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Nội dung Text: GRE_ BIOLOGY TEST

  1. This book is provided FREE with test registration by the Graduate Record Examinations Board. Graduate Record Examinations® This practice book contains one actual full-length GRE Biology Test test-taking strategies BIOLOGY Become familiar with test structure and content TEST test instructions and answering procedures PRACTICE BOOK Compare your practice test results with the performance of those who took the test at a GRE administration. Visit GRE Online at
  2. Note to Test Takers: Keep this practice book until you receive your score report. The book contains important information about content specifications and scoring. Copyright © 2001 by Educational Testing Service. All rights reserved. EDUCATIONAL TESTING SERVICE, ETS, the ETS logos, GRADUATE RECORD EXAMINATIONS, and GRE are registered trademarks of Educational Testing Service.
  3. The GRE Board recommends that scores on the Table of Contents Subject Tests be considered in conjunction with other relevant information about applicants. Because Purpose of the GRE Subject Tests ........................ 3 numerous factors influence success in graduate Development of the Subject Tests ....................... 3 school, reliance on a single measure to predict Content of the Biology Test ................................. 4 success is not advisable. Other indicators of compe- tence typically include undergraduate transcripts Preparing for a Subject Test ................................. 7 showing courses taken and grades earned, letters of Test-Taking Strategies .......................................... 7 recommendation, the GRE Writing Assessment score, and GRE General Test scores. For information What Your Scores Mean ...................................... 8 about the appropriate use of GRE scores, write to Practice Biology Test .......................................... 11 GRE Program, Educational Testing Service, Mail Scoring Your Subject Test .................................. 65 Stop 57-L, Princeton, NJ 08541, or visit our Web site at Evaluating Your Performance ............................. 68 Answer Sheet ..................................................... 69 Development of the Subject Tests Purpose of the GRE Each new edition of a Subject Test is developed by Subject Tests a committee of examiners composed of professors in the subject who are on undergraduate and graduate The GRE Subject Tests are designed to help gradu- faculties in different types of institutions and in ate school admission committees and fellowship different regions of the United States and Canada. sponsors assess the qualifications of applicants in In selecting members for each committee, the GRE specific fields of study. The tests also provide you Program seeks the advice of the appropriate profes- with an assessment of your own qualifications. sional associations in the subject. Scores on the tests are intended to indicate The content and scope of each test are specified knowledge of the subject matter emphasized in and reviewed periodically by the committee of many undergraduate programs as preparation for examiners. Test questions are written by the com- graduate study. Because past achievement is usually mittee and by other faculty who are also subject- a good indicator of future performance, the scores matter specialists and by subject-matter specialists are helpful in predicting success in graduate study. at ETS. All questions proposed for the test are Because the tests are standardized, the test scores reviewed by the committee and revised as necessary. permit comparison of students from different The accepted questions are assembled into a test in institutions with different undergraduate programs. accordance with the content specifications devel- For some Subject Tests, subscores are provided in oped by the committee to ensure adequate coverage addition to the total score; these subscores indicate of the various aspects of the field and, at the same the strengths and weaknesses of your preparation, time, to prevent overemphasis on any single topic. and they may help you plan future studies. The entire test is then reviewed and approved by the committee. BIOLOGY TEST 3 PRACTICE BOOK
  4. Subject-matter and measurement specialists Scores on the Subject Tests are reported as three- on the ETS staff assist the committee, providing digit scaled scores with the third digit always zero. information and advice about methods of test con- The maximum possible range for all Subject Test struction and helping to prepare the questions and total scores is from 200 to 990. The actual range of assemble the test. In addition, each test question is scores for a particular Subject Test, however, may be reviewed to eliminate language, symbols, or content smaller. The maximum possible range of Subject considered potentially offensive, inappropriate for Test subscores is 20 to 99; however, the actual range major subgroups of the test-taking population, or of subscores for any test or test edition may be likely to perpetuate any negative attitude that may be smaller than 20 to 99. Subject Test score interpre- conveyed to these subgroups. The test as a whole is tive information is provided in Interpreting Your also reviewed to ensure that the test questions, where GRE Scores, which you will receive with your applicable, include an appropriate