o i tu v a prepositions and other function words) tu ch &t c n an g k h ac) x u at h i @n & d an g occur in their strong forms when they ate ma n h cd a ch un g k h i ch un g n am d
  17. 15 0 fin al in a s en ten ce; ex amp les o f th is are c uoi c au; c ac v i du v e di@u nay da g iv en . (Ex amp le 19 is a p artial du@c c ho. (Vi du 19 l a mot phan ngoai ex cep tio n .) le.) 1 5 ' at' 1 5 ' at' Weak form: at Dang y eu: at Tll s ee you at lun ch ' all 'si: ju at 'IAnJ TU s ee you at lun ch ' a d 'si: ju a t 'Inf In fin al p o s itio n : ae t d v i tri c uoi: aet ' Wh at's h e s h o o tin g at?' wots i 'Ju: h o ret ' Wh at's h e s h o o tin g at?' wots i 'fu:tr aet 1 6 'for' 1 6 ' fo r' Weak form: fa (b efore co n s on an ts ) Dang y eu: fa (truck phv am) ' Tea for two ' 'ti: fa 'tu: 'Tea for two ' 'ti: fa 'tu: fa r (b efore vo wels ) fa r (truck nguy en am) ' Th an k s for as king ' 'ae nks fr 'a :s km ' Th an k s for as king ' 'llreo ks fa r 'o :s km In fin al po s itio n : fa: d vi tri c u6i: f3 : ' Wh at' s th at for?' 'w o ts 'iJret fa: ' Wh at's th at for?' 'w o ts 'iJret fa: 17 'from' 17 'fro m' Weak form: fra m Dang y eu: fra m Tm h o me fro m wo rk ' a mm 'ha um fra m Tm h o me from wo rk ' aJm 'ha o m fra m ' w 3 :k ' w 3 :k In fin al p o s itio n : fro m d vi tri c uoi: frm 'Here' s wh ere it came fro m' 'h1 a z w ea r It 'Here's wh ere it came fro m' 'h1 a z w ea r ,t 'ke1 m fro m 'keim fro m 18 ' o f' 18 ' o f' • Weak form: av Dang y eu: a v 'Mo s t o f all' 'm a o s t a v ';i :I 'Mo s t o f all' 'm a o s t a v ';i :I In fin al p o s ition : v } v i tri c uoi: nv 'So meon e I' v e h eard o f 's A m WA D a 1 v 'h3 :d ' So meon e I' v e h eard o f 's A m WA n a TV 'h3 :d OV DV 19 ' to ' 19 'to' Weak forms : ta (b efore con s on an ts ) Dang y eu: ta (truck phv am) 'Try to s to p ' 'tra , ta ' s to p 'Try to s to p ' 'tra 1 ta 's top tu (b efore v o wels ) tu (truoc nguy en am) 'Time to eat' 'ta m tu 'i:t 'Time to eat' 'tarm tu 'i:t In fin al p os itio n : tu ( It is n o t u s u al to u s e }v i tri c uoi: tu (Dang manh tu: thuOng th e s tron g .form tu:, an d th e p re­ k hong duoc dung, dang y eu truoc phu co n s o n an tal weak form to is n ev er u s ed .) am k hong b ao gio duoc dung.)
