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Mô hình hóa quá trình chiết polyphenol từ quả sim thu hái tại Hòa Bình

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Mô hình hóa quá trình chiết polyphenol từ quả sim thu hái tại Hòa Bình

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Hàm lượng polyphenol tổng số, anthocyanin tổng số và khả năng chống oxi hóa của quả sim chín thu hái tại Hòa Bình được xác định. Kết quả cho thấy quả sim là nguồn polyphenol lớn có thể ứng dụng trong công nghiệp thực phẩm và công nghiệp dược. Ảnh hưởng của một số yếu tố công nghệ: loại dung môi, nồng độ dung môi, nhiệt độ, pH và thời gian đến hiệu suất thu hồi polyphenol đã được xác định, Mô hình mô tả quá trình tách chiết polyphenol từ quả sim Y = f(nồng độ methanol, pH, nhiệt độ, thời gian) đã được xây dựng.

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Nội dung Text: Mô hình hóa quá trình chiết polyphenol từ quả sim thu hái tại Hòa Bình

TC.DD & TPO (3+4) - 2010<br /> <br /> 1. Clemens Kunz, Maria Rodriguez- 9. Thuy PV, Ladodo KS, lasuc GV (2000).<br /> " •' Palmero (1999). Nutrition and biochemi- Quantity of breastmilk and its microele-<br /> cal properties of human milk, part I. ments and toxic chemicals determination.<br /> Clinical Aspects of Human Milk and In; Current research in nutrition and food<br /> Lactation. Volume 26 No2. hygiene and safety. National Institute of<br /> 8. Namiko Yamawaki, Mio Yamada, Akie Nutrition, Vietnam. Medical Publishing<br /> Yonekubo (2005). Macronutrient, mineral House; 140-148.<br /> and trace element composition of breast 10. MedSafe Editorial Team. "Selenium".<br /> milk from Japanese women. Joumal of New Zealand Medicines and Medical<br /> trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Devices Safety Retrieved 2009-07-13.<br /> 19: 171-181.<br /> <br /> Summary<br /> EVALUATION OF MINERAL COMPOSITION IN BREAST-MILK OF MOTHERS IN<br /> HANOI AND HO CHI MINH CITIES<br /> A cross-sectional survey aimed to evaluate the breast-milk composition of Vietnamese mother<br /> from 29 to 120 days of lactation period was carried out in 91 mothers in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh<br /> cities. 60 indicators were assessed in Laboratory, including 10 minerals. Results, the level of these<br /> 10 compositions vary in large by individual. The concentration of zinc, magnesium, has a trend of<br /> decreasing by the lactating periods. It is significant differences in the some breast milk concentra-<br /> tions of mineral between the mothers in Hanoi and mothers in Ho Chi Minh: the levels of phosphor,<br /> natri, in the breast milk of Ho Chi Minh city's mothers were higher markedly than that in the<br /> Hanoi's mothers; in contrary, the levels of kali, calcium, copper, selen in the breast milk of the<br /> Hanoi's mothers was higher than in that of the Ho Chi Minh city's mothers. There are a significant<br /> positive relationship between the level of zinc in mother diet and the level of zinc in breast milk.