Handbook of Air Pollution Prevention and Control

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Handbook of Air Pollution Prevention and Control

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This Handbook provides a concise overview of the latest technologies for managing industrial air pollution in petrochemical, oil and gas, and allied industries. Detailed material on equipment selection, sizing, and troubleshooting operations is provided along with practical design methodology. Unique to this volume are discussions and information on energy-efficient technologies and approaches to implementing environmental cost accounting measures. Included in the text are sidebar discussions, questions for thinking and discussing, recommended resources for the reader (including Web sites), and a comprehensive glossary. The Handbook of Air Pollution Prevention and Control also includes free access to US EPA's air dispersion model SCREEN3. Detailed...

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  1. Handbook of Air Pollutio Prevention Control rg ..’
  2. HANDBOOK OF AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL
  3. HANDBOOK OF AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL Nicholas P. Cheremisinoff, Ph.D. N &P Limited P=-=EINEMANN An imprint of Elsevier Science Amsterdam Boston London New York Oxford Paris San Diego San Francisco Singapore Sydney Tokyo
  4. Butterworth-Heinemann is an imprint of Elsevier Science. Copyright 02002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, o r transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. @ Recognizing the importance of preserving what has been written, Elsevier Science prints its books on acid-free paper whenever possible. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Cheremisinoff, Nicholas P. Handbook of air pollution prevention and control / Nicholas P. Cheremisinoff. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-7506-7499-7 (alk. paper) 1. Air quality management. 2. Air-Pollution. 3. Factory and trade waste-Environmental aspects. I . Title. TD883 .C435 2002 628.5’34~21 20020 18563 British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. The publisher offers special discounts on bulk orders of this book. For information, please contact: Manager of Special Sales Elsevier Science 225 Wildwood Avenue Woburn, MA 01801-2041 Tel: 781-904-2500 Fax: 78 1-904-2620 For information on all Butterworth-Heinemann publications available, contact our World Wide Web home page at: http://www.bh.com 10987654321 Printed in the United States of America
  5. CONTENTS Preface, vii About the Author, xi Chapter 1. Introduction to Air Quality, 1 Introduction, 1 An Overview of the Clean Air Act Amendments, 1 Fate and Transport in the Environment, 9 A Few of the Priority Air Pollutants, 15 Indoor Air Quality, 42 Organization of Handbook Subjects, 48 Recommended Resources for the Reader, 51 Review and Questions to Get You Thinking, 51 Chapter 2. Industrial Air Pollution Sources and Prevention, 53 Introduction, 53 Air Pollution in the Chemical Process Industries, 53 Air Pollution in the Petroleum Industry, 79 Air Pollution from Iron and Steel Manufacturing, 112 Air Pollution from Lead and Zinc Smelting, 130 Air Pollution from Nickel Ore Processing and Refining, 134 Air Pollution from Aluminum Manufacturing, 137 Air Pollution from Copper Smelting, 141 Recommended Resources for the Reader, 144 Review and Questions to Get You Thinking, 146 Chapter 3. Properties of Air Pollutants, 148 Introduction, 148 Selected Chemical and Physical Properties of Potential Atmospheric Pollutants, 148 Basic Properties and Terminology, 158 Accessing the World-Wide Web for Data Bases, 183 Recommended Resources for the Reader, 184 Review and Questions to Get You Thinking, 186 Chapter 4 . Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Control, 188 Introduction, 188 An Overview of Indoor Air Quality, 188 The Basics of HVAC Systems, 191 V
  6. IAQ Issues and Impacts on Occupants, 195 Application of Audits to Developing an IAQ Profile, 200 Developing Management Plans, 206 How to Diagnose IAQ Problems, 213 Control, 228 Quantification and Measurement, 238 Recommended Resources for the Reader, 278 Review and Questions to Get You Thinking, 279 Chapter 5. Air Pollution Dispersion, 28 1 Introduction, 281 Dispersion Theory Basics, 282 Estimating the Air Quality Impact of Stationary Sources, 297 Other Models and Resources, 326 Case Study Applying SCREEN, 335 References and Recommended Resources for the Reader, 342 Review and Questions to Get You Thinking, 344 Chapter 6. Prevention Versus Control, 348 Introduction, 348 Pollution Prevention: When and How, 350 Principles of Pollution Prevention, 356 References and Recommended Resources for the Reader, 384 Review and Questions to Get You Thinking, 387 Chapter 7 . Prevention and Control Hardware, 389 Introduction, 389 Methods of Particulate Collection, 389 Methods for Cleaning Gaseous Pollutants, 446 References and Recommended Resources for the Reader, 488 Chapter 8. Environmental Cost Accounting, 498 Introduction, 498 Total Cost Accounting Terminology, 500 Case Study, 512 Glossary, 5 15 Index, 553 vi
