intTypePromotion=3

Kinh nghiệm viết đúng ngữ pháp tiếng Anh: Phần 2

Chia sẻ: Manh Manh | Ngày: | Loại File: PDF | Số trang:187

0
436
lượt xem
270
download

Kinh nghiệm viết đúng ngữ pháp tiếng Anh: Phần 2

Mô tả tài liệu
  Download Vui lòng tải xuống để xem tài liệu đầy đủ

Với mục đích truyền tải cho các bạn những kiến thức về ngữ pháp tiếng Anh, vốn là một kỹ năng vô cùng quan trọng trong việc sử dụng loại ngôn ngữ này, phần 2 của cuốn Tài liệu Hướng dẫn viết đúng ngữ pháp tiếng Anh sẽ hướng dẫn các bạn về cách hiểu nghĩa của câu, và cách xây dựng bài viết bằng tiếng Anh. Mời các bạn tham khảo Tài liệu để nắm bắt nội dung chi tiết.

Chủ đề:
Lưu

Nội dung Text: Kinh nghiệm viết đúng ngữ pháp tiếng Anh: Phần 2

  1. 1 @uwi tit DO m in h ite Tdi co c a n d p c c h u c n g n a y khong? Dau ucu
  2. Clnfdng nay md d iu bang p h in ban luan cum tuf, mot trong nhtfng phan quan trpng cau thanh cau. Co nhigu loai cum ttf, bao gom cum gidi ttf ca cum tinh ttf va cum trang ttf, dong vi ngff va cum dong ttf. Sau do, b an se on ve m enh d e , mot nhom ttf co chu ngff va d6ng ttf rieng. TSng quan cum tit Cum tff (phrase) la mot nhom tff co chffc nang nhu mot tff loai trong cau. Mot cum tff khong co chu ngff hay dong tff, v'l vay no khong the dffng mot minh nhff mot ddn vi doc lap dffdc - no chi cd chffc nang nhff mot tff loai thoi. Khi viet, ban dung cum tff de tang tinh chi tiet bang cach mieu ta. Cum tff giup ban dien dat rd rang hdn. Loai cum tijf Djnh nghfa Vi du Gidi tff Bat dau bang mot Near the house over the gidi tff va ket thuc moon under the desk bang mot danh tff Gan nha; qua mat trang; hoac dai tff dudicaiban Tinh tff Cum gidi tff cd chffc Marci has a scarf with nang nhff mot tinh tff green stripes. Marci co mot cai khan quang soc xanh. Trang tff Cum gidi tff cd chffc The fans shouted with nang nhff mot trang tff hoarse voices. Ngudi ham mo la het den khan giong. Dong vi ngff Danh tff hoac dai tff Fran, a teacher, enjoys dung de chi mot danh summer vacation. tff hoac dai tff khac Fran, mot gido vien, thich ky nghi he. 147
  3. Dong ttf Dang dong tif dtfdc Xem phan Dong tinh dung nhir mot tir loai tir, dong danh tir vik khac tir nguyen m lu dQng tir nguyen mau. Dong tinh tiif Cum dong tir c6 chtfc Screaming loudly, the nang nhir mQt tinh tir baby was disconsolate. La rat to, diia be khong the do dUQc. Dong danh tijf Cum dong tir co chute Working overtime nang nhir mot danh tir requires great sacrifice. Lam vi^c ngoai gid can phai co sU hy sinh rat Itk Dong tijf Cum dong tirco chute To clean house on a nguyen mau nang nhir m Q t danh tir, spring day is depressing tinh tir hoiic trang tir Don nha vao mot ngdy mua xuan that Id chan. Cum giat til Cum gidi tir (prepositional phrase) la mot nhom tir bat dau b&ng mQt gidi tir va ket thuc bang mot danh tir hoac dai tir. Danh tir hoac dai tif n&y dude goi la “doi ttfdng cua gidi ttf. ” By the wall near the closet over the garage With help in the desert below sea level 1. Cum tinh ttf (adjectival phrase) Khi mot cum gidi ttf cd chtfc nang nhtf mot tinh ttf, no dtfdc goi to cum tinh ttf. Cung giong nhtf tinh ttf, cum tinh ttf mieu ta mQt danh ttf hoac dai ttf. De biet mot cum gidi ttf cd chtfc nang cua mot cum tinh ttf hay khong, ban hay xem no co tra Idi cho nhtfng cau h6i sau khong: “which one?" (Cai ndo?) va “what kind?" (Loai ndo?) The cost o f the jeans was surprisingly high. Gid quan jean cao mot cach dang kinh ngac. Cum tinh ttf “o f the jeans ” mieu ta danh ttf cost. 148