<br /> Key words: breast-milk composition, minerals in breastmilk, lactating mothers in Vietnam<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> MO HtNH HQA QUA T R I N I J CfflBT POLYPHENOL<br /> Ttr QUA SIM THU HAI TAI HOA BtNH<br /> Lai Thi Ngge Hd', Nguyen Thi Na ^, Le Thi Trang ^<br /> <br /> Ham lugng polyphenol tong so, anthocyanin tdng so va kha nang chong oxi h6a ciia qua sim chin<br /> thu hai tai Hoa Binh dugc xac dinh. Ket qua cho thay qua sim la nguon polyphenol ldn c6 the iing<br /> dung trong cong nghiep thuc pham va cong nghiep dugc. Anh hudng ciia mgt so yeu to cong nghe:<br /> loai dung moi, nong do dung moi, nhiet do, pH va thdi gian din hieu suit thu hoi polyphenol da<br /> dugc xac dinh. Md hinh mo ta qua trinh tach chiit polyphenol tu qua sim Y(pg GAE/g CK) = f<br /> (ning do methanol, pH, nhiet do, thdi gian) da dugc xay dung.<br /> Tir khoa: qud sim, chiet, polyphenol, khd ndng khdng oxi hoa, nhiet do, pH, mo hinh.<br /> <br /> <br /> ' Ths - Khoa Cong nghe thLrc,pham, Dai hoc nong nghiep Ha Npi<br /> - Sinh vien - Ldp BQCBA K51, Dai hoc nong nghiep Ha Noi<br /> <br /> 191<br /> TC.DD & TPO (3+4) - 2010<br /> <br /> I. DAT VAN DE polyphenol vl dugc dung llm thude: re<br /> CIc hgp chit boat ddng chira oxi v l chua benh dau tim, II tin nhiet, ddc, d m<br /> nita (ROS - Reactive Oxygen Species huyet, nif mii, sinb da non; qui In dugc<br /> and RNS - Reactive Nitrogen Species) cd vi nggt chit, tinh binh, dugc dimg llm<br /> dugc tao ra mgt cich tit yeu trong ca the, rugu bd; nu cbiia tieu chiy. Qui sim khi<br /> 11 sin pham cua cic qui trinh oxi hda. chin cd him Iugng anthocyanin cao llm<br /> Tuy nhien d c ROS va RNS phin iing rIf qui cd mlu tim sim.<br /> nhanh vdi cac phan tii quanh nd do do Hien nay, d Viet Nam, viec sii dung<br /> gay tdn thuang va llm thay ddi gil fri sim chua diing vdi gil tri cua nd. Trong<br /> sinh hgc cua d c dai phan tir sinh hgc nhu quan niem cua ngudi din, dly II Ioai d y<br /> DNA, protein, lipid. Su phi hiiy d c dai dai it cd gil fri kinh te. Hg chi su dung<br /> phan tu sinh hgc bdi ROS v l RNS 11 thin d y lam cui dun, mdt phin qui dugc<br /> nguyen nhan cua rat nhieu benh nguy thu hii de bin cho tre con In cdn lai da<br /> hiem: huyet Ip cao, tim mach, d c benh phin de tu thdi hdng tiong rimg. Vdi hien<br /> lien quan den bien di di truyen, ung thu, trang nhu vay, d y sim da dugc xep vio<br /> lao hda sdm v l cic benh suy gilm he than danh sach 240 loai d y chua khai thic<br /> kinh. Tic dgng cd bai ciia cic ROS va diing tiem ning "Neglected and Under-<br /> RNS dugc d n blng bdi boat ddng cua utilised Crop Species" (NUS) cua Viet<br /> cic chat chdng oxi hda cd san trong ca Nam, Trung Qudc, Thii Lan, Campuchia.<br /> the la d c protein (ferritine, fransferrine, Viec nghien ciiu tich chief polyphenol fir<br /> albumine, protein sdc nhiet), d c enzyme qua sim mgt mat cho ta d c dir lieu khoa<br /> chdng oxi hda (superoxyde dismufase, hgc ve qui sim, die biet 11 khi ning<br /> glutathion peroxydase, cafalase) va cic chdng oxi hda mat khic giup ta cd dugc<br /> chit chdng oxi hda fu nhien dugc dua vao dich chief giiu polyphenol iing dung<br /> qua con dudng thiic In. trong blo quin thuc pham v l tao d c sin<br /> Trong sd d c chat chdng oxi hda tu pham thuc phim chiic ning.