Handbook of Girls’ and Women’s Psychological Health

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Handbook of Girls’ and Women’s Psychological Health

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The importance of psychology and health, multiculturalism, and a focus on strengths and positive psychology are the dynamic issues of psychology in this new millennium. These central issues in psychological research and practice today form the backbone of the Handbook of Girls’ and Women’s Psychological Health. To encounter all three integrated into a handbook on women and girls is like fantasizing a feast and having it appear on your table.

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  1. Handbook of Girls’ and Women’s Psychological Health Judith Worell Carol D. Goodheart, Editors OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
  2. Handbook of Girls’ and Women’s Psychological Health
  3. OXFORD SERIES IN CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Editorial Board Comprehensive Textbook of Psychotherapy: Theory and Practice edited by Bruce Bongar and Larry E. Beutler Larry E. Beutler Clinical Personality Assessment: Practical Approaches, Second Edition Bruce Bongar edited by James N. Butcher Lillian Comas-Dias Ethics in Psychology, Second Edition Gerald P. Koocher by Gerald P. Koocher and Patricia Keith-Spiegel Annette La Greca Oxford Textbook of Psychopathology John C. Norcross edited by Theodore Millon, Paul H. Blaney, and Roger C. Davis Child and Adolescent Psychological Disorders: A Comprehensive Textbook edited by Sandra D. Netherton, Deborah Holmes, and C. Eugene Walker Handbook of Psychotherapy Integration, Second Edition edited by John C. Norcross and Marvin R. Goldfried Family Psychology: The Art of the Science edited by William M. Pinsof and Jay L. Lebow Handbook of Girls’ and Women’s Psychological Health edited by Judith Worell and Carol D. Goodheart
  4. Handbook of Girls’ and Women’s Psychological Health Judith Worell Carol D. Goodheart EDITORS 2006
  5. Oxford University Press, Inc., publishes works that further Oxford University’s objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education. Oxford New York Auckland Cape Town Dar es Salaam Hong Kong Karachi Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Nairobi New Delhi Shanghai Taipei Toronto With offices in Argentina Austria Brazil Chile Czech Republic France Greece Guatemala Hungary Italy Japan Poland Portugal Singapore South Korea Switzerland Thailand Turkey Ukraine Vietnam Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Published by Oxford University Press, Inc. 198 Madison Avenue, New York, New York, 10016 Oxford is a registered trademark of Oxford University Press All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of Oxford University Press. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Handbook of girls’ and women’s psychological health / edited by Judith Worell and Carol D. Goodheart. p. cm. — (Oxford series in clinical psychology) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13 978-0-19-516203-5 ISBN 0-19-516203-X 1. Women—Psychology. 2. Women—Health and hygiene. 3. Women—Mental health. 4. Girls—Psychology. 5. Girls—Health and hygiene. 6. Girls—Mental health. I. Worell, Judith, 1928– II. Goodheart, Carol D. III. Series. HQ1206.H23855 2005 155.3'33—dc22 2004027119 987654321 Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper
  6. To all the women who have given us so much: Our mothers, daughters, grandmothers, granddaughters, teachers, students, colleagues, clients, patients, and friends And to our husbands Bud Smith and Hugh Goodheart, who genuinely like women and support our efforts to make a better world for them.
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  8. Foreword NORINE G . JOHNSON The importance of psychology and health, multicultural- ism, and a focus on strengths and positive psychology are the dynamic issues of psychology in this new millennium. These central issues in psychological research and practice today form the backbone of the Handbook of Girls’ and Women’s Psychological Health. To encounter all three inte- grated into a handbook on women and girls is like fantasiz- ing a feast and having it appear on your table. In 2001, during my year as President of the American Psy- chological Association (APA), the organization affirmed the primacy of psychology in health, amending its mission statement to read: “The objects of the American Psycholog- ical Association shall be to advance psychology as a science and profession and as a means of promoting health, educa- tion and human welfare . . .” (APA, 2001). My APA presidential initiative, “Psychology Builds a Healthy World,” cochaired by Carol Goodheart, Rodney Hammond, and Ronald Rozensky, undertook to inform psychologists of cutting-edge research and practice in health; to inform the public of psychology’s contributions to health; and to expand health-based partnerships with the public, policy makers, and other professionals (Johnson, 2003a). The initiative’s immersion in the research and practice of psychology and health resulted in a recommendation to consider a new approach to health policy, to include culture as a primary component in models of health, and to expand the biopsychosocial model to a biopsychosocial cultural model of health (Johnson, 2003b).
