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Những điều cần yếu trong văn phạm tiếng Anh - Động từ bất quy tắc: Phần 2

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Nối tiếp nội dung của phần 1 Tài liệu Động từ bất quy tắc và những điều cần yếu trong văn phạm tiếng Anh, phần 2 giới thiệu tới người đọc các ngữ pháp cơ bản về cách sử dụng: Phó từ, trạng từ, giới từ tiếng Anh, liên từ, thán từ, động từ, câu và mệnh đề trong tiếng Anh. Mời các bạn cùng tham khảo.

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Nội dung Text: Những điều cần yếu trong văn phạm tiếng Anh - Động từ bất quy tắc: Phần 2

  1. + MQt danh tit - It’s the very thing I want (Dd chinh lb vbt mb tbi cbn) - You repeat the above sentences (Anh nhAc IfU nhOng cbu trin Aby) + M$t dpi tit: - Is this book really yours? (QuySn sdch nby thiec lb cua anh chit?) + Mbt cum tie (phrase) • It's almost time to start. (Dbnh hit thdi gid d i chubn bi lin ditdng) + Cd mdt cbu - Unfortunatly I don’t know the language you spa (Dang life tdi khdng bi(t ngdn ngit anh dang n4i; - Indeed I won’t do it. (Thdt thi' tdi khdng thi' lam diiu dd) VI.GIOI TLT (PREPOSITIONS) Gidi ttir la tife'ng dung d£ kS't h(?p cac mtfi quan h$ gitfa cac ttf trong c&u. Vi dy: * The hat is on the table. (Cdi non d trfen b&n) * The watch is b e sid e the box. (Cdi dbng h'd d bfen canh cdi h$p). Gidi tilr a5 th£ co b6 ’ ngil (object) la: danh tir, dai tir, cym danh dQngtt (gerund phrases), hoSc m$nh dfe danh ttf (noun clauses); luc d6 chilng dOfll gpi la cum g id i tvf (prepositional phrase). Cum gidi ttf du«?c coi nhtf tin) t£r b 6 nghia cho danh ttf ho$c dgi ttf hay n6 cdng dtf
  2. VI dy: * Put them on the table. (Bd chiing tr in b&n). Danh ttf table 16 btf ngtf cua gidi ttf on, cym gidi ttf on the table dtf(?c nhtf trpng tif bd' nghia (modify) cho d^ng ttf put. * Give that book to the girl‘on the left. (Dtfa quyin sdch kia cho cd d b&n trdi) Danh ttf left 16 bd ng i t cua gidi tir on Cym gidi ttf (Prepositional phrase) on the left dtftfc coi nhtf tinh ttf nghia cho danh ttf girl. 1. Sir edit thanh gidi tir a) Gidi tit dan nhu. at, from, in, on, with ... b) Gidi tii kip: into (vho trong, thanh ra); throughout (khdp, sud't); within (b&n trong, trong khoang); inside (trong)... c) Gidi tic phdt sinh nhd: + Tfen t 6 ' a: about (vfe); across (qua); along (doc theo) + Tfen ttf be: behind (dang sau); before ( trudc, tntdc mdt)... + DOng tinh ttf: except(ed) (trit ra ); during (sud't). d) Cym gidi tit: out o f (ra ngoai, vi, cdch xa, b&ng); because o f (bdi ui); order to ( d i ma, nhtun dS ), in front o f (dhng trudc cua); in the middle (vho giita); in spite o f (mQc du)... 2. Cau true cua gidi tir a) Dai tit di sau gidi tit bao gid cung d t&n cdch. Vf dy: * He spoke to me. (Anh (Ly ndi vdi tdi) * This is the man of whom you heard. (D&y I t ngudi ma anh d& tieng nghe ndi). b) Sau gid i tit n£u la 55