<br /> nhien, pol3q3henol 11 nhdm chat rat dugc Muc tieu cua nghien ciiu nay 11 xay<br /> quan tim nhiing nim gin dly bdi le dly dung md hinh mieu tl Inh hudng cua mdt<br /> la nhdm hgp chit rat phd bien trong tu sd yeu fd cdng nghe den qui trinh tich<br /> nhien v l chiing the hien nhieu die tinh chief polyphenol fir qui sim, cdng doan<br /> sinh hgc quy die biet 11 khi ning chdng dau tien cua viec xly dung qui trinh chief<br /> oxi hda, chdng viem, chdng di ung vl khi tich va llm sach dich chief polyphenol de<br /> ning khing khuin (Tapiero et al., 2002, ling dung trong cdng nghiep thuc phim<br /> Alberto et a l , 2006). Nhilu kit qui thu va cdng nghiep dugc.<br /> nghiem cho thay che do an giiu polyphe- IL VAT LIEU VA PHlTONG PHAP<br /> nol (qui, rau, ngii cde nguyen dang, rugu NGHIEN c t r u<br /> vang dd, til) cho phep ban che su xuat I. Vat lieu va hoa chat<br /> hien cac benh gay nen bdi boat ddng cd Qui sim chin dugc thu hii tai Hoi Binh<br /> hai cua d c ROS v l RNS (Hung et al.,<br /> cd mlu tim dd, qui cing. Qui dugc blo<br /> 2004; Haliwell, 1994).<br /> quan trong da vl chd ve phdng thi<br /> Sim- Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Ait.) nghiem trong ngay. Tai phdng thi<br /> Hassk 11 d y dugc su dung fir llu trong nghiem, qui dugc nia sach v l ddng kho<br /> din gian de chiia benh. Theo Tap chi Cay tai -58^0 trong 5 ngly. Qui ddng khd sau<br /> thuoc quy, toln bd d y sim deu chii'a<br /> <br /> 192<br /> TC.DD & TPO (3+4) - 2010<br /> <br /> dd dugc nghien min vl blo quin d -50°C Trong dd<br /> dudi nito khi.<br /> A=(-^520 - A7p0)pHr (^520 - A700)pH4.5<br /> Acid galhc, AAPH (2, 2'-Azobis (2- f: he sd pha loang<br /> amidino-propane) dihydrochlorid), thude 1: chieu dly cuvette (cm)<br /> thu Folin - Ciocalteu, Trolox (6-hydroxy-<br /> V: fhl tich dich chiit (1)<br /> 2, 5, 7, 8-feframefbyl-2-carbocylic acid),<br /> fluorescein ciia Sigma (Diic). CIc dung m: khdi lugng mlu (g)<br /> mdi ethanol, methanol, aceton, MW = 449,2 g/mol vl e = 26.900<br /> ethylaeetat; hda chit Na2C03, KCI, 1/mol/cm la khdi lugng phin tii vl do hip<br /> CH3COONa.3H20, acid acetic, acid thu phin fir ciia cyanidin-3-glucoside (an-<br /> chlohydric ciia Trung Qudc. thocyanin phd bien trong tu nhien).<br /> 2. Phuong phap nghien ciru Him lugng anthocyanin dugc bieu dien<br /> 2.1. Phwffng phdp hoa sinh blng mg duang lugng cyanidin-3-<br /> 2.1.1. Hdm luang polyphenol tong so glucoside trong 1 g chat khd mau (mg<br /> CGE/g CK - mg Cyanidin-3-Glucoside<br /> Ham lugng polyphenol tdng sd dugc Equivalent/g chit khd).<br /> xlc dinh blng phuang pblp Folin-Ciocal-<br /> teu (Singleton et Rossi, 1965). 500pldich 2.1.3. Khd ndng chong oxi hoa<br /> chief dugc dua vio dng nghiem, them BChl ning chdng oxi hda dugc xlc dinh<br /> 250pl thuoc thii Folin - Ciocalteu IN, lac blng phuong pblp ORAC (Oxygen Rad-<br /> diu sau dd them 1250pl Na2C03 7,5%. ical Absorbance Capacity) (Ou et al.,<br /> Sau 30 phiit, do do hap thu ciia hdn hgp 2001). Thi nghiem dugc fien hinh tren<br /> tai 755nm. Gallic acid dugc dung lam bin 96 gieng (VWR) v l miy do huynh<br /> chit chuin (y = 0,0299x + 0,0095; R^ = quang (Fluoroskan Ascent FL, Thermo<br /> 0,9989). Him lugng polyphenol dugc Electron Corporation). 