balance of people GRE score report, and on the GRE Web site at in different groups and different roles. Because of the diversity of undergraduate cur- ricula, it is not possible for a single test to cover all the material you may have studied. The examiners, Content of the Biology Test therefore, select questions that test the basic knowl- edge and skills most important for successful graduate The test contains about 200 five-choice questions, a study in the particular field. The committee keeps the number of which are grouped in sets toward the end test up-to-date by regularly developing new editions of the test and are based on descriptions of laboratory and revising existing editions. In this way, the test and field situations, diagrams, or experimental results. content changes steadily but gradually, much like To cover the broad field of the biological sciences, most curricula. In addition, curriculum surveys are the subject matter on which the students are tested is conducted periodically to ensure that the content of organized into three major areas: cellular and molecu- a test reflects what is currently being taught in the lar biology; organismal biology; and ecology and undergraduate curriculum. evolution. Approximately equal weight is given to After a new edition of a Subject Test is first each of these three areas. However, subject area administered, examinees’ responses to each test subdivisions indicated by Arabic numerals may not question are analyzed in a variety of ways to deter- contain equal numbers of questions. mine whether each question functioned as expected. The approximate distribution of questions by These analyses may reveal that a question is ambigu- content category is shown below. ous, requires knowledge beyond the scope of the test, I. Cellular and Molecular Biology 33-34% or is inappropriate for the total group or a particular Fundamentals of cellular biology, genetics, and subgroup of examinees taking the test. Answers to molecular biology are addressed. Major topics in such questions are not used in computing scores. cellular structure and function include metabolic Following this analysis, the new test edition is pathways and their regulation, membrane dynamics, equated to an existing test edition. In the equating cell surfaces, organelles, cytoskeleton, and cell cycle. process, statistical methods are used to assess the Major areas in genetics and molecular biology include difficulty of the new test. Then scores are adjusted so chromatin and chromosomal structure, genomic that examinees who took a difficult edition of the test organization and maintenance, and the regulation of are not penalized, and examinees who took an easier gene expression. The cellular basis of immunity, the edition of the test do not have an advantage. Varia- mechanisms of antigen-antibody interactions, and tions in the number of questions in the different cell-pathogen interactions are included. Distinctions editions of the test are also taken into account in between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are consid- this process. ered where appropriate. Attention is also given to experimental methodology. 4 BIOLOGY TEST PRACTICE BOOK
  5. A. Cellular Structure and Function 16-17% 6. Gene expression and regulation: effects Control of normal development; Cancer 1. Biological compounds and oncogenes Macromolecular structure and bonding Signaling mechanisms in cells Abiotic origin of biological molecules 7. Immunobiology 2. Enzyme activity, receptor binding, and regulation Cellular basis of immunity; Antibody 3. Major metabolic pathways and regulation diversity and synthesis Respiration, fermentation, and photosynthesis Antigen-antibody interactions Synthesis and degradation of macromolecules 8. Bacteriophages, animal viruses, and plant viruses Hormonal control and intracellular messengers Viral genomes, replication, and assembly 4. Membrane dynamics and cell surfaces Virus-host cell interactions Transport, endocytosis, and exocytosis 9. Recombinant DNA methodology Electrical potentials and neurotransmitters Restriction endonucleases; Blotting and Mechanisms of cell recognition, cell junctions, hybridization and plasmodesmata Restriction fragment length polymorphisms; Cell wall and extracellular matrix DNA cloning, sequencing, and analysis; 5. Organelles: structure, function, and targeting Polymerase chain reaction 6. Cytoskeleton, motility, and shape Actin-based systems II. Organismal Biology 33-34% Microtubule-based systems Intermediate filaments The structure, physiology, behavior, and develop- Bacterial flagella and movement ment of plants and animals are addressed. Topics 7. Cell cycle, growth, division, and regulation covered include nutrient procurement and processing, gas exchange, internal transport, regulation of fluids, B. Genetics and Molecular Biology 16-17% control mechanisms and effectors, and reproduction in 1. Genetic foundations autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms. Examples of Mendelian inheritance; Pedigree analysis developmental phemonena range from fertilization Prokaryotic genetics (transformation, through differentiation and morphogenesis. Percep- transduction, and conjugation) tions and responses to environmental stimuli are Genetic mapping examined as they pertain to both plants and animals. 