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Kỹ năng phân loại và phương pháp giải nhanh bài tập Hóa học vô cơ 12: Phần 2

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Kỹ năng phân loại và phương pháp giải nhanh bài tập Hóa học vô cơ 12: Phần 2

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Nối tiếp nội dung phần 1 tài liệu Phân loại và phương pháp giải nhanh bài tập Hóa học vô cơ 12, phần 2 giới thiệu các bài tập và phương pháp giải bài tập Crom - Sắt - Đồng, nhận biết một số chất vô cơ và chuẩn độ dung dịch, hóa học với vấn đề kinh tế, xã hội và môi trường. Mời các bạn cùng tham khảo nội dung chi tiết.

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Nội dung Text: Kỹ năng phân loại và phương pháp giải nhanh bài tập Hóa học vô cơ 12: Phần 2

  1. Plum loai vci phifcmij phop i^icii BT Hoa hoc 12 - Cu Thanh Toan Cac qua trinh xay ra: => AgNOj con du, Cu(N03)2 chua phan irng, Fe phan iJng het: M > M"* + ne Fe + 3AgNOj (dif) ^ Fe (NO3 )^ + 3Ag i 16,2 16,2.n (mol) (mol) m/56 3m/56(mol) M M 16,2.n^ Taco: —.108 = 19,44 =:>m=3,36(g) Dap an diing la C. ^ e (cho) = . . (mol) 56 . . m O, + 4e > 20"- Chu y: Fe + 2AgNO, -> Fe(NO3 )^ + 2Ag i 0,15 0,15. 4 (mol) Fe(NO,)2 + AgNO, ->• Fe(NO,), + Ag i 2H" + 2e > => Fe + 3AgNO, (du) Fe (NO, )^ + 3Ag i 2.13,44 13,44 28. Cho 10,7 gam h6n hcrp kim loai g6m Mg, A l , Fe (c6 d 16 mol 1: 1: 1) vao dung 22,4 22,4 djch chiia 0,75 mol AgNO, den khi cac phan li-ng xay ra hoan toan thu duoc bao 2.13,44 nhieu gam chat rSn? >Ie(nhan) =0,15.4 + = l,8(mol) 22,4 A. 59,6 B. 32,6 C. 81 D. 75,6 Huong dan gidi Do do, ta c6: = 1,8 =^ 16,2n = 1,8M ^ 9n = M So mol moi kim loai Mg, Al, Fe la x M Ta CO bang: ^ 24x + 27x + 56x = 10,7 => X = 0,1 (mol) 9(Be) 18 27 (Al) Mg + 2AgNO, ^ M g ( N 0 , ) 2 + 2Ag i M Loai Loai Thoa man Kl 0,1 ^ 0,2 -> 0,2 (mol) (n = 1, M = 9 (Be)=> loai vi Be hoa tn n = 2). Al + 3AgNO, ^ A l ( N O , ) 3 + 3Ag i (n =2, M = 18 kh6ng c6 kim loai nao thoa man). Dap an dung la B. 0,l-).0,3 ^ 0,3(mol) Vay M la A l . 30. Cho hiin hop gom 0,15 mol Mg va 0,1 mol A l vao dung djch chira dong thdi 0,2 Fe + 2AgNO, Fe(N0,)2 + 2Ag i mol A^ NO, va 0,25 mol Cu(N03)2, sau phan ihig hoan toan thu duoc dung dich 0,1-> 0,2 -> 0,2 (mol) X. Cho NaOH du vao dung djch X thi khoi lirong ket tiia tao ra la A. 21,4 gam B. 18,4 gam C. 8,4 gam D. 13,6 gam i Fe(NO,)3 + AgNO, ^ Fe(NO,)^ + A g i Huong ddn gidi 0,05 (0,75-0,7)->• 0,05 (mol) Thu' tuirong day dien hoa: Chat ran thu duoc chi c6 Ag Mg2VMg;Ar^VAI;Cu2VCu;AgVAg ' ,, , . _ m ^ g ^ (0,2+ 0,3+ 0,2+ 0,05). 108 = 81(g) Dap an dung la C. => Thu" ir phan ling hoa hoc xay ra: 29. Cho 16,2 gam kim loai M c6 hoa tri n tac dung vdi 0,15 mol O,. Chat ran thu Mg + 2 A g N 0 , M g ( N O , ) ^ + 2Ag I ' ' ' '' duorc sau phan urng dem hoa tan vao dung djch HCl du tha'y thoat ra 13,44 lit H , 0,1 0,1 Of dktc. Kim loai M la Mg + Cu(NO,)2 Mg(NO,)2 + C u i A. Be. B. A l . C. Ca. D. Mg. ' Huong dan gidi (0,,5-0,1) 0,05 0,05 '• ' . ,. Sad6phaniJng: M ) M,0,,; M —tS^iiiHL^ MCL 2A1 + 3Cu(N03)2 -> 2 A l ( N 0 3 ) 3 + 3 C u i " "2 0,1 ^ 0,15 -> 0,1
  2. => Dungdjch X c o : 0,15 mol MgCNO,),; O.lmolAl(N03)3 ; Dung djch thu duoc chura 3 ion kim loai ' 0,25-0,05-0,15 = 0,05mol Cu(N03)2 (du) i=> 3 ion do phai la Mg"* , Zn"* va Cu"* (du). X + dd NaOH (du): Vi Cu"* con du => Mg va Zn phan xing het. Cac qua trinh phan ling xay ra: Mg(N03)2 + 2NaOH-^Mg(OH)2 4+2NaN03 . , Mg - 2e > Mg' 0,15 ^0,15 • i7 - 1,2 > 2,4 (mol) Cu(N03)2+2NaOH^Cu(OH)2i+2NaN03 , (. 2+ Zn - 2e > Zn 0,05 -> 0,05 x 2x (mol) Al(N03),+4NaOH->NaAl(OH)^+3NaN03 ' 'H:. Ag* + le > Agi Khoi luomg ket tua thu duoc: m 1=0,15.58 + 0,05.98 = 13,6(g) 1 > 1 (mol) Dap an dung la D. Cu-* + 2e > Cui 31. Ngam m6t vSt bang dong c6 kh6'i luong 10 gam trong 250 gam dung dich AgNOj 4%. Khi la'y vat ra thi khoi lirgng AgNO, trong dung djch giam 17%. 2 > 4 (mol) a) Viet phiromg trinh hoa hoc cua phan ling va cho biet vai tro cac chat tham gia Vi Cu-*c6ndunen: 2,4 + 2x < 1 + 4 => x < 1,3. phan urng. Trong cac gia tn da cho thi x = 1,2 < 1,3 thoa man y6u ciu bai toan. b) Xac dinh kh6'i luong cua vat sau phan ung. Dap an dung la D . Huong ddn gidi 33. Cho m gam bot Cu vao 400 ml dung djch AgNO, 0,2M, sau m6t thcri gian phan a) PTHH: Cu + 2AgN03 > CU(N03)2 + 2Ag i ling thu duoc 7,76 gam h6n hop chat rdn X va dung dich Y . Loc tach X, roi Chat khu chat oxi hoa thdm 5,85 gam bot Zn vao Y , sau khi phan umg xay ra hoan toan thu duoc 10,53 b) Kh6'i luong AgNOj c6 trong dung dich ban ddu: m^gN03 - ^^^'^ = 10(g) gam chat ran Z. Gia trj ciia m la 100 A. 6,40. B. 5,76. C. 3,84. D. 5,12. Hu&ng ddn gidi S6'mol AgNO, tham gia phan ling = = 0,01mol ^ 100.100 Cdch 1: Cu + 2AgN03 > Cu(N03)2 + 2Ag i Theo bai ra: "AgNOj = 0,4.0,2 = 0,08(mol) 0,0085 0,017mol = 5,85/65 = 0,09(mol) Kh6'i luong cua vat sau phan img (gia thid't Ag sinh ra bam h6't trdn vat): V I 2nz„ >nAgN03 (20,09>0,08) =>Zn con du sau khi cac phan ling xay ra m,i, = 10 + (108 . 0,017) - (64 . 0,0085) = 10,536 g 32. Cho h6n horp gdm 1,2 mol Mg va x mol Zn vao dung djch chiia 2 mol Cu""^ va hoan toan. 10.536 mol Ag"^ den khi cac phan ling xay ra hoan toan, thu dugc m6t dung dich Cu + 2AgN03 ^ Cu(N03)2 + 2Ag i chua ba ion kim loai. Trong cac gia trj sau day, gia tri nao ciia x thoa man trucmg hoj. tren? => X (ran): Ag, Cu (chua phan ting) , ,; A. 1,5. B. 1,8. C. 2,0. D. 1,2. Y (dung djch): AgNOj (chua phan ling), CU(N03)2 Huong ddn gidi Zn + 2AgN03 -> Zn (NO3)^ + 2Ag i , :. : Thuf tir trong cac day dien hoa: Mg-^ Zn'' Cu-* Ag* Zn + Cu(N03)2-> Cu >l+Zn(N03)2 => Z (ran): Ag, Cu, Zn (du) Mg Zn Cu Ag Vay thuc chat ciia thi nghiem tran la: ; - i .JiJ 22 23