25pl mlu da pha<br /> bieu dien theo microgramme duang loang trong dem phosphate pH 7,4 hole<br /> lugng acid gallic trong 1 g chat khd mau dung dich dem (ddi vdi mau tring) hole<br /> (pg GAE/g CK - pg Gallic Acid Equiva- Trolox (chat chuin) dugc cho vio cic<br /> lenf/g chit khd). gieng. 150 pi fluorescein 116nM dugc<br /> them vao. Ban 96 gieng dugc u d 37°C<br /> 2.1.2. Hdm luang anthocyanin tong so<br /> tiong 10 phiit. 25pl AAPH 175mM dugc<br /> Him lugng anthocyanin tdng sd dugc xlc<br /> them vao mdi gieng nhd injector tu ddng.<br /> dinh blng phuang pblp pH vi sai (AOAC<br /> Su giam cudng do huynh quang dugc do<br /> Method 2005.02). 0,2g mlu dugc cho vio<br /> 1 phiit mdt lan trong 50 phiit. Kha ning<br /> 10ml methanol 80% chiia HCI ndng do<br /> chdng oxi hda dugc bieu dien bang pmol<br /> 0,1%. Hdn hgp dugc trdn deu v l chief d<br /> duong lugng Trolox tren 1 gam chat khd<br /> 4°C trong 24 gid. Hdn hgp sau dd dugc ly<br /> mau (pmol TE/g CK - pmol Trolox<br /> tam, dich trong thu dugc 11 dich chief an-<br /> Equivalent/g chit khd).<br /> thgcyanin. Dich chief anthocyanin dugc<br /> hda tan 10 lln trong d c dung dich dem 2.2.2. Phwffng phdp todn hgc<br /> pH 1 v l pH 4,5. Do do hap thu ciia d c Md hinh hda blng phan mem Nemro-wd.<br /> dung dich niy tai 520 v l 700nm. Ham CIc thi nghiem dugc lap lai 3 lan. Ket qui<br /> lugng anthocyanin dugc tinh theo cdng thiic: dugc xir ly blng phan mem Excel 2003<br /> TAC (mg/g) = A*MW*f*V/m / /I v l SAS 9.0.<br /> <br /> <br /> 193<br /> TC.DD & TPO (3+4) - 2010<br /> <br /> III. KET QUA VA BAN LUAN CK. So vdi mdt sd loai qui cd bim lugng<br /> I. Mot so chi tieu cua qua sim nguyen polyphenol cao, qui sim cd him lugng<br /> lieu va sim dong kho polyphenol cao ban qui nho dd, qui sa<br /> Bgt sim ddng khd dugc chief blng "triple ri, qui flo dd (7,51; 17,12; 23,93 mg<br /> extraction" (chiet lan lugt bang acetone, GAE/g CK), thip ban qui diu fay (41,35<br /> bdn hop mefhanol:nudc:acid acetic, hdn mg GAE/g CK) vl mdt sd loai qui mgng<br /> hgp efhanol:nudc:acid acetic). Dich chiet (35,4 - 54,96 mg GAE/g CK) (Wu et al.,<br /> dugc d t dudi dung mdi, len the tich 10ml 2004). KbI ning chdng oxi hda cua qui<br /> sim chin 11 244,26 ± 15,62 pmol TE/g<br /> v l dugc dimg de xac dinh him lugng<br /> CK, cao ban nho dd, so ri (64,29; 168,89<br /> polyphenol tdng sd v l khi nang khing<br /> pmol TE/g CK), thip han flo dd (292<br /> oxi hda.<br /> pmol TE/g CK), dau fay (358,4 pmol<br /> Mdt sd chi tieu cu the ciia qui tuoi v l sim TE/g CK) v l mdt sd loai qui mgng khac<br /> ddng khd dugc gidi thieu sau day: (335,56 - 717,52 pmol TE/g CK). Kit<br /> • Ham lugng chit khd tdng sd ciia qui qui niy cho thay qui sim cd the dugc xep<br /> tirai: 26,04 ± 0,83% vio d c loai qui cd ham lugng polyphe-<br /> • CIc chi sd mlu ciia qui tuai: L = 26,55 nol v l khi ning chdng oxi hda cao. Viec<br /> ± 1,51; a = 22,52 ± 4,30; b = 2,8 ± 0,88. khai thic qui sim nhu ngudn polyphenol<br /> • Mau ddng khd cd mlu fim dd v l mui tu nhien mdi gdp phan lam tang gil tri<br /> dac trung cua qui sim chin. d y sim ddng thdi giiip nhan din tai cic<br /> viing niii cd them ngudn thu nhap mdi.