  3. + Danh ttf cy thi a6 (t thi phii 06 m90 ttf a/an Vf dy: - 1 went out without an umbrella. (T b i d i m ngoU ch in g cb dH). - There is a woman with a child in her arms (Cb mdt bb b i em b i) Chu
  4. (Tbi s6ng ghn cho) * Don’t come n ea r (near : trying tH) (Ditng tdi g in ) . Mot so gidi tu thudng dung ) G id i t it chi dia diem (preposition o f place) A t: d (khbng chuyin dbng) Vi dy: a t home (d nhd); at the factory (d xudng) In: 6 trong (khbng chuyin dbng ) Vi dy: in the room (d trong phdng ); in England (d nude Anh ) W ithin: d trong, trong vdng (ch i thdi gian) W ithin doors(d trong ciia s$)\ w ith in 3 kilometers (trong vong 3km) Out of: ngo&i. Out o f the room (b in ngoai phbng) On: cf tr6 n (tii'p gidp ). on the chair (trin g h i’ ti/a); on my head (d tr in ddu ) O ver: phia trfen, kh&p, vu
  5. - A lieutenant is u n d er a captain. (T ru n g dy Ih c6p dudi dpi dy). • B elow : phia dudi, m6 dudi. Vi dv: * Five degrees b e lo w zero (nQm dQ dudi khbng) * When the sun sets, it goes b e lo w the horizon. (K h i m(U trd i iQn, n6 khu&t d dudi chhn trd i) - B etw een: d giila. V i dy: * B etw ee n two world wars (G iila hai cubc c h itn tranh th tf g id i) * She is sitting b etw een Mr. and M rs Brown. (Cd dy ngdi g ia a d n g uh B d B row n). • A m on g: trong s6, trong ddm Vi dy: She has lived am o n g foreigners for a long time. (M dt th d i gia n d iii cd dy s6ng vdi n gitd i nude n g o ii) - A m id: gitfa (l&n tron g) H e stands am id the crow d (Anh 6y ditng l&n trong ddm dbng). - In the m iddle of: d giila. H e sits in the m iddle o f the room (A n h dy ngdi g iita ph on g) - B e h in d : dang sau, nlfp sau. Vi d y: T h e boy is beh in d the house. (C&u be d dang sau nha) - A ro u n d : vd ng quanh, chung quanh. Vi d y : - W e tra vel a r o u n d the w orld ( Chung tdi du lic h uong quanh th £ g id i). - W e sat aro u n d the table. (C hung tbi da ngdi quanh bim ). 58
  6. B efore: trtfdc ft dy: * I usually wake up before the sun rises. (Tdi thudng thtic d#y trudc U c m(U trdt moc) * An comes b efore Bao (An d£n trudc Bao). In fron t of: trtfdc m#t ti dy: The market is in fro n t o f my house. (Chp d trudc nhd tdi). Opposite: ddi di$n /( dy: They are sitting opposite each other. (Chiing rid ngdi ddi di$n nhau tieng c(tp). Across: qua, ngang qua; d bfen kia /( dy: * He drives the car across the field. (Anh dy lai xe vuat qua canh dbng). * Majectic hotel is across the Saigon river. (Khach san Majectic a b&n kia sdng(SaiGdr\) Against: dtfa vao, dp vao /( dy: I put my bicycle against the wall. (Tdi dua xe dap vao tudng). Near, by: g&n /I dy: * Don’t go near the river bank. (Ditng di g'&n bd sdng). * She sits by the teacher table. (Cd ta ngdi canh ban thdy giao). Close to: s&t canh, d g&n /( dy: - Them’s a bus stop close to the school. (Cd mdt tram xe buyt d g&n tn/ong). - He is standing close' to the >or.