  3. Zn + 2AgNOj ^ Zn (NO, \ 2Ag i 2. Tinh dSn dien ctia kim loai phu thu6c vao 0,04«-0,08^ 0,08(mol) (• , . A. do dac kbit cua kim loai. B. mat d6 electron tu do. C. kieu mang tinh the kim loai. D. mat do ion kim loai. Dodo: mx + = m + m^g + m^n (dir) ' Hu&ng ddn gidi , \ => 7,76 + 10,53 = m + 0,08.108 + (0,09-0,04).65 => m = 6,40 Tinh dSn dien ciia kim loai phu thuoc vao mat do electron tir do. Dap an dung la B. Dap an dung la A. 3. Cho cac kim loai: Cr, W, Fe, Cu, Cs. Sap xep theo chieu tang ddn do cung tir trai Cdch 2: r i A g N o , =0.08mol;n5,„ =0,09(mol) sang phai la Vi 2nz„ =0,18>nAgNO3 =0,08=>Zn (du) A. Cu < Cs < Fe < W < Cr B. Cs < Cu < Fe < W < Cr So d6 torn tat: C. Cu < Cs < Fe < Cr < W D. Cs < Cu < Fe < Cr < W AgNO, ) AgN03,Cu(N03)2 - i | j ^ Z n ( N 0 3 ) 2 Hu&ng ddn gidi D6 ciJng: Cs < Cu < Fe < W < Cr Dap an dung la B. + Zn Chu y; Kim loai cumg nha't la crom (Cr); 2AgN03 + Zn -> Zn(N03)2 + ^ Kim loai mem nha't la cac kim loai kiem. 0,08 ->. 0,04(mol) Theo djnh luat bao loan khdi lirong, ta c6: Dang 3: Bai tap ve pin dien hoa 'nAgN03 + "^Zn + "^Cu = + + mzn(N03)2 L Trong pin difen hoa Zn - Cu, qua trinh khir trong pin la mcu = m = m x + m z + m^^^f^Q^)^ - mAgN03 - A. Zn — ^ Zn-" + 2e. B. Cu > Cvr* + 2e. m = 7,76 + 10,53 + 0,04.189 - 0,08.170 - 5,85 =>m = 6,4(gam) Dap an diing la A. C. Zn-" + 2e > Zn. D. Cu"" + 2e > Cu. Hu&ng ddn gidi 34. Cho 6,4 gam bot Cu vao V ml dung dich AgNOa 0,2M, sau m6t then gian phan Trong pin Zn - Cu, phan urng xay ra khi pin boat d6ng la: ling thu duoc 7,92 gam h6n hop r i n X va dung dich Y. Loc tach X, r6i them Zn + Cu-" > Cu + Zn-" 10,35 gam bot Pb vao Y, sau mot thori gian phan ling thu duoc 10,44 gam h6n hop rdn Z va dung dich A. Loc tach Z, r6i them 5,85 gam b6t iZn vao A, sau khi Phan ii-ng khiJr Cu"": Cu"" + 2e > Cu. phanchat mot ling tan. xay Gia ra hoan toan tri ciia thu duoc 10,28 gam chat xkn B va dung dich chi chiJa V la Phan ling oxi hoa Zn: Zn > Zn"" + 2e. A. 200. B. 400. C. 600. D. 150. r Dap an dung la D. Dap an dung la B. 2. Cho m6t pin difn hoa duoc tao boi cac cap oxi hoa - khir Fe""/ Fe va Ag"/ Ag. Phan ling xay ra d cue am ciia pin dien hoa (o didu kien chudn) la Dang 2: Bal tap tinh chat vat If cua kim loai A. Fe >Fe-"+2e. B. Fe"" + 2e > Fe. L Cho cac kim loai: Cu, Ag, Fe, A l , Au. Day cdc kim loai duoc xd'p theo chieu B. Ag" + le > Ag. D. Ag > Ag" + le. giam ddn do dSn dien la Hu&ng ddn gidi A. A l , Fe, Cu, Ag, Au. B. Ag, Cu, Au, A l , Fe. Pin Fe - Ag: Cue am la Fe, cue duong la Ag. ^ . , , C. Au, Ag, Cu, Fe, A l . D. Ag, Cu, Fe, A l , Au. Hu&ng dan gidi Cue am xay ra qua trinh: Fe > Fe"" + 2e D6 dSn dien giam dan theo Ag > Cu > Au > A l > Fe. Dap an diing la A. 3. Mot pin didn hoa c6 didn cue Zn nhung trong dung djch ZnS04 va dien cue Cu Dap an dung la B. Chu V. Ag dSn difin t6't nha't, r6i d^'n Cu. nhung trong dung dich CuSO^. Sau m6t thori gian pin do phong didn thi khoi luong
  4. Phdn loai ra pliironi; jilu'ip t^liii /IT 116a hoc 12 -Cu Thanh Toan A . ca hai dien circ Zn va Cu dfiu giam. Huong ddn gidi B. dien cue Zn tang con khd'i luomg dien eirc Cu giam. Sua't dien d6ng E^,,, phu thuoc vao: C. dien circ Z n giam con khoi lucmg dien cue Cu tang. -Ban chat cae k i m loai lam dien cue. . ! , ' > , - D . ca hai didn cue Zn va Cu d^u tang. - Ndng d6 cua cac ion k i m loai (dung djch mudi). ,• Huong dan gidi -Nhietdd. Sod6ciiapin: 0 Zn / ZnS04 // CUSO4/ Cu @ Khong phu thu6c vao khoi lugfng cae dien cue. Dap an diing la D. Phan ling xay ra khi pin phong dien: 7. Cho E°z„ 2* /7.„ = - 0,76V; E\+ /p, = - 0,13V. , / Z n + Cu-* (dd) > Cui + Zn-' (dd) Phat bieu diing la: • Suy ra, khd'i luong la Zn ngay cang giam (Zn > Z n ' * (dd) + 2e), kh6'i lucmg A. K h i hinh thanh pin dien hoa, anot la cue Z n . la Cu cang tang (Cu'^dd) + 2e > Cu i). B. Sua't dien d6ng chuc4n ciia pin dien hoa Zn - Pb bang 0,89V. Dap an dung la C. C. Phan ling xay ra khi pin dien hoa Zn - Pb phong dien ( d dieu kien chuan): 4. K h i pin didn hoa Zn - Cu phong di6n thi ndng do Pb + Zn-* > Zn + Pb'* A . cua Cu"* giam, ciia Zn"* tang. B. ciia Cu'"^ giam, ciia Z n ' * giam. D. Trong pin dien hoa Zn - Pb, nd'u sii dung cdu mudi la dung dich NH4NO3. C. ciia Cu-* tang, ciia Zn"* tang. D. ciia Cu"* tang, ciia Zn"* giam. K h i pin hoat d6ng thi ion N O 3 di ehuye'n ve phia cue Pb. Huong ddn gidi Huong ddn gidi Phan ling xay ra khi pin Z n - Cu phong dien: Pin dien hoa Z n - Pb. Zn + Cu-* > Cu + Zn-* - Phan umg xay ra trong pin: - => n6ng d6 Cu"* giam, n6ng d6 ciia Zn"* tang. Dap an diing la A . Z n + Pb-* > Pb + Zn-*. 5. Trong qua trinh hoat dong ciia pin didn hoa Zn - Cu thi - V i E°z„ 2+ ^„ < E°pb 2+ => Zn CO tinh khii manh hon Pb => Z n la cue am A . kh6'i luong ciia dien cue Cu giam. (anot), Pb la cue duong (catot). B. kh6'i luong ciia didn cue Zn tang. ^ pin(Zn-Pb) — Pb-* /Pb ^ Zn /Zn C. ndng do ciia ion Cu'* trong dung djch tang. D. ndng d6 ciia ion Zn"* trong dung dich tang. = -0,13 - ( - 0 , 7 6 ) = 0,63V. Huong ddn gidi - d cue Pb (cue duong, catot): Pb"* + 2e > ?hi. Phan ling hoa hoc xay ra: Z n + Cu^"^ ^ Cu i + Zn^"^ Do dd, ion NH4 se di chuyen ve phia cue Pb de trung hoa dien tich. Suy ra: + Kh6'i luong cue Zn giam. Dap an dung la A . + Khdi luong cue Cu tang. 8. Trong qua trinh pin dien hoa Zn - A g hoat dong ta nhan tha'y + Nong d6 ion Cu"* giam. (cho biet E°z„ 2+ ^ = - 0,76V; E ^ * = "t" 0,80V, cSu mudi la dung djch KNO3) + Nong do ion Z n ' * tang. A . khdi luong ciia dien cue A g giam. Dap an dung la D . B. ndng do ciia ion Zn"* tang. 6. Sua't dien d6ng (Ej,J cua pin didn hoa khong phu thuoc vao C. ion K* di chuyen v^ phia anot. A. ban chat ciia k i m loai lam dien cue. D. sua't dien d6ng chudn cua pin bang 0,80 - 0,76 = 0,04V. B. ndng do ciia cae dung dich mudi. Hu&ng ddn gidi ,. C. nhiet d6. Phan umg xay ra khi pin dien hoa Zn - A g hoat d6ng: D . khdi luong cae dien cue. * Z n + 2Ag* > Zn-* + 2 A g i
  5. Ph.'in Ji'.ii V,) n!i II', /»/; Agi Huong ddn gidi Do do 6 catot thieu dien tich duong (do Ag* bj dien phan) ndn K* {cAu mu6'i) di Xet cac pin: chuy^n do (chii khong anot). * Pin sai (dch viet ki hieu: - Suat dien dong chudn E ^ , , , z „ . ^g, = E^g + /^g " E°z„ /z,, - Pin A g - Cu (ma phai la pin Cu - A g ) EV.z„-Ag, = 0,8 - (-0,76) = 1 , 5 6 ( V ) . - Pin A g - Z n (ma phai la pin Z n - A g ) . Dap an dung la B. * Pin CO gid tri sua't dien dong chuan E" sai: 9. Vai tro ciia cau muoi trong pin dien hoa, la - Pin Z n - A g : E",,,, = E ^ , + „^ - E\„ 2+ ^„ A . cung cap them ion cho cac dung dich mudi. = 0,8 - (-0,76) = 1,56V. B. can bang dien tich trong cac dung djch. Vay chi C O 1 pin c6 k i hieu dung va E°p|„ dung. C. lam chat xiic tac cho phan iJng oxi hoa - khii xay ra khi pin boat ddng. (Pin Z n - Cu: E°pi„ = + 1,1OV). Dap an diing la A . D. con ducmg d i chuyen ciia cac electron tir cue am sang cue duong. 12. Cho mot pin dien hoa duoc tao bdi cap oxi hoa - khir Fe^*/ Fe va N i ' * / N i . Phan Huong dan gidi ling xay ra or cue am ciia pin diSn hoa (6 difiu kien chu^n) la Vai tro ciia cau muoi trong pin dien hoa: Can bang dien tich trong cac dung dich. Dap an dung la B. A . Fe ^ Fe2+ + 2e B. N i ^ N i ^ * + 2e 10. Trong pin dien hoa Cr - Sn xay ra phan ling: C. Fe^* + 2e - > Fe f^' D. N i ^ * + 2e Ni ... Cr + ... Sn-* > ... Cr'* + ... Sn. ;. c.y Huong ddn gidi Bia't E°c,^+,c, = - 0,74V. Sua't dien ddng chu^n ciia pin dien hoa nay la Ca'u taopin: ( - ) F e / F e 2 + / / N i ^ + / N i ( + ) ' A.-0,60V. B. 0,88V. C. 0,60V. D . - 0,88V. Phan utig xay ra of cue am (anot): Fe > Fe^*" + 2e • Hu&ngddn gidi Phan lirng xay ra 6 cue duong (catot): N i ^ ^ + 2e >Ni - V I Epi„ lu6n duong => loai phuong an A va D . Phan ling tdng eong: Fe + Ni^"^ ^•Fe^^'+Ni - VI Cr C O tinh khij manh hon Sn ndn: Dap an dung la A . " ^ (Cr - Sn) - S.I ASii ^ Cr /Cr Chu v; Trong pin dien hoa: I = E''s„2+,s„ - ( - 0 , 7 4 ) - d cue am (anot): Xay ra oxi hoa = E°s,.2^s„ + 0 , 7 4 ( V ) . - d cue duong (catot): Xay ra su khir ' •, - Vi Sn diing tru6c H trong day dien hoa nen E^s,, ^+ ys, < 0. 13. M d t pin dien hoa gdm dien cue la s d day bac nhiing vao dung dich A g N O j va Do do EV-S,) < 0,74V => E°,a-s,) = 0,60V Dap an diing la C . dien cue kia la mot sgi day platin nhiing vao dung dich chiia ddng thdi Fe(N03)3 11. Co mot hoc sinh viet kf hieu ciia pin va tinh sua't dien ddng chu^n tuong ling va Fe(N03)2. Phan ung xay ra d dien cue duong ciia pin dien ( d dieu kidn chu^n) ciia pin nhu sau: la (cho E " ^ =+0,8;E° ,+ =+0,77V) Ag+/Ag Fe-'+/Fe2+ ,. j PinZn-Cu : E % , = + 1,10V. A. Fe2+ - > Fe-^* + le B. Fe-''^ + le - > Fe^* [ '^ : r Pin A g - C u : E''pi„ = + 0 , 4 6 V . C. A g * + le - > A g D . A g ^ Ag"" + le • ' '
  6. urn loai va phifcfnij phcip }>idi BT Hoa hoc 12 - Cii Thanh Toan Huong ddn gidi Huong ddn gidi Pin GPt Ag^ Ag e Taco: Phan ihig xay ra b cue duong (catot): Ag"^ + le Ag i Dap an diing la C. CM V. - Phan iJng xay ra trong pin (hoat d6ng): VdiE° ^ =0,8V. Ag+/Ag AgN03 + Fe (NO3 \e (NO3 )3 + Ag . ; T t r ( 2 ) = > E ° ^ , , ^ ^ ^ = -H0,34V. . , - Cue duomg cua pin (E° , be hon) lu6n xay ra su khu. Mn /M Tir(l)^E" ^ = 0 , 3 4 - 1 , 1 = - 0 , 7 6 (V). - Cue am ciia pin lu6n xay ra su oxi hoa. Zn /Zn Vay E ° 2+ va E % ^ iSn luot la - 0,76 V va + 0,34 V. Zn2+/Zn Cu^+ZCu Dang 4: Bai tap tinh SDD chuan cua pin; tinh the dien cue chuan ' ' ' ' '' Dap an diing la C. 1. Biet sua't dien dong chua'n cua pin Zn - Cu la 1,10V, the dien cue chudn ciia didn 4. Cho cac the'dien cue chu^n: E°,+3/A, = " ^zn^^/Zn = "^'^^^^ ^Pb2+/Pb cue Zn la - 0,76V, the dien cue chu^n cua dien cue Cu la = - 0,13V; E° 2+^^ = + 0,34V. Trong cac pin sau day, pin nao c6 sua't dien A. + 0,34V. B. - 0,34V. C. - 1,86V. D. + 1,86V. Huong ddn gidi d6ng chudn Idm nha't? Tac6:EV„,„.c„, =E°c„2^eu - E°,„2+,,„ A. P i n P b - C u . B. Pin Zn - Cu. C. Pin Zn - Pb. D. Pin Al - Zn. => 1,10 =E°c„2^eu - (-0,76) Huong ddn gidi ^ E°c„2+/cu = 1,10 - 0,76 = + 0,34(V). Pin CO sua't dien dong chudn 1dm nha't khi pin tao ra tir cap dien cue each xa nhau Dap an dung la A. nha't trong day dien hoa. 2. Biet rang E ^ ,z„.c„) = i,10V va E^Cu'VCu) = +0,34V. The'dien cue chu^n cua Do do, trong cac pin da cho thi pin Zn - Cu (vi tri ciia cap Zn'V Zn va Cu'V Cu cap oxi hoa khir Zn'^/Zn la each xa nhau nha't) c6 SDD chu^n 16n nha't. E ; , „ ( Z n - C u ) = E « ^ 2 . , , „ - E^^2.,,„ A. - 0,76V B. + 1,44V C. + 0,76V D. -1,44V = +0,34 - (-0,76) = 1,1 V. Hu&ng ddn gidi Dap an dung la B. Ta CO E°P i n , z n - C .= „,- E I^^^2+/Cu ^Zn2+/zn 5. Cho biet phan ihig oxi hoa - khir xay ra trong pin dien hoa Fe - Cu la: Fe + Cu-* ^ Fe-" + Cu Theo bai ra: 0,34 - E^__2,^^_^ =1,10 E^^^.^^^ =0,34 -1,10 = - 0 , 7 6 V E" (Fe-7 Fe) = - 0,44V, E° (Cu'V Cu) = + 0,34V. Sua't dien d6ng chudn cua pin Dap an diing la A. dien hoa Fe - Cu la 3. Cho sua't dien dong chua'n cua cac pin dien hoa: Zn - Cu la 1,1V; Cu - Ag la A. 0,10 V. B. 0,78 V. C. 0,92 V. D. 1,66 V. 0,46V. Biet the' dien cue chudn E V / A g = + 0,8V. The' difin cue chu^n Huong ddn gidi " E''pin(Fe-Cu) = E''cu2+/cu- E^^+ZFe . ' ;,i A. + 1,56V va + 0,46V. B. -1,46V va - 0,34V. = 0,34 - (-0,44) = 0,78 V. C. - 0,76V va + 0,34V. ,. . ; ,(j D. - 1,56V va + 0,64V. Dap an diing la B. •^1
  7. fhan loai vd phUang phap nidi til Hoa hoc 12 - Cii Thanh Todn 6. Cho th6' dien cue chu£n cua cac cap oxi hoa - khu A g ^ / A g , Cu^^/Cu, Huong ddn gidi Pb^^ /Pb, Zn^"^ / Z n c6 gia tri Idn lucrt la: +0,80V; + 0,34V; -0,13V; -0,76V. Ti'nh sua't dien d6ng chuSn E° ciia cac pin: -•(;'> kh6ng xay ra. Thii tu trong day dien hoa: M -> X -> R 8. Cho bifl: E ; , , ^ =-2,36V; E » , , , ^ , =^,76V; E»_,.^^ =^,3V; =^J,V Pin dien hoa c6 sua't dien dong chudn bang 1,61V duoc ca'u tao bai hai cap oxi Theo bai ra: Eji„M-x = E " ^ „ . ^ ^ - ( - 0 , 7 6 ) =0,63 hoa - khii A. Zn^^ / Z n va Pb^^ /Pb B. Pb^^ /Pb va Cu^^ /Cu C. Mg2+ / M g va Z n ' " / Z n D. Z n ' " / Z n va C u ' " /Cu vay E;,,X_. =E»2.^, - E ^ „ , ^ ^ =0,34-(-0,13) = 0.47V Huong ddn gidi Dap an dung la A. Bie'u thiic tinh SDD chudn (E^. ,): E°., = Ef,, - 11. Trong cac cap oxi hoa - khu: Zn""/ Zn; Cu""/ Cu; Ag"/ Ag; Ni""/ Ni thi pin dien hoa CO sua't dien d6ng 1dm nha't la pin tao bai cap oxi hoa - khu =>1,61 = ( _ 0 , 7 6 ) - ( - 2 , 3 7 ) = . E ° 2, - E % , A.Zn-"/ZnvaAg"/Ag. B. Zn""/Zn va Cu""/Cu. C.Cu-"/CuvaAg"/Ag. D. Zn""/Zn va Ni""/Ni. i Vay pin diroc ca'u tao boi hai cSp M g ' " / M g va Z n ' " / Z n Hu&ng ddn gidi Dap an diing la C. Thur tu cac cap oxi hoa - khir trong day dien hoa: 9. Cho the' dien circ chuan: Zn""/ Zn = - 0,76V; Fe'V Fe = - 0,44V; Ni'V Ni = - Z n ' " / Z n ; N i ' " / N i ; C u ' " /Cu;Ag" / Ag 0,26V; Cu-7 Cu = + 0,34V. Pin dien hoa c6 sua't dien d6ng chudn nho nha't la pin tao bai hai dien cue Pin CO SDD chudn Idn nha't khi tao bai cap oxi hoa - khijf c6 the' dien cue ehu^n A. F e - N i B.Zn-Fe C. Zn - Cu D. Ni - Cu tha'p nha'tIdn =>Epi„ ( Znha't n'"/Z lanpin ) va taocao bcrinha't Z n '("A/ Z g "n/ A vag )Ag" / Ag . Dap an dung la A.