  18. 151 ' I don' t want to' a, 'da unt 'wont tu 'I don' t want to' a , 'da unt 'wont tu 20 ' as ' 20 ' as ' Weak form: az Dang yeu: 9z ' As much as possible' a z 'm Alf a z 'po s a b! ' As much as possible' a z 'm A tf a z 'po s a b! In final position: rez 0 vi tri cuo'i: rez 'That's what it was sold as' 'i hets 'w ot 1 t 'That's what it was sold as' 'i) rets 'wot ,t w a z 's a ul d rez w a z 's a ul d rez 21 ' some' 21 'some' This word is used in two different ways. Tu nay duoc dung theo hai cach khac In one sense (typically, when it occurs nhau. Theo mot nghia (thuong khi no before a countable noun, meaning "an xuat hien truoc mot danh tu dem dugc, unknown individual" ) it has the strong co nghi a la "mot ca nhan la") no co form: dang manh; 'I think some animal broke it' a 1 'l hg k s A m 'I think some animal broke it' a, 'h1k s A m 'rem m lI 'bra uk rt 'rem m lI 'bra uk rt It is also used before uncountable nouns No cung dugc dung truoc cac danh (meaning " an unspecified amount of") tu khong dem du@c (co nghia la "mot and before other nouns in the plural luong khong xac dinh") va truoc cac (meaning "an unspecified number of" ), danh tu khac d dang s6 nhieu (co in such uses it has the weak form s a m . nghTa la "mot so lugng khong xac dinh"); trong cac cach dung nhu the', n6 co dcJ. ng ye'u s a m : 'Have some more tea' 'hrev s a m 'm a : 'ti: 'Have some more tea' 'hrev s a m 'm a : 'ti: In final position: SAID 0 vi tri cuoi: sAm 'I've got some' a ,v 'got SAID 'I've got some' a ,v 'got SAID 22 ' there' 22 'there' When this word has a demonstrative Khi tu nay co cht c nang chi dinh, no function, it always occurs in its strong luon xuat hien o dang manh des (0 ea r form i) ea (i) ea r before vowels), e.g. truoc nguyen am), vi du: 'There it is' 'i) ea r ,t 'iz 'There it is' 'i) ea r 1 t •,z 'Put it there' put ,t 'i) ea 'Put it there' put Jt 'i) ea Weak forms: i) a (before consonants) Dang yeu: da (truoc phu am) 'There should be a rule' 0 'fo d bi a 'ru:I 'There should be a rule' i) a 'fud bi a 'ru:I i) a r (before vowels) 0a r (truoc nguyen am) ' There is' 0 a r '1 z ' There is' 0a r '1 z In final position the pronunciation may } vi tri cuoi: cach phat am c6 the la be 0 a or 0 ea . i) a ho;'j c i) ea . There isn't any, is there?' da r 'rznt eni '1z 0 There isn' t any, is there?' da r 'rznt eni '1z 0a o r 0 a r 'rznt eni 'rz 0 ea o r 0 o r 'rznI t eni '1 z 0 ea
  19. 15 2 The remaining weak-form words are all C ac tu dang yeu con lai tat ca deu auxiliary verbs, which are always used in la tro dong tu von luon du@c dung ket conjunction with (or at least implying) hop vdi (hay it ra la ngu y mot dong tu another (" full" ) verb. It is important to khac vit day du). Dieu quan trong la remember that in their negative form (i.e. phai nho rang o dang phi dinh cua chung combined with ' not') they never have the (nghTa la ket hp voi 'not') chung khong weak pronunciation, and some (e.g. 'don' t' , bao gio co cach phat am yeu, va mot s6 'can' t') have different vowels from their non­ tu (vi du: 'don't', 'can't') co cac nguyen negative strong forms. am khac voi dang manh khong phi dinh cua cluing. 23 'can', 'could' 23 'can', 'could' Weak forms: kan, kad Dang yeu: kan, kad ' They can wait' 'er kan 'wert ' They can wait' 'er kaon 'wert 'He could do it' 'hi: kad 'du: It 'He could do it' 'hi: kad 'du: It In final position: kren, kud } vi tri cu6i: ken, kud ' I thtnk we can' a1 'lhok wi 'kren ' I think we can' aI 'lhuk wi 'kren ' Most of them could' 'maust av 0am kud ' Most of them could' 'maust av_kud 24 ' have' , 'has' , 'had' 24 'have', 'has', 'had' Weak forms: av, az, ad (with initial h in Dang yeu: av, 3z, ad (voi h dau & vi trf initial position) dau) ' Which have you seen?' w1tJ av ju 'si:n ' Which have you seen?' wtf av ju 'si:n ' Which has been best?' witJ az bi:rt 'best ' Which has been best?' wtf az bi:rt 'best ' ¥ost had gone home' maust ad 'gun ' Most had gone home' maust ad 'gun 'haum 'haum In final position: hrev, hrez, hred o vi tri cuoi: haev, hrez, hred ' Yes, we have' jes wi 'hrev ' Yes, we have' jes wi 'hrev ' I think she has' a, 'lhok Ji 'hrez 'I think she has' aI 'lhuk Ji 'hrez ' I thought we had' a1 '03:t wi 'hred 'I thought we had' aI 'lb:t wi 'bred 25 'shall' , 'should' 25 'shall', 'should' Weak forms: Jal or J!; Jad Dang yu: Jal hoc Jl; fad ' We shall need to hurry' wiJl 'ni:d ta 'hAri ' We shall need to hurry' wiJl 'ni:d ta 'hAri ' I should forget it' a1 Jed fa'get It ' I should forget it' a, Jed fa'get rt In final position: Jrel, Jud o vi tri cu6i : fel, Jud ' I think we shall' m 'lhok wi 'frel . ' I think we shall' a, 'lhok wi '.frel ' So you should' 'sau ju 'Jud ' So you should' 'sau ju 'Jud 26 'must' 26 ' must' This word is sometimes used with the T l nay d6i khi duoc dung voi nghia sense of forming a conclusion or deduction, la dua ra ket luan hay suy luan, vi du:
  20. 153 e.g . ' s h e left at 8 o ' clo ck , s o s h e mu s t h av e ' s h e l eft at 8 o ' cl o ck, s o s h e mu s t h av e arriv ed b y no w' ; wh en 'mu s t' is u s ed in th is arri v ed by n o w ' ; k h i ' mu s t ' d u o c d u n g way , it is rath er les s lik ely to o ccu r in its theo each n ay , no it co kha nang x uat weak form th an wh en it is b ein g u s ed in its h i en o d an g y eu h o n k h i n o d u o c d u n g mo re familiar s en s e o f "ob lig atio n " . t h eo n g hT a qu en t h u q c h d n cu a n 6 l a "o b li g at i o n " (b 6 n ph an ). Weak forms : ma s (b efore con s o n an ts ) D an g y eu : ma s (tru o c phu am) ' You mus t try h ard er' ju ma s 'tra , 'ha:da ' You mu s t try h ard er' ju ma s 'tra 1 'ha :da ma st (b efore v o wels ) ma s t (t ru o c n g u y en am) 'He mu s t eat mo re' hi ma s t 'i:t 'm: 'He mu s t eat mo re' hi ma s t 'i:t 'm;,: In fin al p os ition : mAs t } v i t ri cuoi: ma s t ' Sh e certain ly mu s t' Ji 'sa:tl}Ii 'mAs t ' Sh e certain ly mu s t' Ji 's a:tl}Ii 'mAs t 2 7 'd o', 'do es ' 2 7 ' d o ', ' d o es ' Weak forms : D an g y eu : 'd o ' da (b efore co n s on an ts ) ' d o ' da (t rv ac phu am) 'Wh y d o th ey lik e it?' 'wa , da iJe, 'la ,k ,t 'Wh y do th ey lik e it?' 'wa r do 0 er 'la rk rt du (b efore vo wels ) d u (t ruo c n g u y en am) 'Wh y d o all th e cars s to p ?' 'wa 1 du ;,:I iJa 'Wh y do all _th e cars s to p ?' 'wa r du 3:1 0 2 'ka :z 's top 'ka :z 's top ' d o es ' da z ' d o es ' d a z · 'Wh en d o es it arriv e?' 'wen da z It a 'ra ,v 'Wh en d o es it arriv e?' 'wen da z It a 'ra 1 v In fin al p o s itio n : du:, dAz } v i t ri cu o i : du:, dz 'We d o n ' t s mo k e, b u t s o me p eop le d o ' 'We d o n ' t s mo k e, b u t s o me p eop le d o ' 'wi: da unt 's ma uk ba t 's Am pi:pl 'du: 'wi: da unt 's ma uk ba t 's AID pi:pl 'du: 'I th in k J o h n d o es ' a 1 '0 1 pk 'da nn dAz 'I th in k Joh n do es ' a 'h1 pk 'da n dAz 28 ' am' , ' are', ' w as ' , ' w ere' 28 ' am', ' are' , ' w as ' , ' w ere' Weak forms : a m D an g y eu : a m 'Wh y am I h ere?' 'wa , a m a , 'hia 'Why am I h ere?' 'wa i a m a 1 'hia a (b efore co n s o n an ts ) a (trv ac phu am) 'Here are th e p lates ' her a 0a 'plea ts 'Here are th e p lates ' hrer a 0 a 'plerts _ ar (b efore v o wels ) a r (tr u o c n g u y en am) 'Th e co ats are in th ere' iJa 'ka uts ar m 'Th e co ats are in th ere' 0a 'ka uts a r mn 'dea 'd e wa z wa z 'He was h ere a min u te ago ' hi wa z h1 a r a 'He was h ere a minu te ago ' hi wa z ha r a 'mm1 t a 'g a u 'mm1 t a '9 a u
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