  7. This volume covers the practices and technologies that are applied to the prevention of air pollution, and to the cleaning and control of industrial air emissions. Although there are numerous publications that address these subjects, rarely are prevention and control concepts considered together in a single volume. This book provides a bridge for today’s environmental manager by focusing on an integrated approach to managing air pollution problems within industrial operations. There are eight chapters. Chapter 1 provides orientation and an introduction to the subject of air quality. The focus of this book is on industrial air pollution problems. We begin by reviewing the regulatory driving force in the United States for air pollution abatement. To appreciate the objectives of our Federal air pollution control regulations, an understanding of the fate and transport mechanisms in the environment is important. Hence, some general discussions on the behavior of pollutants in the atmosphere are included in this chapter. There are only two general methods for ensuring high quality air. These options are the application of control technologies that clean air or remove pollutants, and methods of prevention. In general, prevention is more cost-effective than the application of end-of-pipe treatment technologies, however, there are many situations where control technologies represent the only feasible methods to managing air pollution problems. Both approaches are presented in this volume, and the reader will need to assess which is the most appropriate means on a case by case basis. At the end of Chapter 1 you will fmd a summary of the topics to be discussed in thls volume. This will help you to focus on specific areas of reading that are most useful to you. There is also a list of recommended resources, including Web sites, as well as a review section. In Chapter 2 we focus our attention on some of the point sources of air emissions within different types of plant operations, along with the methods of abatement and prevention. Although we do not make direct comparisons between prevention and control methodologies until Chapter 6 , the reader should gain an appreciation for the simplicity of applying pollution prevention as opposed to incorporating engineering controls in many situations. While we will not cover all the important industry sector sources of air pollution in this chapter, an attempt is made to examine a broad spectrum of so-called “heavy-industries”. These are industry sectors that are plagued with air pollution problems, and have had a long history in battling them.
  8. There are literally many thousands of chemical compounds that may pose potential air pollution problems. It would be impossible to present all the pertinent data and information needed to evaluate each and every air pollution scenario. There are, however, a wealth of information and data bases that are available on the World Wide Web, along with a number of standard hard copy references to obtain information on the chemical and physical properties, and health risks of potential atmospheric contaminants. Chapter 3 provides information on the following three areas: Selected chemical and physical properties, and data of common and potential 1. atmospheric contaminants. An overview of important terms and definitions useful in assessing the 2. potentially harmful effects of air pollutants. A summary of Web site sources that provide extensive data bases on the 3. chemical and physical properties, as well as health risk effects associated with air contaminants. Chapter 4 provides an overview of indoor air quality (IAQ)ssues and management i practices, with emphasis given to industrial operations. Proper indoor air quality management is an integral part of any program dealing with safe industry practices. It is an area of concern because improperly designed ventilation systems lead to sigmficant health risk exposures through inhalation hazards, as well as energy inefficiencies, which increase the overhead costs of an operation. IAQ is an area where control and operational options may present significant pollution prevention opportunitiesthrough the capturing of energy credits, in increasing the productivity of workers through improved comfort, reducing loss time from illness and injury, reducing medical costs by minimizing or eliminating inhalation hazards, and reducing facility insurance premiums by providing a safer work environment. Chapter 5 describes simplified methods of estimating airborne pollutant concentration distributions associated with stationary emission sources. There are sophisticated models available to predict and to assist in evaluating the impact of pollutants on the environment and to sensitive receptors such as populated areas. In this chapter we will explore the basic principles behind dispersion models and then apply a simplified model that has been developed by EPA to analyzing air dispersion problems. There are practice and study problems at the end of this chapter. A screening model for air dispersion impact assessments called SCREEN, developed by USEPA is highlighted in this chapter, and the reader is provided with details on how to download the software and apply it. Chapter 6 makes a strong argument for pollution prevention (E) practices, but is prudent in pointing out that there are many situations where conventional pollution
  9. control technologies will suffice. The general approach to pollution prevention and the pollution prevention assessment or auditing technique is discussed in detail. The overall concepts discussed in this chapter are: 1. The benefits of P2 to an organization. 2. The basic approach to applying and integrating p2 into an organization, with emphasis given to managing air pollution problems. 