2. Chromatin and chromosomes Major distinguishing characteristics and phylogenetic Nucleosomes relationships of selected groups from the various Karyotypes kingdoms are also covered. Chromosomal aberrations A. Animal Structure, Function, and Polytene chromosomes Organization 9-10% 3. Genome sequence organization Introns and exons; Single-copy and 1. Exchange with environment repetitive DNA Nutrient, salt, and water exchange Transposable elements Gas exchange; Energy 4. Genome maintenance 2. Internal transport and exchange DNA replication; DNA mutation and repair Circulatory, gastrovascular, and 5. Gene expression and regulation in prokaryotes digestive systems and eukaryotes: mechanisms 3. Support and movement The operon; Promoters and enhancers; Support systems (external, internal, Transcription factors; RNA and protein and hydrostatic) synthesis; Processing and modifications Movement systems (flagellar, ciliary, of both RNA and protein and muscular) 4. Integration and control mechanisms Nervous and endocrine systems BIOLOGY TEST 5 PRACTICE BOOK
  6. 5. Behavior (communication, orientation, 4. Fungi learning, and instinct) Distinctive features of major phyla 6. Metabolic rates (temperature, body size, and (vegetative, asexual, and sexual activity) reproduction) B. Animal Reproduction and Development 5-6% Generalized life cycles Importance (e.g., decomposition, 1. Reproductive structures biodegradation, antibiotics, and 2. Meiosis, gametogenesis, and fertilization pathogenicity) 3. Early development (e.g., polarity, cleavage, Lichens and gastrulation) 5. Animalia with emphasis on major phyla 4. Developmental processes (e.g., induction, Major distinguishing characteristics determination, differentiation, morphogenesis, Phylogenetic relationships and metamorphosis) 6. Plantae with emphasis on major phyla 5. External control mechanisms (e.g., photoperiod) Alternation of generations C. Plant Structure, Function, and Organization, Major distinguishing characteristics with Emphasis on Flowering Plants 6-7% Phylogenetic relationships 1. Tissues, tissue systems, and organs III. Ecology and Evolution 33-34% 2. Water transport, including absorption and transpiration This section deals with the interactions of organ- 3. Phloem transport and storage isms and their environment, emphasizing biological 4. Mineral nutrition principles at levels above the individual. Ecological 5. Plant energetics (e.g., respiration and and evolutionary topics are given equal weight. photosynthesis) Ecological questions range from physiological adapta- tions to the functioning of ecosystems. Although D. Plant Reproduction, Growth, and Development, principles are emphasized, some questions may with Emphasis on Flowering Plants 4-5% consider applications to current environmental 1. Reproductive structures problems. Questions in evolution range from its 2. Meiosis and sporogenesis genetic foundations through evolutionary processes 3. Gametogenesis and fertilization to their consequences. Evolution is considered at the 4. Embryogeny and seed development molecular, individual, population, and higher levels. 5. Meristems, growth, morphogenesis, and Principles of ecology, genetics, and evolution are differentiation interrelated in many questions. Some questions may 6. Control mechanisms (e.g., hormones, photo- require quantitative skills, including the interpreta- period, and tropisms) tion of simple mathematical models. E. Diversity of Life 6-7% A. Ecology 16-17% 1. Archaebacteria 1. Environment/organism interaction Morphology, physiology, and identification Biogeographic patterns; Adaptations to 2. Eubacteria (including cyanobacteria) environment; Temporal patterns Morphology, physiology, pathology, and 2. Behavioral ecology identification Habitat selection; Mating systems; 3. Protista Social systems; Resource acquisition Protozoa, other heterotrophic Protista 3. Population structure and function (slime molds and Oomycota), and Population dynamics/regulation; autotrophic Protista Demography and life history strategies Major distinguishing characteristics 4. Communities Phylogenetic relationships Interspecific relationships; Importance (e.g., eutrophication, disease) Community structure and diversity; Change and succession 6 BIOLOGY TEST PRACTICE BOOK
  7. 5. Ecosystems Productivity and energy flow; Chemical Test-Taking Strategies cycling The questions in the practice test in this book B. Evolution 16-17% illustrate the types of multiple-choice questions in the test. When you take the test, you will mark your 1. Genetic variability answers on a separate machine-scorable answer sheet. Origins (mutations, linkage, recombination, Total testing time is two hours and fifty minutes; and chromosomal alterations) there are no separately timed sections. Following are Levels (e.g., polymorphism and heritability) some general test-taking strategies you may want Spatial patterns (e.g., clines and ecotypes) to consider. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium 2. Evolutionary processes Read the test directions carefully, and work as Gene flow and genetic drift; Natural rapidly as you can without being careless. For selection; Levels of selection (e.g., each question, choose the best answer from the individual and group) available options. 