HTML in 10 Steps or Less- P1

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HTML in 10 Steps or Less- P1:Welcome to HTML in 10 Simple Steps or Less. Our mission in writing this book is to provide a quick and accessible way for you to learn Hypertext Markup Language — the lingua franca of the World Wide Web. We hope this book provides a resource that beginning and intermediate HTML coders can use to improve their Web development skills. It is also our hope that it fills multiple roles as both a teaching tool and a reference once you expand your skills.

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  2. HTML in 10 Simple Steps or Less Robert G. Fuller and Laurie Ann Ulrich Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
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  4. HTML in 10 Simple Steps or Less Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
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  6. HTML in 10 Simple Steps or Less Robert G. Fuller and Laurie Ann Ulrich Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
  7. HTML in 10 Simple Steps or Less Published by Wiley Publishing, Inc. 10475 Crosspoint Boulevard Indianapolis, IN 46256 Copyright © 2004 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana Published simultaneously in Canada ISBN: 0-7645-4123-4 Manufactured in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1O/QV/RS/QT/IN No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sec- tions 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Cen- ter, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8700. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Legal Department, Wiley Publishing, Inc., 10475 Crosspoint Blvd., Indianapolis, IN 46256, (317) 572-3447, fax (317) 572-4447, E-mail: Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a par- ticular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives or written sales materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation. You should consult with a profes- sional where appropriate. Neither the publisher nor author shall be liable for any loss of profit or any other com- mercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages. For general information on our other products and services or to obtain technical support, please contact our Cus- tomer Care Department within the U.S. at (800) 762-2974, outside the U.S. at (317) 572-3993 or fax (317) 572-4002. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Fuller, Robert, 1966- HTML in 10 simple steps or less / Robert Fuller and Laurie Ulrich. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 0-7645-4123-4 1. HTML (Document markup language) I. Title: HTML in ten simple steps or less. II. Ulrich, Laurie Ann. III. Title. QA76.76.H94 F84 2003 006.7'4--dc22 2003020606 Trademarks: Wiley, the Wiley Publishing logo and related trade dress are trademarks or registered trademarks of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and/or its affiliates, in the United States and other countries, and may not be used without written permission. is the registered trademark of, Inc. TextWrangler, Super Get Info, the Bare Bones Software Logo, BBEdit, Mailsmith, and “It Doesn’t Suck” are trademarks or registered trademarks of BareBones Software, Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Wiley Publishing, Inc., is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
  8. This book is dedicated to Mickey Kaigler. He knows why . . . Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
  9. Credits Acquisitions Editor Project Coordinator Jim Minatel April Farling Development Editor Graphics and Production Specialists Adaobi Obi Tulton Joyce Haughey, Jennifer Heleine, LeAndra Hosier, Lynsey Osborn, Heather Pope Technical Editor Will Kelly Quality Control Technicians John Greenough, Susan Moritz, Charles Spencer Copy Editor Stefan Gruenwedel Book Designer Kathie S. Schnorr Editorial Manager Kathryn Malm Proofreader Christine Pingleton Vice President & Executive Group Publisher Richard Swadley Indexer Johnna VanHoose Vice President and Executive Publisher Robert Ipsen Vice President and Publisher Joseph B. Wikert Executive Editorial Director Mary Bednarek Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
  10. About the Authors Robert G. Fuller used to work in the Tech Sector of Corporate America. Realizing this was a big mis- take, he left and began sharing what he knew with anyone who’d listen. He writes when the mood suits him, teaches wherever he can find students who are interested, and every now and again offers his skills to worthy causes. You can reach him at Laurie Ulrich is the author and coauthor of more than 25 books on computer software, with specific topics ranging from Office to Photoshop to Web Design. Teaching people to use computers since the 1980s, Laurie has taught more than 10,000 people to use their computers more creatively and with greater confidence. She also runs her own firm, Limehat & Company, Inc., offering general computer consulting and Web design services to growing companies and non-profit organizations. You can find out more about Laurie’s books and other interests at Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