  9. viii Foreword comes, the most difficulty accessing services, Using the lens of the biopsychosocial cultural and the difficult position of continuing to be model of health, editors Judith Worell and Carol caretakers when they are the ones needing care. Goodheart have produced a resource of such Recommended policies to address these dispar- depth and breadth that users of the Handbook ities are included in the Handbook. Also, women will be at the apex of a new way of conceptual- in these positions have strengths and sources of izing girls’ and women’s health. The contribu- resilience that are identified in the Handbook tors to the Handbook were challenged to discuss and can be built upon by health professionals health cohesively through the lens of gender, and community advocates. culture, life span development, and well-being The scope of this Handbook is bold. The coed- and positive aspects. The valuing of multicultur- itors and contributors bring the best psycholog- alism alone would make this comprehensive vol- ical knowledge to the gender, health, and life ume of girls/women and health an important span perspective presented in this volume. Both addition; the fusion of all these elements makes editors are visionaries. They know what is crucial the Handbook one of a kind. out of the myriad of materials, and have been able The social construction of gender influences to organize this plethora of information into a health policy and the availability and delivery of compelling whole that allows the reader a refer- services. Today it is documented that women ence for today’s top thinking and a direction for have received inappropriate health interventions tomorrow’s research and practice. Overlooking because the research underpinning the med- the field of psychology from my perspective as a ical decisions used only men as subjects, that past APA president and a psychologist who has women’s descriptions of their health needs have spent a lifetime learning, teaching, practicing, and been discounted too often in the medical and advocating for the psychological health of girls mental health systems, and that poor women and women, I am pleased that the Handbook an- and women of color have had difficulty accessing ticipates the future directions in girls’/women’s health services. health and delivers a volume that empowers its Editors Worell and Goodheart move the dis- readers to build a healthier world for them. cussion to another level by having the Handbook contributors include vulnerabilities and risks for girls and women and then go beyond these prob- lems to give the reader information regarding REFERENCES protective or supportive factors that facilitate American Psychological Association. (2001, February). effective coping, positive growth, strength, and Council of Representatives, February 23–25, 2001. resilience. In addition, by focusing on health and Draft minutes. Washington, DC: Author. well-being, effective coping, strength, and re- Johnson, N. G. (2003a). Introduction: Psychology and silience, this comprehensive Handbook links into health—Taking the initiative to bring it together. the practice and research network of strengths- In R. H. Rozensky, N. G. Johnson, C. D. Good- heart, & W. R. Hammond (Eds.), Psychology builds based psychological models. a healthy world (pp. 3–31). Washington, DC: Amer- The research is clear—women and girls are ican Psychological Association. not always well served by our nation’s health- Johnson, N. G. (2003b). Psychology and health: Re- care system. Poor women, aging women, and search, practice, and policy. American Psycholo- women of color have the poorest health out- gist, 58, 670–677.
  10. Acknowledgments We extend our thanks and gratitude first to the many peo- ple who made a difference, either small or profound, in how we have come to view and understand the lives of girls and women in contemporary society. We want to thank espe- cially the host of family, friends, colleagues, mentors, stu- dents, clients, and patients from whom we learned so much about the multitude of factors that both challenge and sup- port the development of strong and healthy women. We are especially grateful to Gerald Koocher, Ph.D., and the entire Clinical Advisory Board of Oxford University Press for invit- ing us to develop this volume. The quality and content of the volume reflect the out- standing contributions of the wonderful authors who agreed to work with us in producing an original and exciting ap- proach to girls’ and women’s psychological health. We are enriched by all of them. We also appreciate the efforts and guidance of the staff at Oxford who assisted in both the de- velopment and production stages: Joan Bossert, Maura Roessner, Jessica Sonnenschein, Norman Hirschy, and Heather Hartman. And finally, we owe a debt of love and gratitude to our spouses, who supported and encouraged us during the long process of bringing this book to fruition. To all, we say thank you. We hope you will read and enjoy these insightful chapters.