  4. The clown with the mask terrifies the children. Anh he vdi mat ng lam bon tre sd chet khiep. Cum tinh tiif “with the m ask” mieu ta danh tif clown. 2. Cum trang tir (adverbial phrase) Khi mot cum gidi ttfc6 chtfc nang nhtf mot trang ttf, nd dtfdc goi la cum trang ttf. Trong trtfdng hdp n&y, nd mieu ta mot dong ttf, tinh ttf hoiic trang ttf. Be biet mot cum gidi ttf cd chtfc nang cua mot cum trang ttf hay khong, ban hay xem no cd trd Idi cho nhffng cau hoi sau khong: “Where?” (d dau?), “When?” (khi nao?), “In what manner?" (theo cdch nao?) va “To what extent?” (tdi mtfc nao?) The Mets played at Shea Stadium. Doi Mets chdi d sdn van dong Shea. Cum trang ttf “at Shea Stadium ” bd nghla cho dong ttf played. The game lasted into the fourteenth inning. Tran dau keo dai tdi lUdt thu mudi bon. Cum trang ttf “into the fourteenth inning” bd nghla cho dong ttf lasted. Dong 171 ngtt vd cum dong vf Bong vj ngtf (appositive) la mot danh ttf hoac dai ttf dung de neu lai mpt danh ttf hoac dai ttf khac. Bong vi ngff dtfdc dat ngay sau danh ttf hoac dai ttf ma nd bd nghla. Cum dong vi (appositive phrase) la danh ttf hoac dai ttfdi vdi phan bd nghla. Lisa, a friend, should have understood my fear. Lisa, m()t ngudi ban, le ra phai hieu ndi sd cua tdi. Bong vi ngtf “a frie n d ” dung de chi danh ttf Lisa. Tom ’s new car, a PT Cruiser, ran out of gas on the highway. Chiec xe nidi cua Tom, mot chiec PT Cruiser, het xdng tren dudng cao tdc. Bong vi ngtf “a PT Cruiser” dung de chi danh ttf car. 149
  5. Lisa, a dear old friend, should have understood my fear. Lisa, mot ngudi ban cu rat than, le ra phai hieu noi so cua tdi. Cum dong vi “a dear old frien d ” dilng de chi danh tif Lisa. Tom ’s new car, a cherry red convertible PT Cruiser, ran out of gas on the highway. Chiec xe mdi cua Tom, mQt chiec PT Cruiser bd mui mau do anh duo, het xdng tren dudng cao toe. Cum dong vi “a cherry red convertible PT C ruiser' dung de chi danh tir car. Cum dong til Dang dong tir (verbal) la mot dang cua dong tir diTdc dung nhir mot tir loai khac. Dang dong tir co ba bien the: dong tinh tir (participle), dpng danh tir (gerund) va dong tir nguyen mau (infinitive). Moi loai c6 chtfc nang khac nhau trong cau: • Dong tinh tir co chute nang nhir tinh tir. • Dong danh tir co chufc nang nhir danh tir. • Dong tir nguyen mau co chute nang nhir danh tir, tinh tir hoic trang tir. Mac du dang dong tir khong co chute nang nhu" dong tir trong cau nhiTng no van giuT hai tinh chat cua dong tif: • Dang dong tir co the diTdc bd nghla bdi trang tir hoiic cum trang ttf. • Dang dong tir co the them tir bd nghla va bien thanh cum dong ttf (verbal phrase). 3. Cum dong tinh tir (participle phrases) Dong tinh tif (participle) la mot dang cua dong tirco chufc nang nhtf mot tinh tir. Co hai loai dong tinh tir: dong tinh tir hien tai (present participle) va dong tinh tir qua khi? (past participle) • Dong tinh tir hien tai tan cung la -in g (jumping, burning, speaking) • Dong tinh tir qua khuf thudng tan cung bang -ed, -t hoac -en (jumped, burnt, spoken). 150