  8. /'//(/// lixii \ pJicij) i^icJFBT H6(i hoc 12 -Cii Thanh Toan Cty TNHH MTV DVVH Khcms- Viet 1 2 . Cho cac the' dien circ chudn: E° = - 1 , 6 6 V ; E ° 2+ ,^ = + 0 , 3 4 V . Bifi't suS't E^v y+/Y > E " T T i n h khu T > Y . (3) didn dong chuiiin ciia pin: E"„_CU = M ^ ' E ^ p - A i = 0 , 7 1 V . Vay sua't dien d6ng Tir(2,3)^Z< Y Z < Y A.Z,Y,Cu,X. B.X,Cu,Z,Y. E° 2+ =-1,66-0,71 =-2,37V C. Y, Z , Cu, X. D. X, Cu, Y, Z . Huong ddn gidi vay E^g_y„ = - 0 , 7 6 - ( - 2 , 3 7 ) = 1 , 6 1 V Dap an dung la B . V I E V „ - X. = 0,46V ^ E"c„ 2 - /cu < E ^ x « ' => Tinh k h u X < C u . (1) Dang 5: Bai tap so sanh tinh ox! hoa - khiir, xac dmh c h i l u cua phan ihig oxi Vi E ^ - C U , = 1 , 1 V = ^ E"e,2+^,„ > E\y^^ hoa - khiir => Tinh k h u C u < Y. (2) V i E V - c u , = 0,47V :=> E " c . 2 ^ c u > E'V/^/z 1. Cho E",,, 2+ = - 0,76V; E"c„ 2+ = + 0 , 3 4 V ; E\, 2+ ^ , = - 0 , 2 3 V . Cac cation => T r i h k h u C u < Z . (3) CO tinh oxi hoa giam d i n theo thii tir Vi F " -i. F ° —> F " 2+ _ pO y+ ^ F " 2+ - pO 7,+ l* A . Ni-\^ Zn'\. Cii'\^ N i " * . * ' (' - C i i ) E, , x _ C u ) ^ ^ Cu /Cu C Y -' /Y I - Cu /Cu ^ Z /Z- » C. Cu-^ Nr\^ D. Nr\^ Cu-\ ^ E\+ /Y < E"z ^+ r,, => Tinh khijf Y > Z . (4) Huong ddn gidi T u ( l , 2, 3,4) t a c o : X < C u < Z < Y . Dap an diing la B, • Sapthu-tir E ' ' M " ^ M :E''cu^^cu>EV^%i >^\„^' 4 . Cho su£ t dien dong chuan E° ciia cac pin dien hoa: => Cac cation c6 tinh oxi hoa Cu"* > N i " * > Zn^* E x _ Y - l , l V ; E x _ z = 0 , 7 8 V ; E " _ Z = 0 , 4 6 V (X, Y, Z , T la bon k i m loai). Dap an dung la C, Day cat: k i m loai xep theo c h i l u tang ddn tinh khCr tir tnii sang phai la 2 . Cho sua't dien dong chudn ciia cac pin dien hoa: A. Y , Z , T , X B.T,Z,X,Y C. Z , T, X, Y D. T, Z , Y , X E°x-Y = + 0 , 6 2 V ; E\.^ = + 1,1V; E^X-T = + 0,32V. Huong ddn gidi Tinh k h u ciia k i m loai X, Y, Z , T tang ddn theo thi} t u - K i m loai viet truoc la cue am (anot), kim loai viet sau la cue duong (kim loai A . X, T, Y , Z . B. Z , Y, T, X. dong vai tro la cue am eo tinh khu manh hoii kim loai dong vai tro cue ducfng) C. T, Y , Z , X. D. X, Y, Z , T. => Tinh khu: Hu&ng ddn gidi X>Y;X>Z;T>Z Nhan xet. - Pin CO E° cang lorn thi tinh khiJf cQa cac k i m loai cang chenh lech nhau nhifiu - Trong cac pin tren, X ddu dong vai tro cue am (hay noi each khac chiing cang xa nhau tren day dien hoa). ; - Do do, thu tu tren day dien hoa ciia cac k i m loai: X > T > Z > Y. > ' / => X CO tinh k h u manh hem cac k i m loai Y, Z va T . (1) vay tinh khir tang ddn theo thii tu Y , Z , T, X. - VI E^x-V < E ^ x - z E ° v y - / Y - E ' ' x ^ ^ « < E»,^V " E°x^"/x Dap an diing la A . E ° Y y + ; y > E " z ' + / - ^ = ^ Tinh k h u Y > Z . (2) 5. Trong day the dien cue chuan ciia k i m loai, vj tri mot so cap oxi hoa - khu duoc - V I E-'x-V > E^x-T ^ E%y+;v - E ° x ^ V > E \ > V - E ^ x ^ V sdp xep nhu sau: ' • ' • ' " A l ' V A l , Fe-^/Fe, Ni=*/Ni, Cu'VCu, Fe'^/^e=^ A g V A g , Hg=*/Hg. ,
  9. /'/(,/(/ \ p/i(/p gidi BT Hoa hoc 12 -Ci) Thanh Toan Ti'nh oxi hoa Fe'* < Ag*. T r o n g so c a c k i m loai A l , F e , N i , C u , A g , H g , so k i m loai khi tac dung v6i dung djch F e ' * chi khCr duoc F e ' * Fe"* la (2) Mn + 2H* > Mn-* + H , -) A. 1. B. 2. C. 3. D.4. ^ • z=> Tmh oxi hoa Mn"* < H*. Hu&ng dan gidi Do do Mn'* < H* < Fe'* < Ag*. Dap an diing la D. Al'* Fe-* Ni-* ,. Cu-* Fe'* Ag* Hg-* Chii v: Day dien hoa: Mn"* H* Fe'* Ag* • — \> Al Fe Ni Cu Ag Hg Fcr* Mn H, Fe-* Ag Dira vao day dien hoa trSn va qui tdc a ta bid't duoc cac kim loai trong doan 9. Cho cac phan ling sau: Fe + 2Fe(NO,)^ -> 3Fe(NO3 )^ '' :v ( Fe-*/Fe va Fe'*/ Fe"* se chi khiJr diroc Fe'* > Fe"*. AgNO, + Fe(NO,)2 ^ Fe(N03)3 + Ag Do do CO 3 kim loai Fe, Ni, Cu. f)ap an dung la C. Day sdp x6'p theo thii tu tang ddn tinh oxi hoa cua cac ion kim loai Id ' 6. Day cac ion xep theo chilu giam ddn tinh oxi hoa la (biet trong day dien hoa, cap Fe'*/ Fe-* diJng trirorc cap Ag*/Ag) A. Ag^Fe2^Fe^+ B. Fe2^Fe•'^Ag+ • A. Fe'*, Ag*, Cu-*, Fe-*. B. Ag*, Fe'*, Cu"*, Fe"*. C. Fe2+,Ag",Fe-'" D. Ag",Fe"'",Fe^" C. Fe'*, Cu-*, Ag*, Fe-*. D. Ag*, Cu"*, Fe'*, Fe"*. Hu&ng ddn gidi Dap an dung la B. Suy ra thu tu trong day dien hoa: 7. Mdnh d^ khong dung la A. Fe khij duqfc Cu"* trong dung dich. Fe^"/Fe;Fe-'"/Fe2";Ag"/Ag B. tmh oxi hoa cua cac ion tang theo thir tir: Fe"*, H*, Cu"*, Ag*. Vay tinh oxi hoa: Fe^" < Fe"*" < A g " C. Fe'* CO tinh oxi hoa manh hon Cu"*. Dap an dung la B. D. Fe-* oxi hoa duoc Cu. 10. Thii tu m6t s6' cSp oxi hoa - khCr trong day dien hoa nhu sau: Hu&ng dan gidi • Xet cac phuong an sau: Fe-*/Fe; Cu'*/Cu; Fe'*/Fe"*. A. Dung. Fe-*/Fe + Cu-*/Cu (quy tdc a): Cap chat khong phan ung vori nhau la A. Fe va dung djch FeClj. Fe + Cu-* > Fe-* + Cu. B. dung dich FeCK va dung dich CuQi. B. Dung. Tinh oxi hoa Fe'* < H* < Cu"* < Ag*. C. Fe va dung djch CuCl.. C. Dung. 2Fe'* + Cu > Cu"* + 2Fe-*. D. Cu va dung djch FeClj. ! . D. Sal. Fe'* c6 tinh oxi hoa yeu hcfn Cu"* ntn Cu + Fe"* khong xay ra. Huong ddn gidi .j,,' Dap an dung la D. X^t cdc phuofng an: 8. Cho cac phan ung xay ra sau day. A. Fe + 2FeCl3 > 3FeCi2 (1) AgNOj + Fe(NO_,)3 > Fe(N03)3 + Ag i B. FeCU + CuCK > khong xay ra. ) - // i ; (2) Mn + 2HC1 > MnCK +H.t C. Fe + CuCU > Cu + F e d . Day cac ion sdp x6'p theo chidu tang ddn tinh oxi hoa la D. Cu + 2FeCl3 > 2FeCl, + CuCl, ' A. Ag*, Fe'*, H*, Mn=*. B. Ag*, Mn"*, H*, Fe'*. C. Mn-*, H*, Ag*, Fe'*. D. Mn"*, H*, Fe'*, Ag*. Dap an dung la B. Hu&ng dan gidi 11. Cho cac cap oxi hoa - khiJ duoc sdp xep theo chieu tang ddn tinh oxi hoa ciia - Ta c6: dang oxi hoa nhu sau: Fe^" / F c C u ^ " /Cu,Fe''" /Fe^". (1) Ag* +Fe-* > Fe'* + Ag Phat b'iiu nao sau day la dung? 37