<br /> • Him lugng polyphenol tdng sd: 25,90<br /> ± 0,65 mg GAE/g CK. 2. Khao sat so* bo anh hudng cua mot<br /> • Khi nang chdng oxi hda: 244,26 ± so yeu to cong nghe den hieu qua chiet<br /> polyphenol tir qua sim<br /> 15,62 pmol TE/g CK<br /> • Ham lugng anthocyanin: 2,72 ± 0,02 Trudc khi tien hanh thi nghiem md<br /> mg cyanidin-3-glucosid/g CK. hinh hda, mdt sd thi nghiem khio sit<br /> dugc thuc hien de xlc dinh sa bd khoing<br /> Qua sim fir trudc den nay van dugc Inh hudng cua d c yeu td.<br /> coi 11 qui hoang dai, khdng cd gil tri kinh<br /> te. CIc nghien ciiu ve sim rat it, da phan 2.1. Anh huang cua logi dung moi<br /> tap trung vio fhlnh phan terpennoid cua Hieu qui chief polyphenol tit nguyen lieu<br /> II, cinh, vd d y (Limsuwan et al., 2009; thuc vat phu thugc vao loai dung mdi sii<br /> Dachriyanus et al., 2004; Limsu-wan et dung die biet do phan cue ciia dung mdi.<br /> al., 2008) va khi ning kim ham vi sinh Khdng cd loai dung mdi hay he dung moi<br /> vat cua dich chief. CIc thdng tin vl fhlnh chuan nao dung chung de tich polyphe-<br /> phan polyphenol, anthocyanin v l khi nol cua thuc vat.<br /> ning khing oxi hda cua qui sim rat it. Tien hanh chief polyphenol theo sa<br /> Ket qui nghien ciin cho thay ham dd hinh 1 bang d c dung mdi khac nhau<br /> lugng polyphenol tdng sd cua qua sim (methanol, aceton, ethanol va<br /> chin thu hii tai Hda Binh nim 2009 la ethylaeetat), ty le nguyen lieu/dung moi<br /> 25,90 mg GAE/g CK. Kit qui niy gin 111/15, thdi gian lie 1 gid, nhiet do 30°C.<br /> vdi kef qua ciia Huang et al. (2009): him Xlc dinh ham lugng polyphenol tdng sd<br /> lugng polyphenol tdng sd cua qui sim ciia dich chiit Kef qui dugc chi ra d blng 1.<br /> chin thu hii tai Hdng Kdng 24 mg GAE/g<br /> <br /> 194<br /> TC.DD & TP6 (3+4) - 2010<br /> <br /> <br /> Bot sim Jong klio<br /> <br /> "<br /> Them clung moi<br /> <br /> "'<br /> Lac (lOOvong/pluit). thai ginn o<br /> Dlnit. nhiet do T°C<br /> 1'<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Ly tam (13000 vdng/ pluit. 10 phiit)<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Ba Dich trong<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Loai bo Cat duoi dung moi<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Dich cliiet Polyphenol<br /> <br /> Hinh 1. Sff do chiet polyphenol<br /> Bdng 1. Anh hu'dng ciia loai dung moi den ethylaeetat cho khi nang chief polyphe-<br /> hieu suat chiet polyphenol tir qua sim nol thip nhat, dat hieu suit thu hdi 0,69%.<br /> Dung moi Ham luong polyphenol HSTH (%) Dieu niy cho thay da phan d c hgp chat<br /> tong so (mg phenol trong qui sim la cic hgp chat phan<br /> GAE/gCK) cue. Chirinos et al. (2007) kbi nghien ciiu<br /> Acetone 6,08" ± 0,27 23,47 Inh hudng cua loai dung mdi den qui<br /> Methanol 12,36^ ±0,18 47,72 trinh tich chief polyphenol cua cii<br /> Ethanol 6,35''±0,11 24,52 mashua ciing da chi ra rang d c hgp chat<br /> Ethylaeetat 0,18= ±0,04 0,69 cd do phin cue thap nhu hexan, acetone<br /> (Sd lieu mang nhirng chu cdi khdc nhau thi khdc cho hieu qui chief polyphenol thip.