  6. The wailing cats disturbed the neighbors. Lu meo keu gdo lam ndo d()ng cac nhd hang xdm. Dpng tinh tir hien tai “wailing ” bd nghla cho danh tCr cats. Annoyed, the customer stalked out of the store. Gian dit, ngudi khdch hang budc ra khoi ciia hang. Dong tinh tir qua khuf “annoyed" bd nghla cho danh tir customer. Cum dong tinh tir (participle phrase) bao gom mot dong tinh tir dtfdc bd nghla bdi mot trang ttf hoac mot cum trang ttf. Cum dong ttf cd chtfc nang nhtf mot tinh ttf va cd the dat trtfdc hoSc sau ttf ma nd bd nghla. Walking carefully, I avoided the spilled juice. Budc di can than, toi tranh cho nude ep bi do. Cum dong tinh ttf “walking carefully” bd nghla cho dai ttf I. Nina, bothered by the mess, cleaned it up. Nina, buc b(>i vdi cho ban, chui nd di. Cum dong tinh ttf “bothered by the m ess” bd nghla cho danh ttf Nina. 4. Cum dong danh ttf (gerund phrase) Dong danh ttf (gerund) la mot dong ttf cd chtfc nang nhtf danh ttf. Dong danh ttf cd the lam chu ngtf, tan ngff trffc tiep (direct object), tan ngff gian tiep (indirect object), tan ngff cua gidi tff (object o f a preposition), chu vi ngit (predicate nominative), va dong vi ngd (ap­ positive). • Dong danh tff luon tan cung bang -ing. • Dong danh tff luon cd chffc nang nhtf danh ttf. In adult education, the Kitters discovered dancing. Trong Idp hoc tai chiic, nhom Kitters dd phat hien ra mon khieu vu. Dong danh ttf “dancing ” la mot tan ngtf trtfc tiep. Giong nhtf dong tinh ttf, dong danh ttf co the la mot phan cua cum tir. 151
  7. The slow, steady dripping annoyed him. Nude chay nhd giot deu deu khien anh ta buc bqi. Cum dong danh tiif lii “the slow, steady dripping. ’ Jill’s morning schedule includes exercising fo r a fu ll hour. Lich lam vi$c buoi sang cua Jill bao gom tap the due du nu}t titfng. Cum dong danh tir la “exercising fo r a fu ll hour. ’ Cum ddng til nguyen mclu Dong tir nguyen mau (infinitive) la mot dang cua dong tir; n6 di sau tir to va c6 chtfc nang nhtf mot danh ttf, tinh ttf hoSc trang tif. Mpt cum dong ttf nguyen mau bao gom c ic ttf bd nghla gop lai v& thtfc hien chtfc nang cua mot ttf loai. His goal, to get promoted before age 30, didn’t seem realistic. Muc tieu cua anh ay, dUOc thang chiic trudc ndm 30 tuoi, dU(fng nhu khong thuc te lam. Cum dong ttf nguyen mau “to get promoted before age 3 0 ” bd nghla cho danh ttf goal. The honorees did not want to attend the banquet in the evening. Nhitng ngudi dUOc vinh danh khong muon tham du bda ti?c toi. Cum dong ttf nguyen mau la “to attend the banquet in the evening." TSng quan mdnh Mot menh de (clause) la mot nh6m ttf vdi chu ngff va dong ttf rieng cua nd. Giong nhtf cum ttf, menh de cd tac dung lam bai viet hoSc b&i ndi cua ban trd nen phong phu bang cdch them c ic chi tiet lam cho y cua ban chinh xac hdn. M enh de cung cho phdp ban ket hdp y ttfdng lai de the hien moi quan he giffa chung. Viec nay lam tang tinh logic vd mach lac cho bai ndi hoSc viet cua ban. Co hai loai menh de: Menh de doc lap, con goi la menh de chinh) vi menh de phu thuoc con goi la menh de quan he. 152
  8. Bdng sau day cho vi du ve cdc loai menh de. M£nh de phu thupc M£nh de dpc lap When opossums are playing they are not “playing. ” ’possum, Khi con thu opot dang gid chet, chung khong phai “dang choi. ” In the great fire of half of London was burnt down. London in 1666, Trong tran hoa hoan Idn d Ludn mot ntfa thdnh pho London Don ndm 1666, bi thieu rui. For a period of one year all office-seekers in the Roman before an election, Empire were obliged to wear a certain white toga. Trong giai doan mot ndm trudc tat cd nhtfng ngudi muon lam ky bau cu cong chtfc trong de che La Md buoc phai mac m Q t loai do dai trdng. M?nh d i phu thuoc Menh de phu thuoc (dependent clause) lam tang thong tin cho menh de chinh, nhtfng khong can co no mdi day du