  7. (Anh 6y ditng canh aia .). - N e x t to: c$nh, ngay trtfdc hay sau i- Vi dy: He is sitting n e x t to me. (Anh dy ngbi eg.nh bin tbi). - A lon g: dye theo Vf dy: They sail a lo n g the coast. (Chung nd dong biibm dqc theo bd b iin ). - B eside: d bfen canh Vf dy: * She walks besid e me. (Nim g di b in tbi). * I am sitting besid e Charles. (Tbi nghi bin canh Charles). - Abou t: khoang, gftn, mang theo Vf dy: - I have money about me. (Tdi cb mang theo ti&n). - I see no market about here. (Tbi th&y khbng cd cho nao gtm dtty). • E a r from : cdch xa Vf dy: She goes fa r fro m here. (N im g di xa noi d&y). - o ff: ngoai khdi, ra khoi Vf dy: I must be o ff. (Tbi phai di khdi dtty). He sails to an island o f f the coast. (Anh dy dong biibm d in hbn dao ngoai khoi). - B eyond: m£ bfen kia, ngo&i, qu£ Vf dy: * Don’t stay out beyond 12 p.m. (Ditng d ngoai qu& 12 gid d im ). 60
  8. * Her house is beyond the river. (Nhd nimg S m i bin kia adng). >. G idi t it c h i chuyin ddng (Preposition o f motion). To: tdi, ra, cho d£n /( dy: * I go to school. (Tdi di hocftdi trudng). * He works from eight to twelve. (Anh dy liun vi$c tit 8 gid d£n 12 gid). • Towards: v6 phia (Khdng nh&t thii't tdi noi). Vi dy: - The plane flew tow ards the west. (May bay bay v i hudng Ttly). - The bus goes towards the City. -v ' ' (Xe buyt chay v i phia thanh ph6). • From: tOr ■->' Vi dy: - from childhood, I live in the country. (Thdi tho du, tdi sd'ng d m iin qui). - Wine is made from grapes. (Ruou nho liun tit trdi nho). - Out of: tOr, khoi, n it ra Vf dy: - He walks out of the theater. * (Anh (ty tit rpp hat di ra). - A scene out of a play. (Mdt man nit ra tit mdt vd kich). • Through: qua (trung gian), nhd Vi dy: - The road goes through the forest. (Con di/dng xuyin qua khu ritng). - Win victories through self - reliance and hard struggle. (Chii'n th in g nhd y chi tut luc va sir chii'n dtiu gian kho). 61
  9. - Against: chtfng l*i Vi dy: - He goes against the wind. (Anh ta di ngUQc chi&u gid). - Up: l&n cao Vi dy: - Up h ill and down dale. (L in d6c xudng dko). - H e walks up the stairs. (Anh dy ten cbu thang). - I sail up the river. (Tdi dong bubm ngiepc dbng adng). - Down: xutfng Vi dy: * I swim down the river. (Tbi bai xudi dbng adng). * The tears ran down her face. (Nude mdt chay rong rbng trin mat cd ta). U y : qua, c?nh (khdng ddng l$i).; di qua, trdi qua VI dy: * She walks by mp without seeing me. (Nang di qua s6t tdi ma ch&ng d i m il d£n tbi). * They can finish the work by three o ’clock. (Ho cd t h i Lam xong cdng vide vao luc ba gid). - Along: di doc-\heo Vi du: * The bus runs along the street. (Xe buyI chay doc theo phd). * She walks along the river bank. (Nang di hoc theo bd sbng). - Past; vieat qua; qud; hon Vi dy: * It is past seven. (Da 6 ay gid hon). 62
  10. * It’s quite p u t my comprehension. (Hobn totm qu6 site h iiu b iit cua tdi). * He walks past the gate. (Anh 6y di qua c&ng). Into; di, qua, sang, vao f dy: * He translates Kfeu into French. (d n g 6y dich truy6n K iiu sang t iin g Phdp). * I go into the garden. (Tbi di vho trong vudn cOy). Round: quanh, vbng quanh ’( dy: * They were sitting round the table. (Chung n6 ng~bi qutty qu&n quanh ban). * T h ef earth moves rou n d the sun. (Trdi ddi quay chung quanh m(U trdi). About: vfe, quanh, xung quanh H dy: * Tell me all abou t it. (Hay ndi cho tdi b iit tat ca v i d iiu do) * I dropped it somewhere about here. Tdi d i roi v&t dy dim dd quanh d&y thdi). * We are travelling about the world. (Chung tdi du lic h vbng quanh t h i gid i). 2. Gidi tit chi thdi gian (preposition o f time). ■ Before: trudc y Vi dy: * Summer comes b e fo r e Autumn. (Mua ha d in trudc mua thu). * Please come before ten o’clock. (Lhni an d in trudc mudi gid nhe). A ft e r : sau, m$c cf&u