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  12. Contents Foreword vii NORINE G. JOHNSON Contributors xvii Part I 1 An Integrated View of Girls’ and Women’s Health: Psychology, Gender and Physiology, and Society 3 Psychological Health CAROL D. GOODHEART 2 Risks to Healthy Development: The Somber Planes of Life 15 CHERYL BROWN TRAVIS 3 Pathways to Healthy Development: Sources of Strength and Empowerment 25 JUDITH WORELL Part II PROBLEMS AND RISKS Risks and Strengths 4 Assessment and Gender 40 Across the Life Span MARCIA C. LINN AND CATHY KESSEL 5 Mood Disturbance Across the Life Span 51 VALERIE E. WHIFFEN AND NATASHA DEMIDENKO 6 Anxiety Disturbance in Girls and Women 60 WENDY K. SILVERMAN AND RONA CARTER
  13. xii Contents 7 Body Image 69 LINDA SMOLAK 8 Serious Emotional Disturbance and Serious Mental Illness 77 DIANE T. MARSH 9 Violence Against Girls and Women: An Integrative Developmental Perspective 85 JACQUELYN W. WHITE AND JAMES M. FRABUTT 10 Physical or Systemic Disabilities 94 RHODA OLKIN 11 Trauma in the Lives of Girls and Women 103 JANIS SANCHEZ-HUCLES AND KIMBERLY GAMBLE 12 Substance Use and Abuse by Girls and Women 113 LULA A. BEATTY, CORA LEE WETHERINGTON, DIONNE J. JONES, AND ADELE B. ROMAN 13 Poor Women and Girls in a Wealthy Nation 122 DEBORAH BELLE AND LISA DODSON 14 Women and Suicide 129 LILLIAN M. RANGE STRENGTHS AND RESOURCES 15 Coping in Adolescent Girls and Women 138 PATRICIA A. BENNETT AND SUSAN H. MCDANIEL 16 Self-Esteem 149 OKSANA MALANCHUK AND JACQUELYNNE S. ECCLES 17 Resilience and Empowerment 157 VIRGINIA E. O’LEARY AND JESHMIN BHAJU 18 Subjective Well-Being 166 SONJA LYUBOMIRSKY AND RENE DICKERHOOF 19 The Sense of Entitlement: Implications for Gender Equality and Psychological Well-Being 175 VANESSA L. MCGANN AND JANICE M. STEIL 20 Balanced Living Through Self-Care 183 CAROL WILLIAMS-NICKELSON
  14. Contents xiii 21 To Your Sexual Health! Incorporating Sexuality Into the Health Perspective 192 LUCIA F. O ’ SULLIVAN , M. C . MCCRUDDEN, AND DEBORAH L. TOLMAN 22 Women and Giving 200 MICHELE HARWAY AND ROBERTA L. NUTT 23 Women and Relationships 208 MARY M. BRABECK AND KALINA M. BRABECK 24 Healthy Environments for Youth and Families 218 KAREN FRASER WYCHE 25 The Psychotherapeutic Relationship as a Positive and Powerful Resource for Girls and Women 229 LUCIA ALBINO GILBERT AND LISA K. KEARNEY Part III CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS: AWAKENINGS Phases of 26 Gender Role and Gender Development Within Identity Development 242 the Life Span SUSAN A. BASOW 27 The Interplay of Physical and Psychosocial Development 252 ANNETTE M. LA GRECA, ELEANOR RACE MACKEY, AND KAREN BEARMAN MILLER 28 The Family Environment: Where Gender Role Socialization Begins 262 PHYLLIS BRONSTEIN 29 Girls and Academic Success: Changing Patterns of Academic Achievement 272 DIANE F. HALPERN 30 Gender and Schooling: Progress and Persistent Barriers 283 JUDITH L. MEECE AND KATHRYN SCANTLEBURY 31 Adolescent Girls’ Health in the Context of Peer and Community Relationships 292 BRIDGET M. REYNOLDS AND RENA L. REPETTI
  15. xiv Contents 32 From Girlhood to Womanhood: Multiple Transitions in Context 301 NIVA PIRAN AND ERIN ROSS ADULTS: BALANCING 33 Women’s Career Development 312 NANCY E. BETZ 34 Love, Intimacy, and Partners 321 SUSAN S. HENDRICK 35 Women’s Reproductive Health: Issues, Findings, and Controversies 330 LINDA J. BECKMAN 36 The Mixed Messages of Motherhood 339 JOY K. RICE AND NICOLE ELSE-QUEST 37 Family and Work Balance 350 FAYE J. CROSBY AND LAURA SABATTINI 38 Midlife Transitions 359 CLAIRE A. ETAUGH AND JUDITH S. BRIDGES OLDER ADULTS: WINDING DOWN AND SUMMING UP 39 Aging and Identity: How Women Face Later Life Transitions 370 SUSAN KRAUSS WHITBOURNE AND KARYN M. SKULTETY 40 Physical Health and Illness in Older Women 379 S. DEBORAH MAJEROVITZ 41 Older Women and Security 388 BONNIE MARKHAM 42 Bereavement 397 DEBORAH CARR AND JUNG-HWA HA 43 Women’s Issues at the End of Life 406 DOLORES GALLAGHER-THOMPSON, JENNIFER DILLINGER, HEATHER L. GRAY, VERONICA CARDENAS, LANI SINGER, AND SHANNON HSU 44 Positive Aging: Reconstructing the Life Course 416 MARY M. GERGEN AND KENNETH J. GERGEN