  9. Moi loai m enh d£ d&u co th£ r^t dai hoftc rift ngSn - hoiic vifa phai. Ngtfdi viSt klieo thtfdng bi£n tifu d6 dai cua cac m^nh d£ d£ tao ra nhip di$u, stf cSn bang va y nghla trong bai vi£t cua hp. Lien ttf phu thuoc (subordinating conjunction) c6 tic dung lien ket menh de doc lap vdi menh de phu thuoc. Moi hen ttf phu thuoc dien dat mot mdi quan he gitfa menh de phu thuoc vd menh de doc lap. Vi du nhu mot sd lien ttf chi thtf ttf thdi gian, trong khi sd khac lai chi quan h? nhan qua. Bang sau day liet ke nhtfng lien ttf phu thupc thtfdng dung nhat vk moi quan he ma chung dien dat: L ien tff phu thuQC Md'i quan h
  10. C6 ba loai menh de phu thupc: menh de trang tir (adverb clause), i
  11. The traffic is never light on the days when I ’m in a hurry. Xe co khong bao gid it vao nhtfng ngay toi cd vifc gap. M enh de tinh tiif “when I ’m in a hurry " bo nghla cho danh tir dan W e selected the candidates who were best qualified fo r the job. Chung toi chon nhtfng ting vien dap ting dieu ki?n tot nhat cho cong viec. M enh de tinh tif “who were best qualified fo r the job * bd nghla cho danh tir candidates. 3. M enh de quan he (relative clause) M enh de tinh tif bdt dau bdng nhffng dai tff quan he dffdc goi li menh de quan he. Cac dai tff quan he bao gom: who, whom, whose, which, that. Dai tff quan he c6 chffc nang lien ket mot menh de tinh tff vdi tff md nd bd nghla. Ms. Harris, whose son is an athlete, is used to having their home filled with sporting equipment. Ba Harris, ngtfdi cd con Id van dong vien, quen vdi vi$c trong nhu luon day dung cu the thao. Menh de quan he “whose son is an athlete ” bd nghla cho danh tif Ms. Harris. The person o f whom you spoke is my cousin. Ngtfdi md ban dd noi chuygn la em ho cua tdi. M enh de quan he “o f whom you spoke” bd nghla cho danh l\lper­ son. 4. M enh de danh tff M enh de danh tff la mot menh de phu thuoc co chffc nang nhir mpt danh tff. Tracey does whatever her parents ask her to do. Tracey lam bdt cti viec gi bd me yeu cdu cd lam. M enh de danh tff la “whatever her parents ask her to do The teacher did not accept my excuse that the dog ate my home­ work. 156
  12. Thay khong chap nhan Idi bao chita la con cho dd an mat bdi tap ve nhd cua toi. Menh de danh tuf li “that the dog ate my homework. ” Cum tu (phrase) li mpt nhom tu khong co chu ngu ho2c dpng tu, co chuc n3ng nhu mpt tu loai. Cum tu khong thf dung mot minh nhu mpt don vj dpc lip. Cum gidi tu (prepositional phrase) b it diu vdi mot gidi tur vi kong vj ngu (appositive) dung dS chi mpt danh tu ho3c dai tu khic; cum dong vi (appositive phrase) bao gom ci phin bo nghla. Dang dong tur (verbal) li cic dang cua dong tu dupe dung nhu mot tu loai khic. Pong tinh tur (participle) co chuc ning nhu tinh tu; dpng danh tu (gerund) co chuc ning nhu danh tu; dong tur nguySn mlu (infinitive) co chuc nang nhu danh tu, tinh tu ho|c trang tur. M|nh di doc lap / mfnh di chinh (independent / main clause) li mot ciu hoin chinh. M?nh di phu thupc / mfnh di phu (dependent / sub­ ordinate clause) li mpt phin cua ciu; no khong thf dung mot minh. 157