  11. Vf dy: * Day after day. (Ngby qua ngity). „ . * A fter all my care, it was broken. (Mac d&u c6n thOn, nd v&n vd). - From...to: ttir...tdi Vf dy: * From morning to night. (Tut adng tdi tdi). * From beginning to end. (T it d&u d in cu/fi). - S in c e: ttir, k£ ttir (ng&y gid chfnh x£c) Vf dy: * I saw him not long since. (Td i mdi gOp anh ta m&y hbm trudc d&y thdi). * She’s working in a bank since leaving school.; (T it khi rdi g h g nha trtfdng, cb ta liun viQc 6 mbt ng&n hh - T ill, u n til: tdi, den, cho dtfn, (U ntil thudng dat d
  12. (Chung tbi phdi hpc t#p trong nhfeu ndm). * He stayed in Cube fo r three yAars. (Anh 6y lieu Ipi d Cuba trong ba nOm). • During: sutft trong (d£ tr& ldi c&u h6 i when) Vi dy: * I w ork-Airing the week. (Tbi Idm viQc sulk tuhn). * He called on me during my absence. (Anh dy got tbi autSt trong thdi gian tbi v6ng mOi). ■By: hie (thdi gian d* djnh khdng muQn ton) 1 Vi dy: * I shall be ready by six. (Tbi sdn shng liic sdu gid). * They can finish the work by four o’clock. (Ho cb t h i Idm xong cbng vl6c vivo liic 4 gid). • In: vfe, chi ph&n cua ng&y / cua n&m /f dy: * In Autumn (v t mua thu). * In the morning (vho buSi sang). * In the 20th century (vao thtf ky 20). About: kho&ng luc, sSp sura, v6 , quanh * I shall come about six. (Tbi sc d&ri vdfo khoang sdu gid). * She is about to start. (Cb ta sdp khdi hhnh). On: v&o ng&y chfnh x£c, luc H dy: On June 1 st. ( Vao ngity 1 thdng 6). On Sunday morning. (Vho sdng chu nh$t). * On reaching home. 65
  13. (K h i tdi nhd). • At: liic (chi gid, thdi dilm) V f d y: * A t night. (Ban d im ). • "'! * At half past six. (Vho lu c 6 g id n td i). * At the age o f seventy. (L u c bay mUOi tuSi). d. Gidi tir chi cdch thuc. (preposition of manner). - W ith: vdi, cting V f d y: * A g ir l w ith blue eyes. (M d t cb gd i vd i ddi r n it xanh). * I agree w ith you. (T d i cfdng y vdi bqn). * H e is rid in g a bicycle w ith no brakes. ( H i n citdi xe dap khdng cd t h in g ). - W ithout: khdng cd V f d y: * I w en t out w ith out a hat. (T d i ra ngoai dim trhn ). * Y ou can’ t buy things w ith o u t m oney. (B an khdng t h i mua dd mb. khdng c o ti'&n). * Do you e v e r tra vel w ith out a ticket? (B an co bao g id d i xe khdng cd v i c h ita ? ) - By: b&ng, bdi (t&c nh&n) V f du: • H e was killed b y a car. (A n h ta bi d td can c h it). * She com es b y trata. (N a n g d in b&ng xe lita). 66
  14. * Machines are driven b y electricity. (M6y chpy b&ng diQn). - B y m ean o f: b&ng cdch V( dy: A door is opened b y m ean o f a key. (Cua dupe md b&ng chia khda). - A c c o r d in g to: theo, tuy theo Vi dy: * From each a cco rd in g to his ability, to each a c c o rd in g to his work. (L&m theo n&ng luc, hudng theo lao dbng). * A c c o r d in g to the papers. (Theo tin c&c b&o). * She came a c c o r d in g to her promise. (Cb ta d&'n theo Idi hiia). - In stea d of: thay cho, chtf khdng Vi dy: * I will go in stea d o f you. (Tbi se di thay cho anh). * Give me this in s te a d o f that. (Cho tbi cdi nay thay vi cdi kia). - In sp ite o f: m$c du. Vi du : * In s p ite o f the rain, they went out. (Du trdi mua, chung no v&n ra di). * In s p ite o f all his efforts he failed. (Du c6 gdng h£t sure, c&u dy v&n th i rdtfthdt bai). • On, about: ve van de. Vi dy : * A lesson on birds. (Bai hoc vS chim ). * A talk a b ou t England. (Mbt c&u chuyin v$ nude Anh). * A b o u t science (physics, mathematics...) 67