  10. A. Cu klurduDC Fe'* th;uih Fe . B. Cu"^^ oxi hodduoc Fe^"^ thanh Fe^^ j C. Dung. C Fe'* oxihoaduDC Cu thiuih Cu^* . D. Fe"* oxi hoadiioc Cu thaiih Cu^* . D. Sai, VI tfnh oxi hoa Fe'* > Huong dan gidi ; 2Fe-'* +21' .2Fe2*+Io Ta c6: Cu + 2Fc^^ ^ Cu'+ + 2Fe^+ Dap an dung la C. Cu^* + Fe^"" Khoiig xay ra Chit y: * Chung minh tfnh khir: Cu > I > Fe^* 2Fe^*+Cu^2Fe'*+Cu'* -.^^ . (Cu'*/Cu;l2/r;Fe'VFe2*) (Fe'* oxi hoa duoc Cu thanh Cu'*) Cu + 1, -> Cu^* + 2r ; Tfnh oxi hoa: I j > Cu^* Fe'^* + Cu -> Khong xay ra • ' 2Fe-^* + 2r->2Fe^*+l2 => Phat bieu diing la C. Dap an diing la C. 12. Cho cac ion kim loai: Zir*, Svr*, Ni"*, Fe"*, Pb"*. Tlii} tir tinh oxi hoa giam diln la =^TfnhkhiJf: F >Fe^*; A. Zn-* > Sn=* > Ni"* > Fe"* > Pb'*. Tfnh oxi hoa: Fe'* > I , ^ Ul^^l^ B. Pb-*>Sn-*>Ni-*>Fe-*>Zn-*. C. Sn-*>Ni-*>Zn-*>Pb-*>Fe-*. * Cac the dien circ chuilin E " D. Pb-* > Sn-* > Fe-* > Ni'* > Zn"*. Oxi K*/K Mg-*/Mg Zn-*/Zn s/s-' Fe-*/Fe Ni-*/Ni Huong dan gidi hoa/Kh -0,76 -0,51 -0,44 -0,25 ThiJ tir tfnh oxi hoa giam dSn: Pb"* > Sn'* > Ni"* > Fe"* > Zn"*. E°(V) -2,92 -2,36 Dap an dung la B. Oxi Cu-*/Cu Cu-*/Cu Fe'*/Fe-* Ag*/Ag H*/H. 13. Cho day cac ion: Fe"*, Ni"*, Cu"*, Sn"*. Trong cung dieu kien, ion c6 tinh oxi hoa/Kh 0,52 0,54 0,77 0,80 hoa manh nhat trong day la E"(V) 0,00 0,34 A. Sn-*. B. Cu-*. C. Fe-*. D. Ni"*. 15. Day gon1 cac ion deu oxi hoa duoc kim loai Fe la Huong dan gidi A. Cr^*, Au-'*,Fe-'* B. Cr2*,Cu2*,Ag* Trong cling dieu kiSn (nhiet d6, nong do), thu- tir tfnh oxi hoa ciia cac ion la: C. Fe'*, Cu^\Ag\. Zn^^Cu2*,Ag^ Fe-* Fe'* > Ni"* > Fe"* hoa va ion Fe''* : B. Tfnh klur ciia K > Mg > Zn > Ni > Fe > Hg 2Fe'* + Fe-^3Fe2* •, C. Tfnh khir ciia K > Fe > Cu > f > Fe"* > Ag C u - * + F e ^ C u + Fe^^ D. Tfnh oxi hoa ciia Ag* > I . > Fe'* > Cu"* > S"- 2Ag*+ F e ^ F e ^ * + 2 A g Huong dan gidi Dap an dung la C. Xet cac phuong an: 16. Day gom cac kim laii ddu tac dung duoc vol dung djch FcQ, la: g A. Sai, VI tfnh oxi hoa Fe'*>Cu^* A. Fe, Mg, Cu, Ag, Al B. Fc, Zn, Cu, Al, Mg ,. ,/ 2Fe'* + Cu ^ 2Fe-+ + Cu^* C.Cu,Ag,Au,Mg,Fc D.Au,Cu,AI,Mg,Zn , ,. B. Sai, VI tfnh k h u F o N i . Huong dan gidi Fe + Ni^* ^ N i + Fe^+ Cac kim loai tac dung vai FeCl,: ^ " Fe + 2FeCl3->3FeCl2 - • 39 38
  11. Zn + 2FeCl3 Z n C l , + 2FeCl2 Huong ddn gidi Cu + 2FeCl3 -> C u C l , -b-2FeCl2 Theo quy tSc a : Z^"" + X - > X^^ + Z A l + 3FeCl3 ^ AICI3 + 3FeCl2 i r , ii,.H Dap an dung la C . M g + 2 F e C l 3 - > M g C l j + 2FeCl2 20. Cho sua't didn d6ng chua'n ciia cde pin didn hoa: , r -rt)! Im Dap an dung la B . Ez-H2 = 0,44V; E^_^ = 0,78V; E^_y = 1,24V. 17. Thir t u m6t s6'cap oxi hoa - khif trong day dien hoa nhu sau: Bifi't ^°y3+/-^2+ = + 0,77V ; X , Y , Z la cac k i m loai, cac ion k i m loai tuong ung Mg^VMg;Fe2VFe;Cu2VCu;Fe^VFe2*;Ag+/Ag. ' la X-\^ va Z ' ^ Day chi g6m cac chat, ion tac dung duoc vdi ion Fe'"^ trong dung djch la Cho rieng biet tung k i m loai X , Z vao lucfng d u m6i dung djch chua m6t ion k i m A.Mg,Cu,Cu2^ B.Mg,Fe2^Ag C. Mg,Fe,Cu D. Fe,Cu.Ag^ loai sau: Y ^ X - ^ Z-\ phan u-ng oxi hoa - khu xay ra la Huong ddn gidi A . 3. B.6. C.4. D. 5. Dap an dung la B. Dua vao quy t i e a ta xac djnh duoc: •^ .: M g + 2Fe-'^ - > M g ^ * + 2Fe^* Dang 6: Bai tap ve an mon kim loai : Fe + 2Fe^^ ^3Fe2+ 1. Trucmg hop khong xay ra hien tuong an mon difen hoa la " Cu + 2Fe2^ ^Cu^^+2Fe2^ A. de ta'm sat duoc ma k m bang thiec ngoai khong khi £m. Dap an dung la C . B. hai day Cu va A l duoc noi true tiep vdi nhau va de ngoai kh6ng khf dm. 18. Cho biet thiif t u tir trai sang phai cOa cac cap oxi hoa - khir trong day dien hoa C. de thanh thep ngoai khong khi dm. (day the dien cue chu^n) nhu sau: D. hai thanh Cu, Zn duoc noi vdi nhau bdi day dSn va cung nhiing vao dung dich H Q . Hu&ng ddn gidi Z n ^ * /Zn;Fe2+ /FeiCu^^ /Cu;Fe-'VFe2^; A g ^ / A g . Khong xay ra hien tuong an mon dien hoa khi khong thoa man ca 3 di^u kidn Cac kirn loai va ion deu phan ung duoc v6i ion Fe'"^ trong dung djch la an mon dien hoa: A.Zn,Ag* B.Ag,Cu-* C. A g , Fe'" D. Z n , Cu"* - Co 2 dien cue c6 ban chat khae nhau Hu&ng ddn gidi - Hai dien cue tie'p xiic true tia'p hoac n6'i vdi nhau qua day dSn. Theo quy tac nguofi ta xac djnh duoc: " - Hai dien cue ciing duoc nhiing trong mot dung dich chat dien l i . Zn + Fe^* >Fe + Z n ^ * Do do, khi de ta'm sat duoc ma kin bang thiec ngoai khdng khi dm => khong xay A g ^ + Fe^^ >Ag + Fe-'^ ra hi6n tuong an mon di6n hoa (vi khong c6 di^u kien 1 va 3). Dap an diing la A . Dap an dung la A . 2. Bid't rang ion Pb"* trong dung dich oxi hoa duoc Sn. K h i nhiing hai thanh k i m 19. Cho gia trj thd' dien cue chua'n ciia mot so cap oxi hoa - khu: loai Pb va Sn duoc nd'i vdi nhau bang day dan dien vao mdt dung djch chat dien Cap oxi hoaAhu li thi /M /x /Y A . chi C O Sn bj an mon dien hoa. E°(V) -2,37 -0,76 -0,13 + 0,34 B. chi C O Pb bi an mon dien hoa. fi,;. ^, Phan u-ng nao sau day P h n n ,'rnr, J. xay ra? C. ca Sn va Pbdeu khdng bj an mon difin hoa. , , A.Z +Y ^ - ^ Z ^ ^ Y B.Z + M ^ * ^ Z 2 - + M D . ca Sn va Pb deu bi an mon dien hoa. Huong ddn gidi C.X + Z'^->X'UZ D.X + M^^-^X^^+M Ion Pb-* oxi hoa duge Sn => Sn cd tinh khu manh hon Pb. ' v, ,' * / ' 41
  12. Trong thf nghiem nay, thoa man 3 dieu i Cu + FeCl. Pb, Sn khae nhau, ndi v6i nhau b i n g day dfui, cung nhiing vao dung dich chat (Cu sinh ra bam vao thanh Fe => thoa man 3 dieu kien an mon di6n hoa). dien l i ) , do do k i m loai c6 tinh khu manh hon (cue am) se bj an mon dien hoa ( d 2. F e / d d H C l , CuCl,: Tuong tir tren ' day la Sn), con k i m loai c6 tfnh khu yeu hon (cue duong, a day la Pb) khong bj Dap an diing la C. an mon. 6. Cho cac hap k i m sau: Cu - Fe ( I ) ; Z n - Fe ( I I ) ; Fe - C ( I I I ) ; Sn - Fe ( I V ) . K h i Dap an dung la A . tiep xiic vdi dung djch chat dien l i thi cac hop k i m ma trong do Fe deu bj an 3. Co 4 dung dich rieng biet: CUSO4, ZnCU, FeCl,, A g N O , . Nhiing vao m6i dung mon trudc la djch mot thanh N i . So truofng hop xua't hien an mon dien hoa la A. I , I I va I I I . B.I,IIvaIV. A. 3 B. 4 C. 2 D. 1 C. I , I I I va I V . D. I I , I I I va I V . Hming d^n giai Huong ddn gidi Cac trucrng hop xua't hien an mon dien hoa: Fe bi an mon trudc khi Fe dong vai t i o cue am (Fe c6 tfnh khu manh hon, hay Ni-Cu: Ni + C u S 0 4 - > C u i + N i S 0 4 noi each khae la Fe dung truoc trong day dien hoa). Ni-Ag: Ni + AgNO, ^ 2 A g i + N i ( N O , ) 2 Do do, cac hop kim ma Fe bj an mon trudc la: Cu - Fe ( I ) ; Fe - C ( I I I ) ; Sn - Fe (IV) => Co 2 truong hop. Dap an diing la C . Dap an diing la C. 4. Tid'n hanh 4 thi nghiem sau: 7. Tien hanh cac thf nghiem sau: - Thi nghiem 1: Nhung thanh Fe vao dung djch FeCl,. (a) Cho la Fe vao dung djch gom CUSO4 va H.SO4 loang; - Thi nghiem 2: Nhiing thanh Fe vao dung djch CUSO4. L .A - Thi nghiem 3: Nhiing thanh Cu vao dung dich FeCl,. (b) Dot day Fe trong binh dung khf O , ; - Till' nghiem 4: Cho thanh Fe tiep xiic v6i thanh Cu roi nhiing vao