  13. Ttf kiem tr i CouluU&Uu) —MU 1. Cum tir la mot nhom tir co chtfc nang nhtf mpt tir loai Cdu hdi trong cau. 2. Mot cum ttf co mot chu ngff va mot dong tffde n6c6thc dffng mot minh nhff mot dOn vi doc lap. 3. Cum gidi tffia mot nhdm tff bat dau bang mot gidi tir vi ket thuc la mot danh tff hoac dai tff. 4. Phan in nghieng trong cau sau la mot cum gidi tff: Frisky, my loyal Irish setter, can always sense when I ’m upset. Frisky, con cho giong Ailen trung thanh cua toi, lutmco the cam nhan dtfdc khi toi buon. 5. Cum tinh tff mieu ta danh tff hoac dai tff. 6. B e biet mot cum gidi tffco lam chffc nang cua cum tinh tff hay khong, hay tra Idi nhffng cau hdi sau: "Theo phtfdng thtfc nao?" hoac "Tdi mtfc nao?" 7. Phan in nghieng trong cau sau co chtfc nang nhir mot cum tinh tff: The fireworks continued late into the night. Phdo hoa tiep tuc ban tdi khuya. 8. Cum trang tff mieu ta mot dong tff, tinh tff hoac trang tir. 9. Phan in nghieng trong cau sau cd chffc nang nhff mot cum trang tff: The Little League team competed in the local arena. Doi Little League thi dau tren sdn nhd. 10. M enh de la mot danh tff hoac dai tff goi lai ten cua danh tff hoac dai tff khac. 11. Dang dong tff la mot dang dong iff dtfdc xem nhtf mot tff loai khac. 158
  14. 12. Dang dong tiif cung y het nhu1cum dong vi. 13. Dong tinh ttfco chtfc nang nhtf tinh ttf. 14. Dong ttf nguyen mau co chtfc nang nhtf danh ttf. 15. Dong danh ttf co chtfc nang nhtf danh ttf, tinh ttf hoac trang ttf. 16. Dong tinh ttf hien tai luon luon tan cung being -ing (kiss­ ing, leaping, moaning.) 17. Dong tinh ttf qua khtf thtfdng tan ciing bang -ed, -t hoSc -en nhtf trong smoked va burnt. 18. Dong danh ttf luon tan cilng bling -ing va co chtfc nang nhtf dong ttf. 19. Cum ttf in nghieng trong cau sau la dong ttf nguyen mau: Why did the chicken cross the road? Tai sao con ga lai bang qua dudng? To Ernest Hemingway: To die. In the rain. Tdi Ernest Hemingway: Chet. Trong mUa. 20. Phan in nghieng trong cau sau co chtfc nang nhtf mot cum tinh ttf: I met a woman who works with your uncle. Tdi gap mot ngudi phu nit lam viec vdi cau cua ban. 21. Phan in nghieng trong cau sau co chtfc nang nhtf mot cum tinh ttf: Whenever he travels, Steve collects souvenirs. Di tdi dau, Steve deu sUu tap do luu niem. 22. Phan in nghieng trong cau sau co chtfc nang nhtf mot cum trang ttf: He ran as if he had a torn ligament. Anh ay chay nhu the bi rdch day chang vay. 159
  15. 23. Phan in nghieng trong cau sau c6 chffc nSng nhff raft cum trang tff: Whomever you hire must speak Spanish. Bat ctf ngffdi n io anh thue deu phai noi dffdc tieng Tay Ban Nha. 24. Phan in nghieng trong cau sau co chffc n3ng nhff mpt cum danh tff: The big question is whether she will be able to attend the meeting. Van de quan trqng la cd ay cd the tham du cu(>c hop duoc khong. 25. Phan in nghieng trong cau sau c6 chffc n5ng nhifrnQt menh de doc lap: Before they invented drawing boards, what did they go back to? Trudc khi ngudi ta phat minh ra gid ve, ho dd dung gi? C au datcg luum liutuk cau Chon tff thich hdp nhat trong ngo&c de hoan thanh moi cau. 1. M enh de la mot nhdm tff vdi chu ngff va (dai tff quan he, dong tff) cua rieng nd. 2. C6 hai loai menh de lii menh de doc lap vji (menh de dong tff, menh de phu thuoc.) 3. M enh de doc lap con dffdc goi li (menh de chinh, menh de quan he.) 4. Lien tff (tinh tff, phu thuoc) lien ket menh de doc lap vdi menh de phu thuoc. 5. Lien tff unless chi (thdi gian, dieu kien.) 6. Lien tff although chi (sff tffdng phan, ket qua.) 7. Menh de phu thuoc cung y het nhir (dong tff nguyen mau, menh de phu.) 8. Tat ca menh de phu thuoc deu la (menh de phu, cau hoan chinh.)