  15. Vfe khoa hoc (vfU ly, todn...). - A s f o r : cbn nhu. Vf dy : A s f o r me. (cbn n h u tbi). • Except, but: tri* ra. Vf dy : * She does nothing but cry. (C b ta c h in g liun dupe g i trie la h it ). * He gets up early everyday exceptSunday. (H b n g nghy anh (Ly d&y sdm t r it chu nh&t). * I live in the last room, but three on the second floor. (T b i d t&ng ba, bubng cua tdi cbn cdch ba bubng niZa thi e) G id i t i t c h i nguyen n h a n va m u c d ic h . (preposition o f cause - o f purpose) i - F o r : vi, de. V f du : * Books f o r children. (Sa ch [ d i ] cho tre em ). * W ork f o r on e’s livin g. (L a m v i i c d i k ii'm sdng). * H e was punished f o r his m isCehaviour. (H 6 n b i p h o t ui vd Ik). * I w ear glasses f o r reading. (T b i m ang k ln h d i doc sdch). • B e c a u s e o f : la vi. V f du : * She is absent because o f her illness. (Cb ta vdng m at la vi b$nh). * H e comes here because o f the F rench course (A n h ta d in d&y vi Idp hoc Pha p v&n). - Out o f: bdi, vi. 68
  16. n dy : • I only went out o f necessity. (Tbi c h i ra ngoiii kh i vi cbn th iit). * She asked only out of curiosity. (Cb ta hoi vi tinh hi£u k$). From: vi. Ti dy : * From his looks you may think him stupid. (N h in b i ngoiii anh cd t h i cho lit anh ta ngd ngdn/ lit
  17. (Tbi ditng d i n g h i ngoi). I get up early to be ready in time. (Tbi d&y sdm d i sdn sting cd m(U dung luc). VII.LIEN TUT (CONJUNCTIONS) 1. Lifen ttir hay ttif ntfi (connective) dtfng d
  18. * She said that tifito Would c&be. (Chf Ay ndi r in g chj. Ay s i d in ). * I can never forgive unless he says his apology. (Tbi khbng bao g id cd t h i tha thtt trie kh i hdn cd tdi x in l8i). * Ba goes to bed early because he is tired. (Ba d i ngu sdm bdi v i n6 m it). * T h ou gh not handsome, she was attractive. (MOc du khbng dep, cb tfy cung c6 site quyi'n ru). * She won’t leave the T V set e v e n i f her supper’s on the table. (Cb tiy s i khbng rdi c h iic mdy thu hinh/TV du rhng bit a an tb'i dd don ra t r in ban). a) L ie n t it t&p hop: l)N h d m and d iin d$t y cQng thfem. and : v6 both...and : ck hai...v6 as well as : vtifa cung vira and also : vh cung. again : ntfa; besides : thfem ntfa. V i dy : * The coat is b o th soft and warm. (Ao chotmg vita m im vita tim).. * The coat is soft as w e ll as warm. (Ao chotmg vita m im cung vita tim). * The coat is soft a n d also warm. (Ao chotmg n iim va cung tim nrta). * I have three other shirts b esid es this. (Tbi cd ba cdi do so m i khde th im cdi ndy ni2a). C h ii
  19. V ( dy : * Knock on the door a n d it will open. (Cur go ctia Ih ngtfdi ta s6 md). * She speaks English, a n d that very well. (Cb 6y b iit ndi t iin g Anh, l(ii cdn ndi gid i nxta). Khi dtfng A N D trong d&c ngtf m$nh l$nh, trong. titfng Vi£t bo VA nhtf: * Go a n d ask him when he is going. (D in hoi anh 6y khi ndo anh 6y di). * Come and play pingpong with me. (D in choi bdng b in vdi tbi n h i). * W rite and ask her what she wants. (V H t thtf hdi cb dy mu6n cdi g i nh£). - T r y and : g&ng, ctf, thur. Vf dy : * T r y a n d do this exercice. (C6 lam bhi tdp nhy). * I shall t r y and meet you at the airport. { Tdi se c6 gdng gOp cb tai s&n bay). 2) N h o m b u t : d iin d$t y ngtftfc nhau : but : Nhtfng ; still : du sao yet : nhtfng ma ; however tuy nhidn tuy v$y; tuy nhifen nevertheless : tuy thtf ; in spite o f : m$c du despite : du sao ; notwithstanding : m$c du, btf! though : du ; to the contrary trai l?i. Vi dy : * He is a hard-working bu t not very intelligent boy. (N o la diia be chant ch i nhtfng khbng thbng m in h Idm). * He worked hard, y e t he failed. (Anh 6y hoc chOm chi, v6y ma lai rdt). 73
  20. * He has treated you badly; still, he is your brother and you ought to help him. (Hdn db'i x ii vdi anh khbng t6t, du sao hdn cung Ih em anh, anh phai giup dd hdn). * He will never succeed, however hard he tries. (Anh ta s i chdng bao g id thhnh cbng du
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