<br /> nhau a miec y nghia a= 0.05) Methanol ciing dugc xlc dinh 11 loai<br /> dung mdi thich hgp nhlt cho tich chief<br /> Ket qui Xii ly blng phan mem<br /> polyphenol fir cu mashua. Arabshahi-De-<br /> SAS9.0 cho thiy d c loai dung mdi khic<br /> nhau tbi cho khi ning tiich ly polyphenol louee and Urooj (2007) khi nghien ciiu<br /> khic nhau d miic y nghia a = 0,05. Trong Inh hudng ciia dung mdi den khi nang<br /> dd, methanol II loai dung mdi cho kha khing oxi hda ciia dich chief 11 d y diu<br /> nang chiit ldn nhlt, cho him lugng tim do blng d c phuang pblp khic nhau<br /> polyphenol tdng sd 11 12,36 ciing dl chi ra ring dich chief blng<br /> mgGAE/gCK, hieu suit thu hdi 48,11%, methanol cho ham lugng polyphenol v l<br /> <br /> <br /> 195<br /> TC.DD & TPO (3+4) - 2010<br /> <br /> kha ning chdng oxi hda cao nhat trong sd lugng cua dich chiit polyphenol. Nhiet<br /> taf c l d c test thii. do llm gilm do nhdt trong dung dich,<br /> Methanol dugc chgn llm dung mdi de ting tdc do thim thiu dung mdi vio te<br /> chiet polyphenol tii' qui. bao v l ting hieu suit trich Iy. Tuy nhien,<br /> 2.2. Anh hu&ng cita nong do dung moi neu fien hinh chiet d nhiet do qui cao thi<br /> Rit nhieu polyphenol tdn tai trong tu •vira tdn chi phi dn nhiet vira ting nguy co<br /> nhien d dang glycoside hda fan tdt trong gilm chit lugng dich chiet do phin iing<br /> nudc do vay viec them nudc vio dung niu hda.<br /> mdi chief polyphenol nhieu khi llm ting<br /> Tien hinh chief polyphenol theo so<br /> hieu suit thu hdi polyphenol. Tien hinh<br /> do hinh 1 blng methanol 70% (v/v), ty Ie<br /> chief polyphenol qui sim blng bdn hgp<br /> nguyen lieu/dung mdi 11 1/15, thdi gian<br /> mefhanol/nudc vdi d c ty le khic nhau,<br /> d c dieu kien cdng nghe khic gidng tbi lie 1 gid, nhiet dp thay ddi (30°C, 60"C,<br /> nghiem trudc. Xlc dinh him lugng 90^0). Xac dinh ham lugng polyphenol<br /> polyphenol tdng sd ciia dich chief. Ket tdng sd cua dich chief. Kef qui dugc chi<br /> qui dugc chi ra d blng 2. r a d bang 3.<br /> <br /> Bang 2. Anh hirffng ciia nong do dung moi Bdng 3. Anh hirffng cHa nhiet do den hieu<br /> den hieu suat chiet polyphenol tir qua sim suat chiet polyphenol tir qua sim<br /> <br /> Nong do Ham lu-ffng HSTH Nhiet do Polyphenol Hi eu suat thu<br /> methanol polyphenol tong so (%) (X) tong so (mg hoi polyphenol<br /> (%v/v) (mg GAE/gCK) GAE/g CK) (%)<br /> 50 14,76' ±0,52 56,99 30 16,53''±0,19 63,82<br /> 60 15,86''±0,51 61,24<br /> 70 16,53= ±0,19 63,82 50 20,70^ ±1,20 79,92<br /> 80 15,32'''±0,06 59,15<br /> 70 20,17= ±0,13 77,88<br /> 100 12,36''±0,18 47,72<br /> Cde sd vdi cde chit khdc nhau thi khdc nhau a<br /> Cde sd vdi cde chii khdc nhau thi khdc nhau d<br /> miecy nghia 0,05<br /> miecy nghia 0,05.<br /> Ket qua xu ly thdng ke cho thay Ket qui xii ly thdng ke cho thay khi nhiet<br /> ndng do methanol trong khoing 50 den do tang tir 30 den 50°C, hieu suit thu hdi<br /> 100% cd anh hudng den hieu suit thu hdi polyphenol ting, nhiet do tiep tuc tang fir<br /> polyphenol. Khoing ndng do niy dugc su 50-70°C, hieu suit thu hdi polyphenol<br /> khdng ddi. Dieu niy cho thay polyphenol<br /> dung thi nghiem md hinh hda. Hieu qui<br /> ciia qui sim kha ben nhiet va nhiet do<br /> chief polyphenol cao nhat thu dugc khi<br /> trong khoing 30-50°C Inh hudng den<br /> dimg dung dich chief la methanol 70%).<br /> hieu suit thu hdi polyphenol cua qui sim.