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  12. Introduction W elcome to HTML in 10 Simple Steps or Less. Our mission in writing this book is to provide a quick and accessible way for you to learn Hypertext Markup Language — the lingua franca of the World Wide Web. We hope this book provides a resource that beginning and intermediate HTML coders can use to improve their Web development skills. It is also our hope that it fills multiple roles as both a teach- ing tool and a reference once you expand your skills. What This Book Is Each part in this book pertains to a different aspect of HTML and Web production, and we devote each task within the parts to building a specific piece of Web page content. We’ve laid out these tasks in 10 steps or less so they’re easy to internalize and become part of your personal skill set. Who We Are and What We Know Robert Fuller has an extensive background in Web development and design. He served as senior devel- oper for Travelocity’s and takes his experience into the classroom — both live and online — every day. He believes that in order for new Web developers truly to flourish, they must gain a solid understanding of the Web’s underlying language, HTML. He has authored, coauthored, and contributed to several books about HTML, Web design, graphic soft- ware applications, and general computing. His online courses are currently available in college curricula throughout the United States, Europe, and Australia. Laurie Ulrich has used, written about, and helped others use computers since the early 1980s. She ran two large training centers for computer resellers in Philadelphia and New York, and she served as an IT manager specializing in the proprietary software needs of midsize distributors. In 1992 she founded Limehat & Company, Inc., a firm providing Web hosting, design, and Webmaster services to growing businesses and nonprofit organizations. She has taught more than 10,000 students to make more effective and creative use of their computers and software. Laurie has also authored, coauthored, and contributed to more than 25 nationally published books on desktop applications, graphics and illustration, and Web design. How to Use This Book We think of this book as a multipurpose tool — perhaps the Swiss Army knife of HTML coding. Not only can you employ it as a guide to creating individual pieces of Web page content, but you can also use this book as a valuable teaching tool. By working through the book’s tasks in sequence, you will learn the basics of Web page development — from constructing tags (the core components of Hypertext Markup Language) to publishing complete sites to a Web server. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
  13. x Introduction In addition to the material found in this book, the publisher maintains a companion Web site where you’ll find information that doesn’t lend itself to a task-oriented approach. We point you to the Web site ( at various points throughout the book to give you detailed information about particular concepts, help you learn about other Web-based resources, and provide samples of some of the content you create. What You Need to Get Started As long as you have a computer, the list of requirements is quite short. To create Web page content you need only two things: a program for writing code (a text editor) and another program for viewing the fin- ished product (a Web browser). Text Editors In nearly every case, a computer’s operating system (OS) comes with a text editor. For example, Microsoft Windows provides its users with the program called Notepad. It is a very simple, bare-bones application that allows you to write simple text files — which is all that an HTML document is. Mac OS 9 (and earlier versions) contains a native text editor, called SimpleText. Apple refers to it as “the utility- knife of software.” This simple application is designed for simple tasks. Mac OS X provides a new pro- gram, called TextEdit, that replaces SimpleText. Both of these applications are more than sufficient for writing HTML documents. Having written a vast quantity of HTML over the years, however, we’re sure you’ll ultimately want to work with a text editor that offers more functionality than these limited-range word processors do. Like anything else, you want the right tool for the job. More robust programs offer advantages that make learning HTML easy. Just as a full-featured word processor makes it easy to write letters, term papers, and books — compared with using Notepad or SimpleText — an HTML code editor makes it easy to generate code properly and build robust Web pages. For example, most HTML editors feature syntax-checking and code-coloring. Because they understand the code you write, these programs assign colors to different