3. Evolutionary consequences All questions are of equal value; do not waste Fitness and adaptation; Speciation; time pondering individual questions you find Systematics and phylogeny; Convergence, extremely difficult or unfamiliar. divergence, and extinction You may want to work through the test quite 4. History of life rapidly, first answering only the questions about Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells which you feel confident, then going back and Fossil record answering questions that require more thought, Paleontology and paleoecology and concluding with the most difficult ques- tions if there is time. Preparing for a If you decide to change an answer, make sure you completely erase it and fill in the oval Subject Test corresponding to your desired answer. GRE Subject Test questions are designed to measure Questions for which you mark no answer skills and knowledge gained over a long period of or more than one answer are not counted time. Although you might increase your scores to in scoring. some extent through preparation a few weeks or months before you take the test, last minute cram- As a correction for haphazard guessing, one- fourth of the number of questions you answer ming is unlikely to be of further help. The following information may be helpful. incorrectly is subtracted from the number of questions you answer correctly. It is improbable A general review of your college courses is that mere guessing will improve your score probably the best preparation for the test. significantly; it may even lower your score. However, the test covers a broad range of If, however, you are not certain of the correct subject matter, and no one is expected to be answer but have some knowledge of the ques- familiar with the content of every question. tion and are able to eliminate one or more of Use this practice book to become familiar with the answer choices, your chance of getting the the types of questions in the GRE Biology Test, right answer is improved, and it may be to your paying special attention to the directions. If you advantage to answer the question. thoroughly understand the directions before you take the test, you will have more time during the test to focus on the questions themselves. BIOLOGY TEST 7 PRACTICE BOOK
  8. Record all answers on your answer sheet. Range of Raw Scores* Needed Answers recorded in your test book will not to Earn Selected Scaled Scores be counted. on Three Biology Test Editions Do not wait until the last five minutes of a That Differ in Difficulty testing session to record answers on your Raw Scores answer sheet. Scaled Score Form A Form B Form C 800 143-145 124-126 118-120 What Your Scores Mean 700 113-115 98-99 91-93 600 84-86 71-72 64-66 Your raw score, that is—the number of questions you 500 54-56 44-46 37-39 answered correctly minus one-fourth of the number Number of Questions Used to Compute Raw Score you answered incorrectly—is converted to the scaled score that is reported. This conversion ensures that 200 198 198 a scaled score reported for any edition of a Subject *Raw Score = Number of correct answers minus one-fourth the Test is comparable to the same scaled score earned on number of incorrect answers, rounded to the nearest integer. any other edition of the same test. Thus, equal scaled scores on a particular Subject Test indicate essentially For a particular test edition, there are many ways to equal levels of performance regardless of the test earn the same raw score. For example, on the edition edition taken. Test scores should be compared only listed above as “Form A,” a raw score of 84 through 86 with other scores on the same Subject Test. (For would earn a scaled score of 600. Below are a few of the example, a 680 on the Computer Science Test is not possible ways in which a scaled score of 600 could be equivalent to a 680 on the Mathematics Test.) earned on that edition. Before taking the test, you may find it useful to know approximately what raw scores would be required to obtain a certain scaled score. Several Examples of Ways to Earn factors influence the conversion of your raw score to a Scaled Score of 600 on the your scaled score, such as the difficulty of the test Edition Labeled as “Form A” edition and the number of test questions included in the computation of your raw score. Based on recent Number of Questions editions of the Biology Test, the following table gives Questions Questions Questions Used to the range of raw scores associated with selected scaled Raw Answered Answered Not Compute scores for three different test editions. (Note that Score Correctly Incorrectly Answered Raw Score when the number of scored questions for a given test 84 84 0 116 200 is greater than the range of possible scaled scores, it is 84 96 47 57 200 likely that two or more raw scores will convert to the same scaled score.) The three test editions in the 84 107 93 0 200 table that follows were selected to reflect varying 86 86 0 114 200 degrees of difficulty. Examinees should note that future 86 97 45 58 200 test editions may be somewhat more or less difficult 86 108 90 2 200 than those test editions illustrated in the table. 8 BIOLOGY TEST PRACTICE BOOK
  9. Practice Test To become familiar with how the administration will be conducted at the test center, first remove the answer sheet (pages 69 and 70). Then go to the back cover of the test book (page 64) and follow the instructions for completing the identification areas of the answer sheet. When you are ready to begin the test, note the time and begin marking your answers on the answer sheet. BIOLOGY TEST 9 PRACTICE BOOK
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