  16. Contents xv 45 Legal Issues Influencing Girls’ Part IV and Women’s Psychological Health 427 Special Problems LENORE E. A. WALKER and Resources 46 Adaptation of Immigrant Girls and Women 439 MELBA J. T. VASQUEZ, AY LING HAN, AND CYNTHIA DE LAS FUENTES 47 Psychopharmacotherapy and Women: Issues for Consideration 447 DEBRA LINA DUNIVIN 48 Survivors of Male Violence: Research and Training Initiatives to Facilitate Recovery From Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder 455 VERONICA M. HERRERA, MARY P. KOSS, JENNIFER BAILEY, NICOLE P. YUAN, AND ERIKA L. LICHTER 49 An Overview of Policies That Impact the Psychological Well-Being of Girls and Women 467 SHERRY GLIED AND SHARON KOFMAN Part V 50 Afterword 481 Conclusion CAROL D. GOODHEART AND JUDITH WORELL Index 483
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  18. Contributors Jennifer Bailey, Ph.D. Research Analyst, Social Development Research Group University of Washington Seattle, WA Susan A. Basow, Ph.D. Charles A. Dana Professor of Psychology Lafayette College Easton, PA Lula A. Beatty, Ph.D. Chief, Special Populations Office, Office of the Director National Institute on Drug Abuse/NIH Bethesda, MD Linda J. Beckman, Ph.D. Professor, California School of Professional Psychology Alliant International University Los Angeles, CA Deborah Belle, Ed.D. Professor, Department of Psychology Boston University Boston, MA Patricia A. Bennett, Ph.D. Senior Instructor, Department of Psychiatry (Psychology), University of Rochester Medical Center Faculty, Department of Obstetrics/Gynecology, Rochester General Hospital Rochester, NY xvii
  19. xviii Contributors Nancy E. Betz, Ph.D. Professor, Department of Psychology Ohio State University Columbus, OH Jeshmin Bhaju Doctoral Student, Department of Psychology Auburn University Auburn, AL Kalina M. Brabeck, M.A. Doctoral Candidate, Counseling Psychology University of Texas at Austin Austin, TX Mary M. Brabeck, Ph.D. Professor of Applied Psychology Steinhardt School of Education New York University New York, NY Judith S. Bridges, Ph.D. Professor Emerita of Psychology University of Connecticut at Hartford Hartford, Connecticut Phyllis Bronstein, Ph.D. Professor, Department of Psychology University of Vermont Burlington, VT Veronica Cardenas, M.A. Research Assistant, Older Adult and Family Center Stanford University School of Medicine VA Palo Alto Health Care System Menlo Park, CA Deborah Carr, Ph.D. Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology and Institute for Health, Health Care Policy and Aging Research Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey New Brunswick, NJ
  20. Contributors xix Rona Carter Doctoral Student, Developmental Psychology Program, Department of Psychology Child and Family Psychosocial Research Center Florida International University Miami, FL Faye J. Crosby, Ph.D. Professor of Psychology University of California, Santa Cruz Santa Cruz, CA Cynthia de las Fuentes, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Department of Psychology Our Lady of the Lake University San Antonio, TX Natasha Demidenko, M.A. School of Psychology University of Ottawa Ottawa, ON, Canada Rene Dickerhoof, M.A. Graduate Student University of California, Riverside Riverside, CA Jennifer Dillinger, B.A. Research Assistant, Older Adult and Family Center Stanford University School of Medicine VA Palo Alto Health Care System Menlo Park, CA Lisa Dodson, Ph.D. Research Professor, Department of Sociology Boston College Chestnut Hill, MA Debra Lina Dunivin, Ph.D. Deputy Chief and Director of Training, Department of Psychology Walter Reed Army Medical Center Washington, DC Jacquelynne S. Eccles, Ph.D. Professor, Department of Psychology The University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI



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