functional parts of the code so that you can easily spot errors (mostly caused by typos) and fix them. Each major operating system — Windows, Macintosh, and UNIX/Linux — offers a number of HTML editors that cost anywhere from nothing to over $100. (But as we said earlier, you get what you pay for.) We review here some of the more popular editors available on each platform. Later on in the book, we discuss these products and others in greater detail. TextPad from Helios Software Solutions (Windows) TextPad is shareware, which means you can download it for free and generally use it indefinitely. However, if you intend to use the program for an extended period, and derive much productive use from it, you should register and pay for the program — if at least to get technical support and notifications of upgrades or improvements (bug fixes). TextPad currently runs about US $26. The creators of TextPad feel there shouldn’t be a steep learning curve when picking up a new application. Your familiarity with other Windows programs should be sufficient experience. TextPad therefore pro- vides the kinds of tools you expect from other applications, including keyboard shortcuts, spell-checking (in 10 languages), the ability to open and edit multiple files simultaneously, drag and drop, undo and redo, and the ability to create macros. TextPad also provides many code-specific tools, such as syntax- checking, code-coloring, and libraries for storing reusable code snippets. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
  14. Introduction xi BBEdit from Bare Bones Software (Macintosh) BBEdit, whose marketing slogan is “It Doesn’t Suck,” emphasizes its HTML editing capabilities, although it certainly isn’t limited to HTML. BBEdit functions similarly to TextPad and includes color syntax-checking, spell-checking, and multiple undo and redo, just to name the basics. The only drawback to BBEdit is its US $179 price tag. However, Bare Bones Software makes a free version called BBEdit Lite. Although they don’t target it as keenly at the HTML coder, it is still a powerful, all-purpose text editor. Web Browsers We suspect you already have a favorite Web browser, but if you’re serious about developing Web sites, one browser isn’t enough. At the very least you should install the most current releases of both Netscape and Microsoft Internet Explorer. As of this writing, here are the most current versions of these browsers (version numbers may vary by the time you check these sites): • Netscape 7.1 for Mac OS and Windows: ns/browsers/ • Internet Explorer 6 Service Pack 1 for Windows, Internet Explorer 5.1.7 for Mac OS 8.1 to 9.x, and Internet Explorer 5.2.3 for Mac OS X: search.aspx Professional Web development environments test their Web sites with more browsers than these. They test with computers running different operating systems using different monitor configurations and both current and older versions of the most commonly — and sometimes not so commonly — used browsers. They do this so that their site looks as good as possible for as many visitors as possible. Don’t feel you need to strap yourself financially in the name of good Web design. Neither of us maintains the ultimate testing suite at home (the office is a different story, but those costs are a business expense). Although hardware costs money, browsers are typically free, so you should be able to round out your browser-testing suite without spending a dime. In addition to the current releases of Netscape and Internet Explorer, test your sites with a few older versions of the big-name browsers. For example, get copies of Netscape 6.x and 4.x. There’s still value in having old versions of browser software. Netscape made significant changes to their support for Cascading Style Sheets and JavaScript when they released version 6.x, and it’s valuable to know the differ- ences. You may be asked to develop a Web site that’s compatible with Netscape Navigator 4.7 — we’ve had stranger requests. Unfortunately, running multiple versions of browsers requires significant planning. For instance, you can’t run two versions of Netscape at the same time, and you can’t even install two versions of Internet Explorer on the same Windows machine (the later version overrides the earlier one). That’s one reason why professional Web developers test their sites on more than one machine. Stick with the Internet Explorer version you already have, or upgrade to the latest version and leave it at that. Don’t downgrade your home machine; your operating system may be adversely affected. Macintosh users seem to be able to install more than one version of Internet Explorer without incident but Microsoft doesn’t recommend doing this. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