dung djch H Q . (e) Cho la Cu vao dung djch g6m Fe(NO,), va H N O , ; So truong hop xua't hien an mon dien hoa la (d) Cho la Zn vao dung djch H C l . A. 1. B. 2. C. 3. D.4. So thf nghiem c6 xay ra an mon dien hoa la •? Huong dan gidi A. 1. B.4. C.2. D.3. ; Cac truofng hop xuat hien an mon dien hoa khi thoa man 3 dieu ki6n an mon Huong ddn gidi dien hoa. Chi C O thf nghiem (a) thoa man 3 dieu kien de' xay ra an mon dien hoa: - Thi nghiem 1: Chi c6 1 ditn circ (cue Fe). Fe + CUSO4 ^ Cu i +FeS04 ,^ ^ , - Thi nghiem 2: Fe + CUSO4 > C u i + FeS04 Fe + H 2 S 0 4 ( l ) — ^ F e S 0 4 + H2 Thoa man 3 dieu kien: Co 2 dien cue khae nhau (cue Fe, circ Cu), hai cue n6'i => Chi C O 1 thf nghiem. *>ap an dung la A true tiep vdi nhau, hai dien cue duge nhiing vao mot dung djch chat dien l i la 8. Truong hop nao sau day xay ra an mon dien hoa? dung djch CUSO4. A. Soi day bac nhiing trong dung djch H N O , . - Thf nghiem 3: Chi c6 mot dien cue (cue Cu). - Thf nghiem 4: Thoa man 3 dieu kien an mon dien hoa. B. Dot la sat trong khf C I 2 . Vay C O hai truong hop thoa man xua't hien an mon dien hoa (TN2 va TN4). C. Thanh nhom nhiing trong dung djch H2S04loang. ,, , Dap an dung la B. D. Thanh kern nhiing trong dung djch CUSO4 . 5. Co 4 dung djch rieng biet: H C l , CuCK, FeCl,, HCl c6 kin CuCK. Nhung vao m6i Huong ddn gidi dung djch mot thanh Fe nguyen chat. So truomg hop xua't hien an mon dien hoa la De xay ra an mon dien hoa thi pluii dong thai thoa man 3 diSu kien an mon dien A. 0. B. 1. C. 2. D . 3. hoa. Do do, thanh kern nhiing trong dung djch CUSO4 thi se xay ra an mon dien hoa. Huong ddn gidi Dap an diing la D. Cac truong hop thoii man 3 di^u kien an mon dien hoa la: 43
  13. I HUH l u i i i ;jmiu)i,n i)iiui> f^iui ui mm nui iz — i minn i uuii Cty TNHH MTV DVVH Khcwfj Viet 9. Neu vat lam bang hap kim Fe - Zn hi an mon dien hoa thl trong qua trinh an mon Chii y: Trucmg hop F e / d d A g N O , va F e / d d C u S 0 4 , liic d^u xua't hifen an mon A . s a t dong vai tro catot va ion H * hi oxi hoa hoa hoc, sau do xua't hien an mon difin hoa (vi thoa man 3 d i ^ u kifin cua Sn mon B. Sat dong vai tro anot va bj oxi hoa C. K e m dong vai tro catot bj oxi hoa difen hoa). D. K e m dong vai tro anot va bi oxi hoa. Huong dan gidi P a n g 7: B a t t a p d i e n p h a n Hop k i m F e - Z n bj an mon dien hoa: 1, Dien phan dung dich CUSO4 vdfi anot bang dong (anot tan) va di6n phan dung Anot (circ - ) : Zn Z n ^ ^ + 2e (bj an mon) djch CUSO4 vdri anot bang graphit (dien cue tro) dau c6 dac d i ^ m chung la: Catot (+, F e ) : IHjO + + 4e ^ 4 0 H " (chang ban) A . 6 catot xay ra sir o x i hoa: 2 H 2 O + 2e - > 2 0 H ~ + H2 Vay kem dong vai tro anot va bj oxi hoa. Dap an dung la D. B. 6 anot xay ra sirkhir: 2 H 2 O - > 0 2 + 4 H ^ + 4 e Chii y; Trong pin dien hoa: Cue am (bj an mon) la anot (noi xay ra qua trinh C. b anot xay ra sir oxi hoa: C u -> C u ^ ^ + 2e oxi hoa), cue ducmg la catot (duoc bao ve). 10. C o 5 dung djch rieng biet: D . 6 catot xay ra su khir: Cu^^ + 2 e - » Cu . a) H C l , b) CUSO4, c) F e , ( S 0 4 ) , „ d) HCl c6 iSn CuCK, e) Z n S 0 4 . Huong ddn gidi Nhiing vao m6i dung djch m6t thanh Fe nguyen chat. S6' trucmg hop xua't hifin Xet 2 qua trinh dien phan dung djch CUSO4: an mon d i ^ n hoa la * Dien phan vdri anot bang dong (cue duong tan): A. 3 B. 1 CO D. 2 Catot ( - ) : Cu^^ + 2e ^ Cu (sir khir Cu"" -> Cu) Hu&ng ddn gidi C a n c\X vao 3 dieu kien an mon dien hoa: Anot ( + ) : Cu -^Cu^"" + 2e (sir 6xi hoa Cu Cu"") - C o 2 dien cue khac nhau ve ban chat * Dien phan vdi anot bang graphit (dien cue tra): - Hai dien cue ndi true tiep hoac gian tiep v6i nhau qua day dSn. - Cling duoc nhiing vao mot dung djch chat dien l i . Catot ( - ) : Cu^ + 2 e - > C u Suy ra c6 2 trucmg hop xua't hien an mon dien hoa: Anot ( + ) : 2 H 2 O - > 4 H ^ + O2 + 4e (sir oxi hoa) - Fe - CUSO4 : F e + CUSO4 ¥cSO^ + C u i => Dac d i ^ m chung la cf catot xay ra sir khir Cu^"^ + 2e ^ Cu - Fe - CUCI2 / H C l : Fe + CUCI2 ^ FeCl2 + C u i D a p a n dung la D. Dap an dung la D. 2. Dien phan 500 m l dung djch CUSO4 0,2M (dien cue tro) cho den khi a catot thu duoc 11. C o 4 dung djch rieng biet: H C l , FeCl,, A g N O , , CUSO4. Nhung vao m6i dung 3,2 gam kim loai thi the ti'ch khi (dktc) thu duoc a anot la djch mot thanh F e nguyen chat. So truonig hop xua't hien an mon hoa hoc la A . 2,24 lit B. 1,12 lit C. 3,36 l i t D . 0,56 l i t A. 4 B. 2 C. 1 ' D. 3 ' Huong ddn gidi Huong ddn gidi K i m loai thu diroc la Cu: nc^. = 3 , 2 / 6 4 - 0 , 0 5 ( m o l ) Xua't hien an mon hoa hoc khi c6 xay ra phan ling hoa hoc. V I k i m loai F e deu phan ling duoc vai cac dung djch nay nen dfiu xuat hien an mon hoa hoc: 2CUSO4 + 2 H 2 O 2Cu i + 0 2 ! +2H2SO4 ; 1) F e + 2 H C I ^ F e C l 2 + H2 t catot(-) anot(+) ; ^ : 2) F e + 2FeCl3 ^ 3 F e C l 2 0,05 -> 0,025(mol) 3) F e + 2 A g N 0 3 - ^ F e ( N 0 3 ) 2 + 2 A g 4 The ti'ch khi thu duoc 0 anot: V^^^^^^,) = 0,025.22,4 = 0 , 5 6 ( l ) 4) F e + CUSO4 ^ FeS04 + C u I D a p an diing la D. D a p an dung la A. 44
  14. Phau loai va pinfcng phcip fjicii BT Hoa hoc 12 -Cii Thanh Toari Cty TNHH MTV DVVH Khani- Viet 3. Hoa tan 13,68 gam muoi MSO4 vao nuac duoc dung dich X . Dien phan X (voi 200.10 dien circ tro, cuonig do dong dien khong doi) trong thofi gian t giay, dirge y gam k i m loai M duy nha't a catot va 0,035 mol khi a anot. Con neu thbi gian dien - Khoi luong dung djch sau khi ngirng dien phan: dd'^ S.: >:> i phan la 2t giay thi t6ng so mol khi thu dugc a ca hai dien cue la 0,1245 mol. Gia trj cua y la • A . 4,480. B. 3,920. C. 1,680. D. 4,788. - Khdi luong dung dich bi giam chinh b i n g khdi lugng H . O bi dien phan: Huong dan gidi * K h i t (giay): m (bj dien phan) = 200 - 80 = 1 2 0 (gam). MSO4 + H 2 0 - —>M4+H2S04 + 0,502 ^ => n H20 C'i dien phan) = ^^(mol) 0,07 H . T + ^ O.T MSO4 +H2O - > M i + H2S04 + 0 , 5 0 2 '20, n 120, „ 6 0 ^ ,^ -(mol) > (mol)—(mol) H2O - ^ H 2 t + 0,502 ^ 18 18 18 Catot anot ^120 60 vay Vk,,,H2,0 2) = -+• . 