<br /> Ket qui niy dugc diing trong d c thi Ngudng nhiet do niy dugc sii dung trong<br /> nghiem fiep theo. thi nghiem md hinh hda.<br /> 2.3. Anh hu&ng cua nhiet do 3.2.4. Anh hu&ng cuapH<br /> Nhiet do II yeu td quan trgng Inh Su them acid vio mdi trudng tich<br /> hudng khdng nhung tdi hieu suit trich ly chiit polyphenol lam ting do ben ciia d c<br /> m l cdn Inh hudng tdi chi phi va chat hgp chit anthocyanin, anh hudng din khi<br /> <br /> 196<br /> TC.DD & TPO (3+4) - 2010<br /> <br /> ning hda tan cua mdt sd polymer thiiy hudng cua pH den hieu suit chief<br /> phin nhu lignin, hydroxycinnamic acid polyphenol tir vd vii cho thay pH thap (2-<br /> vl procyanidin do dd llm ting hieu suit 4) cho hieu qua chief polyphenol cao. Ddi<br /> thu hdi polyphenol (Chirinos et al., 2007). vdi qui sim, khoing pH 2 - 4 cd Inh<br /> Nhieu ket qui nghien ciin khic cung xlc hu'dng den hieu qui chief polyphenol ciia<br /> dinh cd su Inh hudng cua pH mdi tru'dng qui sim, khoing pH niy dugc su' dung<br /> den su chief polyphneol tii' thuc vat (Ru- trong thi nghiem md hinh hda.<br /> enroengklin et al., 2008). 3.2.5. Anh huang cua thoi gian<br /> Tien hinh chief polyphenol cua qui Thdi gian chief ciing II mdt trong<br /> sim vdi dung mdi chiet II methanol 70% nhiing yeu fd quan trgng, Inh hudng den<br /> (v/v), HCI dugc them vao cac dung dich hieu suit, chit lugng dich chiet polyphe-<br /> chief de dat d c pH 2, 4, 6; fy le nguyen nol ciing nhu tinh kinh te cua qui trinh.<br /> lieu/dung mdi 111/15, thdi gian lie 1 gid. Thdi gian qui ngin khdng dii de dung<br /> Xlc dinh him lugng polyphenol tdng sd mdi xam nhap vao trong te blo, hda fan<br /> cua dich chiet Ket qui dugc chi ra d blng 4. polyphenol v l chief nif ra ngoli, nguge<br /> Bang 4. Anh hu'O'ng ciia pH den hieu suat lai thdi gian chief qui dii llm gilm hieu<br /> chiet polyphenol tu* qua sim suit sir dung thief bi va polyphenol cd the<br /> hi oxi hda.<br /> pH Polyphenol tong so Hieu suat thu hoi<br /> (mg GAE/g CK) polyphenol (%) Tien hinh chief polyphenol blng<br /> methanol 70% (v/v), pH 2, nhiet do 50°C,<br /> 2 21,94= ±0,44 84,71<br /> ty le nguyen lieu/dung mdi la 1/15, thdi<br /> 4 20,96''±0,13 80,93 gian lie thay ddi (30, 60 v l 90 phiit). Xac<br /> 6 20,68''±0,59 79,85 dinh him lugng polyphenol tdng sd cua<br /> dich chief. Kef qua dugc chi ra d blng 5.<br /> Cde so vdi cde chir khdc nhau th i khdc nhau a<br /> Bdng 5. Anh hirffng ciia thoi gian den hieu<br /> miecy nghia 0,05<br /> suat chiet polyphenol tir vo vai<br /> Ket qui cho thay khi pH fang tii 2 Thffi Polyphenol Hieu suat<br /> den 4, hieu suit thu hdi polyphenol gilm, gian tong so thu hoi<br /> pH 4 va pH 6 cho hieu qui chief polyphe- (phut) (mg GAE/g CK) polyphenol (%)<br /> nol fir qui sim nhu nhau. Nhu vay pH 30 21,00'±0,45 81,08<br /> acid cho hieu qui chief polyphenol cao. 60 21,91" ±0,36 84,59<br /> pH thap cd the da cd tic dung llm ben d c 90 22,83= ± 0,48 88,15<br /> hgp chit anthocyanin cua qua sim; xiic<br /> Cde sd vcd cde chU khdc nhau thi khdc nhau a<br /> tac thuy phin d c procyanidin; thuy phan miec y nghia 0,05.