  15. xii Introduction The world of browsers extends beyond that of Netscape and Internet Explorer. Opera 7 (www.opera. com) is a favorite among those who are fed up with Microsoft and Netscape. You can find current ver- sions of many alternate browsers on CNET ( It is also important to realize that there are Web surfers who do not see the Web but who listen to it instead. They use text-to-speech browsers, of which WeMedia Talking Browser ( is perhaps the best known. If you ever need to test your work on any flavor of practically any browser ever made, you’ll find a comprehensive archive of browsers at ( It contains not only previous versions of Netscape Navigator or Internet Explorer but also some of the earliest browsers ever made — including the world’s first Web browser, Nexus, created by the inventor of HTML, Tim Berners-Lee. Are you ready to start coding? Let’s go. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
  16. Acknowledgments T he authors would like to thank Jim Minatel for thinking of them, Adaobi Obi Tulton for putting up with them, and Stefan Gruenwedel for correcting them. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
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  18. Contents Credits vi About the Authors vii Introduction ix Acknowledgments xiii Part 1: HTML Document Structure 1 Task 1: How to Write a Tag 2 Task 2: Structuring an HTML Document 4 Task 3: Defining Meta Tag Keywords 6 Task 4: Defining Meta Tag Descriptions 8 Task 5: Defining the Author of a Document Using Meta Tags 10 Task 6: Defining Meta Tag Expiration Dates 12 Task 7: Refreshing Page Content Using Meta Tags 14 Task 8: Defining Meta Tag Robot Values 16 Task 9: Controlling the Document Background 18 Task 10: Working with Source Code in the Browser 20 Part 2: Working with Text 23 Task 11: Working with Headings 24 Task 12: Working with Paragraphs 26 Task 13: Applying Fonts 28 Task 14: Setting the Font Size 30 Task 15: Setting the Font Color 32 Task 16: Applying Physical Styles 34 Task 17: Applying Logical Styles 36 Task 18: Inserting Character Entities 38 Task 19: Using the Preformatted Text Element 40 Task 20: Using the Blockquote Element 42 Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
  19. xvi Contents Task 21: Setting Document Margins 44 Task 22: Creating an Ordered List 46 Task 23: Modifying Ordered List Styles 48 Task 24: Modifying an Ordered List’s Starting Character 50 Task 25: Creating an Unordered List 52 Task 26: Modifying Bullet Styles 54 Task 27: Nesting Lists 56 Task 28: Creating Definition Lists 58 Part 3: Working with Images 61 Task 29: Inserting Images 62 Task 30: Controlling Image Alignment and Spacing 64 Task 31: Resizing Images Using Photoshop Elements 66 Task 32: Optimizing GIF Images Using Photoshop Elements 68 Task 33: Optimizing JPEG Images Using Photoshop Elements 70 Task 34: Optimizing PNG Images Using Photoshop Elements 72 Part 4: Audio and Video 75 Task 35: Embedding Audio Files 76 Task 36: Adding Background Sounds 78 Task 37: Embedding Video 80 Task 38: Embedding Java Applets 82 Part 5: Hyperlinks 85 Task 39: Defining Hyperlinks 86 Task 40: Defining Pathnames 88 Task 41: Creating mailto Links 90 Task 42: Linking to Named Anchors 92 Part 6: Building Tables 95 Task 43: Defining Tables 96 Task 44: Working with Table Borders 98 Task 45: Spanning Cells 100 Task 46: Aligning Table Elements 102 Task 47: Defining Dimensions for Table Elements 104 Task 48: Working with Table Background Properties 106 Task 49: Nesting Tables 108 Task 50: Organizing Table Data 110 Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
  20. Contents xvii Part 7: Working with Forms 113 Task 51: Defining Form Elements 114 Task 52: Formatting Text Fields 116 Task 53: Formatting Password Fields 118 Task 54: Formatting Text Areas 120 Task 55: Formatting Check Boxes 122 Task 56: Formatting Radio Buttons 124 Task 57: Formatting Selection Menus 126 Task 58: Formatting Selection Lists 128 Task 59: Formatting File Fields 130 Task 60: Formatting Submit and Reset Buttons 132 Task 61: Using Graphic Images for Submit Buttons 134 Task 62: Using Hidden Fields 136 Task 63: Specifying the Focus Order of Form Controls 138 Task 64: Using Field Sets 140 Part 8: Working with Frames 143 Task 65: Defining Frameset Documents 144 Task 66: Specifying Frame Dimensions 146 Task 67: Specifying Border Properties 148 Task 68: Controlling Frame Margins and Scroll Bars 150 Task 69: Nesting Framesets 152 Task 70: Targeting Frames 154 Task 71: Providing noframes Content 156 Task 72: Working with Inline Frames 158 Part 9: Cascading Style Sheets 161 Task 73: Writing Style Rules 162 Task 74: Creating an Embedded Style Sheet 164 Task 75: Creating an External Style Sheet 166 Task 76: Defining Style Classes 168 Task 77: Defining the font-family Property 170 Task 78: Defining the font-size Property with Keywords 172 Task 79: Defining the font-size Property with Lengths 174 Task 80: Working with Font Styling 176 Task 81: Using the Font Property Shorthand 178 Task 82: Working with Foreground and Background Colors 180 Task 83: Controlling Character and Word Spacing 182 Task 84: Controlling Line Spacing and Vertical Alignment 184 Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.