22,4 = 22,4 (lit) Dap an diing la C. Anot(+): H2O- • 2 H + + 0 , 5 0 2 ^ + 2e V 18 18, (0,035.2) ^ 0 , 2 8 ( m o l ) 5. Khi didn phan NaCl nong chay (dien cue tro), tai catot xay ra A . sir khir ion Na"^. B. sir oxi hoa ion CP. Catot (-): M^+ + 2e- C. su oxi hoa ion Na*. D. su khiJr ion CI". a Na Cac qua trinh xay ra: NaCl — ^ ^ j — — > Na" + CP 2b < - b(mol) 6 catot (cue - ): Na* + le > Na (su khir) •< X. ' 2a + 2b = 0,28 Ta c6: >a = 0,085; b = 0,0545 6 anot (cue + ): 2Cr > C I . + 2e (su oxi hoa) b +0,035.2 =0,1245 Tai catot xay ra su khir ion Na*. Dap an dung la A . X a c d i n h M : a = 13,68/(M + 96) 6. Dien phan (vdi dien cue tro) 200ml dung djch CUSO4 nong do x moi/1, sau mot ^ 0 , 0 8 5 5 = 13,68/(M + 96) + 96 = 160 ^ M = 6 4 ( C u ) thoi gian thu dugc dung dich Y viln con mau xanh, c6 khdi lugng giam 8 gam so v6i dung dich ban dau. Cho 16,8 gam bgt sat vao Y , sau khi cac phan lifng xay ra Vay y = 0,07.64 = 4 , 4 8 0 ( g ) Dap an diing la A . hoan toan, thu dugc 12,4 gam k i m loai. Gia trj ciia x la 4. Tien hanh dien phan (dien cue tro) 200 gam dung dich N a O H 10% den khi dung A . 1,50. B. 3,25. C. 1,25 D . 2,25. dich N a O H trong binh dien phan c6 nong do 25% thi dirng lai. Tlie tich khi 0 Huong ddn gidi hai dien cue da thoat ra (6 dktc) la A . 22,4 l i t . B. 168 lit. C. 224 l i t . D . 112 lit. P T H H : CuS04 + H 2 0 ^ C u i + ^ 0 2 t + H 2 S 0 4 ^o't- Huong dan gidi a ^ a - > 0,5a a i - K h i dien phan dung dich NaOH thi H^O bi dien phan: Tacd: 64a + 32.0,5a = 8 = ^ 8 0 a = 8 = > a = 0 , l . . ; 2H.0 2H:t + 0,T Fe + CUSO4 FeS04 + Cu i - Khdi luong NaOH khong thay doi (nhung do lugng H . O giam dan nen nong do N a O H tang dan). Phan ling b b (mol)
  15. Phan loai va pliKcfng phdp fiicU BT H6a lux- 12 — Cii Thanh Toan S. Dien phan 100ml dung dich Fe2(S04)3 I M (dien cue tro), vdi cucmg do dong difn I = Fe + H2S04(l)^>FeS04 + H 2 t 2,68A trong th6i gian t gior thl bat ddu c6 khi thoat ra or catot (hieu sua't ciia qua trinh O.I b = 0,l5. Hu&ngddngidi Dodo nc„,so4 =a + b = 0,l + 0,15 = 0,25(mol). Theobaira: nFe2(S04)3 =0'^ 1 = 0 - ' ("^oO ' ' Vay X =0,25/0,2-1,25(M). D a p a n diing l a C. Trudc tien: Fe.(S04)3 + H^O 2FeS04 + H.SO4+ - O j Chu y: Axit H2SO4 (sinh ra do dien phan dung djch CUSO4) tac dung vdi Fe. 0,1 0,2 0,1 ' 7, Dien phan 150ml dung djch AgNO^ I M v6\n circ tro trong t gicf, cuong d6 Khi Fe2(504)3 het thi tao ra dung djch CO dong dien khong d6i 2,68A (hieu sua't qua trinh dien phSn la 100%), thu duoc [H*] = 0,1. 2/ 0,1 = 2M, nfin tiep theo se bj khir a catot: chat ran X, dung djch Y va khf Z. Cho 12,6 gam Fe vao Y, sau khi cac phan utig 2H* + 2e ^ H , t ke't thuc thu duoc 14,5 gam h6n hop kim loai va khi N O (san phdm khir duy nha't Do do, trong thcri gian t thi chi c6 Fe2(S04)3 bj dien phan theo phuong trinh tren, cua N''^ ) . Gia trj cua t la hay noi each khac, o catot Fe^* bj khir hoan toan thanh Fe"*. A. 1,2. B. 0,3. C.0,8. D. 1,0. Fe-^* + ' le ^ Fe-* Huong dan gidi (0,1.2) (mol) Theobaira: n^^^j^Q^ =0,15.1 =0,15mol. A p dung phuong trinh Faraday, ta c6: t = (^'^-^^-^-^^^^^-2 (gi^) Fe + Y -> h6n hop kim loai (=> Ag, Fe du) 2,68.3600 D a p a n d u n g ]a C. => Trong Y c6 AgNO, (AgNO, chua bj dien phan he't). Chii v: Trong day dien hod: Fe'V Fe, H^/H,, Fe'*/Fe-* ndn trir6c tien Fe^* se bj Goi X , y Idn luot la so mol AgNO, bi dien phan va s6' mol AgNOj chua bi dien khir thanh Fe"* (chu" khong tao thanh Fe), sau do H* -> H. t , ti^'p den Fe"* -> Fe phan =>x + y = 0,15. 9. Khi dien phan mot dung djch vori dien cue tro, khong mang ngan thi dung djch 2AgN03 + H2O ^ 2Ag + 2HNO3 + 1 /2O2 sau dien phan c6 pH tang so vdi dung djch truoc khi didn phan. Vay dung dich X X ^ X dem dien phan la 8HNO3+3Fe (du) ^ 3 F e ( N 0 3 ) 2 + 2NO + 4H20 A. dung dich CUSO4 B. dung dich NaQ C. dung djch H2SO4 D. dung djch H N O 3 X -> 3x/8 Hu&ng ddn gidi 2AgN03 + Fe (du) -> Fe(N03)2 + ^Ag i Phuong trinh didn phan cac dung djch: y -> y/2 ^ y * Dung dich CUSO4: CUSO4 + H 2 0 ^ C u + H2S04 +^0^ Ta c6: 12,6 - (3x /8 + y/2).56 + 108y = 14,5 => 80y - 2 Ix = 1,9 =^ X = 0, l;y = 0,05. tang (do sinh ra H2SO4 va the' tich dung djch giam vi H^O bj dien So mol electron trao ddi: n^ = nA . 1 = 0,1 (mol) phan) => pH giam. * Dung djch NaCl (khong c6 mang ngan): Matkhac: n, = - ^ t = n , . F / I 2NaCl + 2H2O > 2NaOH + CI2 + H2 ; =^ t = 0,1.96500/ 2,68 = 3600s = 1 gid Dap a n dung la D. CI 2 + 2 N a O H - » NaCl + NaClO + H2O NaClO bj thuy phan: , NaClO + H2O ?=> NaOH + HCIO 40
  16. riuiii I QUI va pliircfiifi pimp giai HI Hon hoc 12 - Ci'i Thanh Toan OH tang => p H tang. n^j, = 22,7/108 = 0,21mol > n^p,sj(,^ r=> v6 ly. Vay k i m loai Fe con d u Dodo: * Dung dich H,S04: H.O ^ H, + - O , ' ' • ' Fe + 2AgN03 -> F e ( N 0 3 ) , + 2 A g i V i lucmg H i O bi dien phdn nen cang giam 0,5.(0,2-x) (0,2-x)mol the ti'ch giam =>[H*| tang => pH giiim. * Dung dich HNO,: Tucmg tir H , S 0 4 . Dap an diing la B. 3Fe + 8 H N 0 3 ^ 3 F e ( N 0 3 ) 2 + 2 N O + 4 H 2 O 10. Dien phAn vdi didn circ trof dung dich nao sau day thl pH ciia dung djch khong 3x/8^x (mol) thay doi trong qua trinh dien phan? A. CuCK B. A g N O , C. NaNO, D. HCi Chat rdn gom: (0,2 - x ) m o l A g .. , Huong dan gidi va 0 , 3 - 0 , 5 . ( 0 , 2 - x ) - 3 x / 8 = ( l , 6 + x)/8molFe Theo bai ra, ta cd: (0,2 - x ) . 108 + 5 6 . ( 1 , 6 + x ) / 8 - 2 2 , 7 - Dung dich CuCK: CuClj -> Cu"^ + 2C\' => 2 1 , 6 - 1 0 8 x + 11,2 + 7x = 22,7 =^ lOlx - 101 =^ X = 0,1 Cu^^ + H20 pH trirdc va sau dien phan thay doi. 12. Tien hanh dien phan (vdi dien circ tro) V li't dung dich CuCl, 0,5M. Khi dirng - Dung dich A g N O , : dien phan thu dugc dung djch X va 1,68 lit khi CK (dktc) duy nhat d anot. Toan 4 A g N 0 3 + 2 H 2 O 4 A g + 4 H N O 3 + O2 b6 dung dich X tac diing vira dii vdi 12,6 gam Fe. Gia tri ciia V la A . 0,45. B. 0,80. C.0,60. D.0,15. => p H thay doi. Huong dan gidi ^ - Dung dich NaNO,: 2 H 2 O 2H 2 + O2 T h e o b a i r a : n ^ , = 0,075inol;np,. = 0,225mol => pH kh6ng thay d6i CUCI2 -> CU + CI2 , - Dung dich HCI: 2HCI -> H2 + CI2 0,075 pH thay doi. R a p an diing la C. CuClj + Fe ^ FeClj+Cu 11. Dien phan dien circ t r o d u n g dich chiia 0,2 mol A g N O , vdi cirdng do dong dien 2,68 A, trong thdi gian t g i d thu dugc dung dich X (hieu suat qua trinh dien phan 0,225 2Ag i + 2HNO3 + ^ 0 3 ! cua dung dich N a O H la A. 0,15M. B.0,2M. C. 0,1M. D. 0,05M. X -> X x(mol) Huong dan gidi ift'v: ; ^ => Trong dung dich X cd x mol H N O , va (0,2 - x) mol A g N O , . T h e o b a i r a : nc.„ = — = 0,005 (mol); Gia sir k i m loai Fe het thi chat riin la A g 64 , , nNaOH.uu. = 0 , 2 . 0 , 0 5 = 0,01 (mol).