3. When P2 should and should not be applied. Chapter 7 focuses on hardware. The intent is to provide a working description of pollution control hardware, as well as to hghlight those technologies and equipment that may be applicable to pollution prevention opportunities. As stated in this chapter, we should never approach an air pollution problem (or any pollution and waste problem) without first considering other options to end-of-pipe treatment and controls. If the waste or pollution can be prevented or minimized without the use of controls that require long-term O&M and other recurring costs, then that should be the first choice, provided there is sufficient financial justification. But, the absolutely wrong reason for selecting pollution prevention (E) ver conventional o wisdom is to do E for the sake of doing it. This chapter will provide you with a good overview of the technology options for air pollution control, as well an arsenal of important references. Chapter 8 covers the principles of cost accounting. The focus of this chapter is project cost estimating. This is sometimes referred to as total cost accounting. The term total-cost accounting (TCA) has also come to be commonly known as life- cycle costing (LCC). LCC is a method aimed at analyzing the costs and benefits associated with a piece of equipment, plant, or a project over the entire time of intended use. Experience has shown that the up-front purchase price alone is a poor measure of the total cost. Instead, costs such as those associated with maintainability, reliability, disposal, and salvage value, as well as employee training and education, must be given equal weight in making financial decisions. By the same token, justifying the investment into a piece of equipment requires that all benefits and costs be clearly defined in the most concrete terms possible, and projected over the life of each technology option. References are noted throughout the book for further information. Particular attention is given to Web site sources where detailed equipment design information and chemical property data bases exist. At the end of the book is a glossary containing several hundred terms commonly used in pollution prevention and control practices. You can rely on the glossary for terms not identified in the text discussions, and as a general reference.
  10. You will also find a liberal application of sidebar discussions at various points in different chapters. Here you will find some interesting and useful facts and formulas. This handbook is intended for environmental managers and process engineers. Some subject matter is covered in survey or overview form, whereas others are treated in more depth. In both cases, important references are noted where detaded information can be obtained. The overall objective of this volume is not simply to provide a general reference, but to serve as a resource for developing approaches to managing air pollution problems. If the reader can get just one good idea from reading over the material in this volume to solve an air pollution problem, and further, capture some economic incentives that normally accompany a pollution prevention practice, then I have not only done a good job in writing this book, but you have made a wise investment in its purchase. A heartfelt thanks goes to Butterworth Heinemann for their patience during the writing of this book, and to their fine production. A special thank you is extended to Laura Berendson and Tara Habhegger for their creative efforts throughout the production of h s volume. Nicholas P. Cheremisinofi Ph.D. X
  11. ABOUT THE AUTHOR Nicholas P. Cheremisinoff is a consultant to industry, lending institutions and donor agencies, and environmental litigation firms, specializing in pollution prevention and environmental due care issues. His career now spans nearly 25 years with experiences in manufacturing, applied research and development, and business development. He has assisted and led hundreds of pollution prevention programs and remediation projects, assisted in the privatization of major overseas industrial complexes, and consulted on developing foreign national policies on waste management. Among his client base are the World Bank Organization, the U .S. Trade and Development Agency, the U .S. Department of Energy, and numerous private sector companies. He has contributed extensively to the industrial press, having authored, co-authored, or edited more than 100 technical books, including Butterworth-Heinemann’s Handbook of Water and Wastewater Treatment Technologies. Dr. Cheremisinoff received his B .S., M .S., and Ph.D. degrees in chemical engineering from Clarkson College of Technology. xi
  12. HANDBOOK OF AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL
  13. Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO AIR QUALITY INTRODUCTION This chapter provides orientation and an introduction to the subject of air quality. As a part of this introduction, we begin exploring the options for ensuring high quality air in the environment. The focus of this book is on industrial air pollution problems, and hence, the term “environment”refers to the universal ecosystem that humans live and interact in, as well as the workplace. We begin by reviewing the regulatory driving force in the United States for air pollution abatement. To appreciate the objectives of our Federal air pollution control regulations, an understanding of the fate and transport mechanisms in the environment is important. Hence, some general discussions on the behavior of pollutants in the atmosphere are included in this chapter. Obviously, the overall motivation for clean air is protection of health. There are essentially only two general methods for ensuring high quality air. These options are the application of control technologies that clean air or remove pollutants, and methods of prevention. As a general rule of thumb, prevention is more cost- effective than the application of so-called end-of-pipe treatment technologies. However, there are many situations where control technologies represent the only feasible methods to managing air pollution problems. Both approaches are presented in this volume, and the reader will need to assess which is the most appropriate means on a case by case basis. At the end of this chapter you will find a summary of the topics discussed in this volume. This will help you to focus on specific areas of reading that are most useful to you. There is also a list of recommended resources, including Web sites. AN OVERVIEW OF THE CLEAN AIR ACT AMENDMENTS The regulatory driving force for air pollution control in the United States is the 1