  16. 9. Khi menh de phu thuQC b ii dau b&ng lien tff phu thuoc v& mpnh de n£y dtfng trtfdc m
  17. 2. W hat is the adjectival phrase in this sentence? Put that box of heavy books on the counter, please. (a) O f heavy books (b) Put that box (c) Please (d) On the counter 3. W hat is the adverbial phrase in this sentence? The hang glider soared over the cool green lake. (a) The hang glider (b) Soared (c) Over the cool green lake (d) Cool green lake 4. All the following are subordinating conjunctions except (a) After (b) Walks (c) Because (d) Unless 5. Most adjective clauses start with the pronouns who, whom, why, whose, which, that, when, or (a) Since (b) Where (c) Because (d) However 6. What is the prepositional phrase in the following sen­ tence? The hotel on the beach is always crowded. (a) The hotel (b) Is always crowded (c) On the beach (d) The beach is
  18. 7. What is the appositive in the following sentence? The expressway, built in 1950 with federal funds, is badly in need of repair. (a) The expressway (b) Is badly in need (c) Of repair (d) Built in 1950 with federal funds 8. What is the participle phrase in the following sentence? The toast, thoroughly burnt, sent a foul odor through the house, but Skip ate it anyway. (a) The toast (b) Thoroughly burnt (c) Sent a foul odor through the house (d) But Skip ate it anyway 9. What is the independent clause in this sentence? If work is so terrific, how come they have to pay you to do it? (a) How come they have to pay you to do it (b) If work is so terrific (c) How come they have (d) To pay you to do it 10. What is the dependent clause in this sentence? If all the world is a stage, where is the audience sit­ ting? (a) If all the world is a stage (b) If all the world (c) Is a stage (d) W here is the audience sitting 163
  19. 11. What is the italic word group in the following sentence called? Our house, shaded completely by old trees, stays cool in the summer. (a) Independent clause (b) Prepositional phrase (c) Participle clause (d) Participle phrase 12. W hat is the italic word group in the following sentence called? Waiting fo r the train exhausted her patience. (a) Noun clause (b) Gerund phrase (c) Prepositional phrase (d) Independent clause 13. W hat is the italic word group in the following sentence called? The visitors forgot to give their address. (a) Prepositional phrase (b) Infinitive clause (c) Infinitive phrase (d) Prepositional clause 14. What is the italic word group in the following sentence called? I f you ate pasta and antipasta, would you still be hun­ gry? (a) Dependent phrase (b) Independent clause (c) Dependent clause (d)Independent phrase 164
  20. 15. What is the italic word group in the following sentence called? Hermione wanted her name changed because it was hard to pronounce. (a) Adverb clause (b) Adverb phrase (c) Infinitive phrase (d) Sentence Q d p i* Cau h o i d u n g - sai l.T 2. F 3. T 4. F 5. T 6. F 7. F 8. T 9. T 10. F 11.T 12. F 13. T 14. F 15. F 16. T 17. T 18. F 19. T 20. T 21. F 22. T 23. F 24. T 25. F Cau h o i d a n g h o a n th a n h ca u I. dpng tiif 2. menh de phu thuoc 3. menh de chinh 4. phu thupc 5. dieu kien 6. stf ttfdng phan 7. menh de phu thuoc 8. menh de phu thuoc 9. dau phay 10. theo phtfdng thtfc nao? II. quan he 12. that 13. do vat 14. phu thuoc 15. doc lap 165

CÓ THỂ BẠN MUỐN DOWNLOAD

Đồng bộ tài khoản