  17. rh(1?i logi vd plfinr/ii^ priap i^iai IJl 11 oa nOC IZ -Lii 1 hanli 1 pan cry 1 i\/itTivii V uvvn p^nun^ vrer Cac PTPU' xay ra: Cu-* + 2e > Cu i Cuci, ""'^ > cui + a,T , y 2y y n. 0,005 mol ^ 0,005 mol CO khi thoat ra 0 catot (cue am) thi H2O bi dien phan: CI, + 2NaOH > NaCl + NaClO + H^O 2H2O + 2e > 2 0 H ' + H j t , khi H.O phong difn thi A g \* da phong 0,005 mol -> 0,01 mol dienhet. ' ' nNnOH 2M i + O2 t + 2 H 2 S O 4 FeClj >FeCl2+^Cl2T , - ^. A.I.t m.n.F ii'j > b) Tu m = =>A = 0,1 ^ 0,05 n.F I.t -n, A- ^ . ' u ^ A 1,92.2.96500 , ^ CUCI2 > Cu + CI2 t Thay s6 vao, ta tmh diroc: A = = 64 (Cu) 3.1930 ^ ^ 0,2 ^ 0,2 Vay kim loai hoa tri I I la dong. Khi thu duoc b anot la CI2: n^-^^ = 0,05 + 0,2 = 0,25mol '»*' Dang 8: Bai tap dien phan h6n hop => Vp^ = 0,25.22,4 = 5,60(1) Dap an dung la A. Chii v: - ThiJ tu PTDP xay ra: 1. Dien phan 200 ml mot dung djch c6 chila 2 mu6'i la Cu(N03)2 va AgNO, v6i ciromg do dong dien la 0,402A den khi hot khi bat dau thoat ra a catot thi ma't FeCl3-^FeCl2+^Cl2 thori gian la 4 gicK, khi do khoi luong cue am tang them 3,44 gam. C U C I 2 - ^ C u + Clj Ndng do mol cua AgNO, trong dung dich ban ddu la A.O.IM. B.0,15M. C.0,2M. D. 0,05M. 2HC1-> H2 T+CI2 ,^ , , ' Huong dan gidi F e C l 2 - > F e + Cl2 " ,,(1 Thii tu cac qua trinh xay ra a catot: - De ra bai nay thieu dilu kien mang ngan xe'p d^ can tror phan ling: Ag* + le > Agi ,1 f CI2 + 2FeCl2 ( d d ) 2 F e C l 3 >: X Ix X
  18. 3. Dien phan (dien circ tio, khong mang ngan, hieu sufl't 100%) dung dich chita 0,15 Cu-* + 2e Cu i mol Cu(NO,)2 va 0,1 mol Fe(NO,), bang dong dien c6 circmg d6 lOA. Khoi 0,2 -> 0,2 (mol) luong catot tang len sau 5790 giay dien phan la v a y mc„ = m,,,„, ,„„y, = 0,2. 64= 12,8 gam D a p a n d i i n g l a A. A. 9,6 gam B. 9,8 gam C. 15,2 gam D. 15,4 gam 5. Dien phan v6i dien cue tra (hieu suat 100%) dung djch chua d6ng thai 0,04 mol Huong ddn gidi Fe(NO,)3 va 0,02 mol H N O , vdfi cucnig do dong dien 1 A. Sau 48 phiit 15 giay thi Tac6:n ^+ = 0 , l m o l ; n 2+ =0.15mol t':;',it) ngtrng dien phan. De yen blnh dien phan de cac phan ling xay ra hoan toan thi Fc' Cu thu duoc 200 ml dung dich c6 pH la o- . . It 10.5790 S6 mol electron trao doi: n,. = — = 0,6( m o l ) A. 2 B. 0,15 C. 1,3 D. 0,6 F 96500 ^ ' Huong ddn gidi Cac qua trinh xay ra a catot (-): Thcri gian dien phan: 48 phut 15 giay = 2895 (s) Fe^^ + le Fe'^ i) Thu t u trong day dien hoa: F e ' V F e ; H V H 2 ; Fe'^VFe"^ 0,1->0,1 ^ 0,1 ( m o l ) N6n chat bi dien pluui trirdc tien se la: Cu^^ + 2e Cu i 2Fe(NO,), + H.O ^ 2Fe(NO,), + 2HNO3 + ^ O j T * ' •' 0,15->0,3->0,15(mol) Theo cong thuc Faraday ta ti'nh duoc so mol Fe(NO,),i bi dien phan: 2H^ + 2e ^ H2 I.t 1.2895 np,./K.o,\i dicn phan) = — = 0,03(mol) (0,6-0,1-0,3) ^'^^^^h „.F 1.96500 H* duofc sinh ra do qua trinh oxi hoa H.O 0 catot: =^"FC(N(),), = 0 . 0 3 ( m o l ) ^ n „ N ( ) , = 0 , 0 2 + 0,03 = 0 , 0 5 ( m o l ) . 2H20^4H^+02+4e Sau do xay ra phan u^ng thu ca'p: 0,6 2 A g + 2HN03 + ^ 0 2 liiiC'"; 1 • • PTDP: Fe'*+le-^Fe-*(dol) 0,2 .0,2->0,2 54 55
  19. „ Taco: — = F => 0,2. 1 + Cu(N03)2 + H 2 O ^ C u + 2 H N 0 3 + - 0 2 X , I . t 10.(48.60+15) 96500 X. =0,3 2 = 0,3 => X -> X ^ = 0,05 (mol) 2x •>if.i • .• w Va„„, - Vc,2 + = 1,792 (lit). g Cho sua't dien dong chuan ciaa cac pin dien hoa: =(0,06+0,02).22,4 D a p a n diing la A . E ° N i - x ) = 0 , 4 0 V ; E | ' Y _ N i ) = 0 , 5 0 V ; E | ^ N i - Z ) =•''76 ( X , Y , Z l a cac k i m loai khac sat). K h i didn phan dung dich h6n hop mu6'i clorua tao ra tCr cac k i m loai X , Y , Z N i thi thii tir thu dugc cac k i m loai a catot la Suy ra: Sau khi ngimg dien phan c6: A A.Z,X,Ni,Y B. X , Y , N i , Z C. Z , N i , X , Y D. Y, X, N i , Z. 0,2mol A g ; 0,05mol Cu; Huong ddn gidi 0,2 + 0,1 = 0 , 3 mol HNO3 Ti'nh khir cac k i m loai tang ddn theo trat tir: Z < X < N i < Y PTPi;: Do do, thu" t u thu dugc cac k i m loai a catot khi dien phan la Z , X , N i , Y . 3Cu + 8 H N O 3 3Cu(NO3 )2 + 2 N O t + 4 H 2 O D a p an dung la A. 0,05 ^ 0 , 4 / 3 ^ 0,1/3 9, Tien hanh dien phan dung dich 500ml h6n hgp A g N O , ; Cu(N03),; Fe(NO,),,; 3 A g + 4 H N 0 3 -^3AgN03 + N 0 T + 2H2O Pb(N03)2 ( cac cha't c6 cung nong do 0,2M) biing dong dien c6 cuong do 9,65A. 0,5 05 V3-MI £>i thu dugc 560ml k h i thoat ra 6 catot thi can thcfi gian dien phan la (the ti'ch 3 ) 12 khi do or dktc, ditn cue tro, hieu sua't di6n phan 100%) 0,1 0,5 A. 4500s. B. 8500s. C. 6500s. D . 1000s. vay V=V^o = • + .22,4 = 1,68 (lit) D a p a n diing la C. Huong ddn gidi y J \ j Cdch 1: 7. Tien hanh dien phan 200 m l dung djch X g6m H C l 0 , 6 M va CUSO4 I M \6\ cuomg do dong dien I = 2,68 ampe trong thdi gian 2 gior (dien cue tro, c6 mang Theo bai ra: n^^+ = " p ^ . H " "cu^* " " p b ^ * " ^ ' ^ ngan, hieu sua't dien phan 100%). The ti'ch khi thoat ra b anot ( 0 dktc) la n kh,. = 560/ 22400 = 0,025 m o l . A. 1,792 lit B. 2,688 lit C. 2,24 1ft D . 1,344 lit Thii tif phong dien o catot: Hu&ng dan gidi Ag"^ + le - > A g i Theo bai ra: nHci = 0,12 m o l ; n^^^^ = 0,2mol ,/ () 0,1 - > 0,1 ( m o l ) 6 anot (cue duong): Fe''* + le->Fe2+ ( d d ) Trudc tien: cr -e -cu t (1) 0,1
  20. Cdch 2: V i mjd g i a m = 10,75(g) < m c , ^ + m ^ , = 1 3 , 1 5 ( g ) A.I.t I.t _ , Pc-n-F Tir nif. = He = — => t = — = > C u ^ ^ chua bj d i c n phan het, d o d o t r o n g d u n g djch sau dien phan c 6 C U ( N 0 3 ) ^ . iiF iiF I . D o d o l o n g thcfi g i a n d i d n phan ciln thiet la: Khi Cr bj d i e n phan het t h i : ' ' " ' 0,I.1.965(X)^ 0,1.2.96500 0,025.2.96500 t = 2. - 4500(s) m c , ^ t + " V u i = 0 , 0 5 . 7 1 + 0,05.64 = 6 , 7 5 ( g ) < 1 0 , 7 5 ( g ) , 9,65 + 9,65 +- 9,65 1 0 . D i e n philn c 6 m a n g ngan 5 0 0 m l d u n g d j c h c h i i a h 6 n h o p g o m C u C U 0 , 1 M va :r>Cr bj d i e n p h a n het va H , 0 da bj o x i hoa (V anot: , , "'^ " N a C l 0 , 5 M ( d i e n circ t r o , h i e u suat d i e n phan 1 0 0 % ) v6\g d o d o n g d i e n 5 A t r o n g 3 8 6 0 g i a y . D u n g d j c h t h u dirge sau d i e n phan eo k h a n a n g hoa tan m gam H , 0 - > 2 H " + - 0 , + 2 e 2 - A l . G i a t r j Ion nhat cua m la A . 5,40. B. 1,35. C. 2,70. D. 4,05. V a y t r o n g d u n g d j c h co: K \ * ,Cu"^ ,NO, ti'rc la co cac chat t a n : Huong dan gidi KN0,,HN0„Cu(N03),. T h e o bai ra: n c c , , = 0,5. 0.1 = 0,05 ( m o l ) . D a p a n d i i n g l a 1). n^aci = 0,5. 0,5 = 0,25 ( m o l ) . 12. D i e n phan 20()ml d u n g d j c h l i 6 n h g j i g o m N a C I 0 , 5 M va C u ( N O , ) : 0 , 7 5 M ( d i c n D e k h i r het i o n C u " * t h l thcji g i a n d i e n phan can: cue t r o , CO m a n g n g a n ) den k h i k h o i l i r g n g d u n g d j c h g i a m 1 1,65 g a m t h i d i r n g ( C u - * + 2e > C u i , day la qua t r i n h khir xay ra dau t i e n ) l a i . D u n g d j c h t i n i dirge sau d i c n phan ehira cac chat tan la mc„.n.F 0,05.64.2.96500 to, = = — = 1930 ( g i a y ) < 3 8 6 0 ( g i a y ) . A . N a C I va C u ( N O , ) : B. N a N O , , H N O , va C i i ( N O , ) : A.I 64.5 C . N a N O , va C u ( N O , ) : D. N a N O , , N a C I va C u ( N O , ) : => T h o i g i a n d i e n phan H , 0 ( d catot) la 3 8 6 0 - 1930 = 1930 ( g i a y ) . Huong dan gidi 2 H , 0 + 2e > 20H"+H,t Theobaira: nj^j.^i-"0,2.0,5-0,1 (mol) c - It 5.1930 , ^ ,^ i \ "cu,Nm,, = 0,05. 64 + 0,05. 7 I = 6,75 ( g a m ) .Oi:.: . 2H'+|o, T 1 1 . D i e n phan d u n g d j c h g o m 7,45 g a m K C I va 28,2 g a m C u ( N O , ) , ( d i e n cue t r o , -Tieplhco: C u ^ ' + H , O ^ ^ C u i + m a n g ngan x o p ) d e n k h i k h o i l u g n g d u n g d j c h g i a m d i 10,75 g a m t h i n g i r n g d i e n phan (gia thiet l i r g n g nirdrc bay h o i k h o n g d a n g k e ) . Tat ea cac cha't tan t r o n g d u n g d j c h sau d i e n phan la 0,1 > 0,1 -> 0,05 md.,„a ,„ = 0,1.64 + (),05.32 = 8(gam) A . K N O , va K O H . B. K N O „ K C I va K O H . V I m,,,,„„ + m,,,„ ,„„ = 6,75 + 8 = 14,75g ( > 11,65 g a m ) ^ Qr* chua b, C. KNO3 va C u ( N O j ) , . D . K N O „ H N O , va C u ( N 0 j ) 3 . d i e n phan het ( C f da bj d i c n plnui het). ... Huong dan gidi T h e o b a i ra: ^^^Q\1 m o l => n _ —0,1 m o l V a y d u n g d j c h t h u d u g c c h u a chat t a n : C u ( N O , ) , ; H N O , ; N a N O , , D a p a n d i i n g l a 15. "cu(N03)2 = 0 , 1 5 ( m o l ) = > n ^ . ^ 2 ^ =0,15mol 59

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