  14. HANDBOOK OF AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION A ND CONTROL 2 Clean Air Act. Many countries around the world have similar legislation and national policies aimed at protecting air quality. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 included sweeping revisions to the Clean Air Act, building on U.S. ongressionalproposals advanced during the 1980s.The C legislation is designed to curb three major threats to the nation’s environment and to the health of millions of Americans: acid rain, urban air pollution, and toxic air emissions. Our focus is on toxic air emissions, but we will review the other revisions to gain an overall appreciation of the law. The law also established a national permitting program. Provisions include the phaseout of ozone-depletingchemicals, roughly according to the schedule outlined in international negotiations (known as the Revised Montreal Protocol). Several progressive and creative new themes are embodied in the Amendments; themes necessary for effectively achieving the air quality goals and regulatory reform expected from these far-reaching amendments. Specifically the law: encourages the use of market-based principles and other innovative approaches, like performance-based standards and emission banking and trading; provides a framework from which alternative clean fuels will be used by setting standards in the fleet and California pilot program that can be met by the most cost-effective combination of fuels and technology; promotes the use of clean low sulfur coal and natural gas, as well as innovative technologies to clean high sulfur coal through the acid rain program; reduces enough energy waste and creates enough of a market for clean fuels derived f o grain and natural gas to cut dependency on oil imports by one rm million barreldday ; promotes energy conservation through an acid rain program that gives utilities flexibility to obtain needed emission reductions through programs that encourage customers to conserve energy. One component of urban smog - - hydrocarbons comes from Although the original Clean Air Act of automobile emissions, 1977 brought about significant petroleum refineries, chemical improvements in air quality, the urban air plants, dry cleaners, gasoline pollution problems of ozone (known as stations, house painting, and smog), carbon monoxide (CO), and printing shops. Another key - - particulate matter (PM,,) persist. component nitrogen oxides Currently, over 100 million Americans live comes from the combustion of in cities which are out of attainment with f uel f or transportation, the public health standards for ozone. The utiIiries and industries. most widespread and persistent urban
  15. INTRODUCTION TO AIR QUALITY 3 pollution problem is ozone. The causes of this and the lesser problem of carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM,,) pollution in our urban areas are largely due to the diversity and number of urban air pollution sources. While there are various reasons for continued high levels of ozone pollution, such as growth in the number of stationary sources of hydrocarbons and continued growth in automobile travel, perhaps the most telling reason is that the remaining sources of hydrocarbons are also the most difficult to control. These are the small sources - generally those that emit less than 100 tons of hydrocarbons per year. These sources, such as auto body shops and dry cleaners, may individually emit less than 10 tons per year, but collectively emit many hundreds of tons of pollution. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 created a new, balanced strategy to attack the problem of urban smog. While it gives states more time to meet the air quality standard (up to 20 years for ozone in Los Angeles), it also requires states to make constant formidable progress in reducing emissions. It requires the Federal government to reduce emissions from cars, trucks, and buses; from consumer products such as hair spray and window washing compounds; and from ships and barges during loading and unloading of petroleum products. Under Title I , the Federal government must develop the technical guidance that states need to control stationary sources. The law addresses the urban air pollution problems of ozone (smog), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matter (PM,,,). Specifically, it clarifies how areas are designated and redesignated "attainment". It also allows EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) to define the boundaries of "nonattainment"areas: geographical areas whose air quality does not meet Federal air quality standards designed to protect public health. The law also establishes provisions defining when and how the federal government can impose sanctions on areas of the country that have not met certain conditions. For ozone, the law establishes nonattainment area classifications ranked accordmg to the severity of the areas's air pollution problem. These classifications are marginal, moderate, serious, severe and extreme. The EPA assigns each nonattainment area one of these categories, thus triggering varying requirements the area must comply with in order to meet the ozone standard. Nonattainment areas must implement different control measures, depending upon their classification. Marginal areas, for example, are the closest to meeting the standard. They are required to conduct an inventory of their ozone-causing emissions and institute a permit program. Nonattainment areas with more serious air quality problems must implement various control measures. The worse the air quality, the more controls areas must implement. The law also establishes similar programs for areas that do not meet the federal health standards for the pollutants carbon monoxide and particulate matter. Areas

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