<br /> cic hgp chat thinh te blo qui, tao dieu Ket qui cho thay thdi gian tich chief<br /> kien chief nif polyphenol v l kim ham cd Inh hudng den hieu suit chief polyp-<br /> boat do cua d c enzyme polyphenol oxi- henol. Thdi gian ting, dung mdi d n g cd<br /> dase. CIc bien tugng tren gdp phin llm dieu kien tiep xiic nhieu vdi nguyen lieu,<br /> ting hieu qui chief polyphenol d pH acid. thim nhap vao te bao, hda tan vl chief nit<br /> Chirinos et al. (2007) da fim ra ring pH cac hgp chat polyphenol. Khoing thdi<br /> gilm fir 5,00 den 2,11 llm ting hieu qui gian 30 - 90 phiit dugc dung trong tbi<br /> chiit polyphenol tir cu mashua. Ruenro- nghiem md hinh hda.<br /> engklin et al. (2008) khi nghien cun Inh<br /> <br /> <br /> 197<br /> TC.DD & TPO (3+4) - 2010<br /> <br /> 3.3. Mo hinh hoa qua trinh chiet (phiit). Him muc tieu 11 Y: Him lugng<br /> polyphenol tu- qua sim polyphenol thu dugc tir 1 g chif khd qui<br /> CIc thi nghiem sa bd tren day cho Sim (pg GAE/g CK).<br /> thiy d c yeu td ndng do methanol, nhiet Dang md binh:<br /> do, pH, thdi gian deu Inh hudng den hieu Y= bg + b^X^ + b2X2 + b3X3 + b4X4 +<br /> suit thu hdi polyphenol fir qua sim. Trong •^12^1^2 + ^13X^X3 + b23X2X3 +<br /> phan thi nghiem fiep theo niy, chiing tdi b i 4 X , X 4 + b24X2X4 + b34X3X4<br /> fien hinh md hinh hda qui trinh chiet fich +b 123X1X2X3 + b 124X1X2X4 +<br /> polyphenol tir qui sim vdi 4 yeu td anh b 134X1X3X4 + b234X2X3X4 +<br /> hudng sau: Xj^: Ndng dp methanol '^ 1234X1X2X3X4<br /> (%v/v); X2: Nhiet do xir ly (°C); X3: pH CIc miic tbi nghiem dugc gidi thieu d blng 6.<br /> dung dich chief; X4: Thdi gian chiet<br /> Bang 6. Cac mirc thi nghiem<br /> Mirc thi nghiem X j - Nong do methanol X2 - Nhiet X3-PH X4 - Thffi gian<br /> (%v/v) do (°C) (phiit)<br /> Miic goc 75 40 60<br /> Khoang bien doi 25 10 30<br /> <br /> Miic tren 50 30 4 30<br /> Miic duai 100 50 2 90<br /> Vdi cac miic thi nghiem nhu tien, blng ma tran thuc nghiem (Blng 7) dugc xly dung.<br /> Bang 7. Ma tran thirc nghiem<br /> Bien chuan Bien thirc<br /> Thi nghiem X^i X^2 X^3 X*4 Xj (%v/v) X2 (°C) X3 X4 (phiit)<br /> 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 50 30 2 30<br /> 2 +1 -1 -1 -1 100 30 2 30<br /> 3 -1 +1 -1 -1 50 50 2 30<br /> 4 +1 +1 -1 -1 100 50 2 30<br /> 5 -1 -1 -1 +1 50 30 2 90<br /> 6 +1 -1 -1 + 100 30 2 90<br /> 7 -1 +1 -1 +1 50 50 2 90<br /> 8 +1 +1 -1 +1 100 50 2 90<br /> 9 -1 -1 +1 -1 50 30 4 30<br /> 10 +1 -1 +1 -1 100 30 4 30<br /> 11 -1 +1 +1 -1 50 50 4 30<br /> 12 +1 +1 +1 -1 100 50 4 30<br /> 13 -1 -1 +1 +1 50 30 4 90<br /> 14 +1 -1 +1 +1 100 30 4 90<br /> 15 -1 +1 +1 +1 50 50 4 90<br /> 16 +1 +1 +1 +1 100 50 4 90<br /> <br /> Trong dd cac bien X^i la cac biin xir ly bang phan mem Nemrowd. Kef qui<br /> chuin. Cdng thiic chuyen d c bien thuc dugc chi ra d blng d c he sd cua md hinh<br /> thinh bien chuin: X^j = 2 * (Xj - miic (Blng 8).<br /> gdc) / (miic tren - miic dudi). Bdng 8. Cac he so ciia mo hinh<br /> Tien hinh thi nghiem theo d c dieu Do lech chuan 453.05827<br /> kien nhu ma tran thuc nghiem, moi tbi R2 0,962<br /> R2A 0,944<br /> nghiem dugc lap lai 3 lin. Kit qui dugc<br /> Bac tu do 32<br /> <br /> 198<br /> TC.DD & TPO (3+4) - 2010<br /> <br /> K y hieu H e so F D o lech chuan t.exp. Miic y nghia, %<br /> <br /> bO 15531.53124 65.39333 237.51
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