Reading literrature 8

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  1. – GED LITERATURE AND THE ARTS, READING PRACTICE QUESTIONS – 64. d. That his father would not realize that someone 61. d. It is ironic that in a place where there are so else was living in the house—that he would not many ways to describe one food (indicating that notice, for example, different furniture arranged this food is a central part of the culture), in a different way—suggests that his father did Thomas is hungry. The passage does not men- not pay any attention to things around him and tion the language of the reservation, so choice a just went through the motions of his life by is incorrect. The sentence does not show any habit. Being habitual is different from being measure of how hungry Thomas is, so choice b stubborn, so choice a is incorrect. The author is is incorrect. The sentence does not describe fry writing about his father and seems to know him bread or make it sound in any way appealing, so quite well, so choice b is incorrect. We do not choice c is also incorrect. The passage tells us know if the author’s father was inattentive to his that it was Thomas’s hunger, not the number of needs (choice c), though if he did not pay atten- ways to say fry bread, that provided his inspira- tion to things around him, he likely did not pay tion, so choice e is incorrect. much attention to his children. Still, there is not 62. c. The author tells us that the new house was in enough evidence in this passage to draw this conclusion. His father may have been very “the best neighborhood in town,” and the neigh- attached to the old house (choice e), but the borhood’s “prestige outweighed its deadliness” incident doesn’t just show attachment; it shows (lines 5–8). There is no indication that their old a lack of awareness of the world around him. house was falling apart (choice a) or that they needed more room (choice b). The neighbor- 65. b. The bulk of this excerpt is the story that the hood is clearly not great for children (“it was not author finds “pathetic,” so the most logical con- a pleasant place to live [especially for chil- clusion regarding his feelings for his father is dren]”), so choice d is incorrect. The author tells that he lived a sad life. We know that his busi- us that business was going well for his father— ness was going well, but the author does not dis- so well, in fact, that he could pay for the house cuss his father’s methods or approach to in cash—but that does not mean the house was business, so choice a is incorrect. Choice c is affordable (choice e). In fact, if it was in the likewise incorrect; there is no discussion of his most prestigious neighborhood, it was probably father’s handling of financial affairs. Choice d is expensive. incorrect because there is no evidence that his 63. a. The author tells us that his father was “always a father was ever cruel. His father may have been impressive and strong (choice e), but the domi- man of habit”—so much so that he forgot he’d nant theme is his habitual nature and the sad moved and went to his old house, into his old fact that he did not notice things changing room, and lay down for a nap, not even noticing around him. that the furniture was different. This suggests that he has a difficult time accepting and adjust- ing to change. There is no evidence that he is a calculating man (choice b). He may be unhappy with his life (choice c), which could be why he chose not to notice things around him, but there is little to support this in the passage, while there is much to support choice a. We do not know if he was proud of the house (choice d). We do know that he was a man of habit, but we do not know if any of those habits were bad (choice e). 375
  2. – GED LITERATURE AND THE ARTS, READING PRACTICE QUESTIONS – G lossar y of Terms: Language the particular choice and use of words diction Arts, Reading drama literature that is meant to be performed dramatic irony when a character’s speech or actions have an unintended meaning known to the audience the repetition of sounds, especially at the alliteration but not to the character beginning of words elegy a poem that laments the loss of someone or antagonist the person, force, or idea working against something the protagonist exact rhyme the repetition of exactly identical antihero a character who is pathetic rather than stressed sounds at the end of words tragic, who does not take responsibility for his or her exposition in plot, the conveyance of background destructive actions information necessary to understand the complica- aside in drama, when a character speaks directly to tion of the plot the audience or another character concerning the eye rhyme words that look like they should rhyme action on stage, but only the audience or character because of spelling, but because of pronunciation, addressed in the aside is meant to hear they do not autobiography the true account of a person’s life falling action the events that take place immediately written by that person after the climax in which “loose ends” of the plot are ballad a poem that tells a story, usually rhyming abcb tied up blank verse poetry in which the structure is con- feet in poetry, a group of stressed and unstressed trolled only by a metrical scheme (also called metered syllables verse) fiction prose literature about people, places, and characters people created by an author to carry the events invented by the author action, language, and ideas of a story or play figurative language comparisons not meant to be climax the turning point or high point of action and taken literally but used for artistic effect, including tension in the plot similes, metaphors, and personification closet drama a play that is meant only to be read, flashback when an earlier event or scene is inserted not performed into the chronology of the plot comedy humorous literature that has a happy free verse poetry that is free from any restrictions of ending meter and rhyme commentary literature written to explain or illumi- functional texts literature that is valued mainly for nate other works of literature or art the information it conveys, not for its beauty of form, complication the series of events that “complicate” emotional impact, or message about human experience the plot and build up to the climax genre category or kind; in literature, the different conflict a struggle or clash between two people, kinds or categories of texts forces, or ideas haiku a short, imagistic poem of three unrhymed connotation implied or suggested meaning lines of five, seven, and five syllables, respectively context the words and sentences surrounding a half-rhyme the repetition of the final consonant at word or phrase that help determine the meaning of the end of words that word or phrase hyperbole extreme exaggeration not meant to be couplet a pair of rhyming lines in poetry taken literally, but done for effect denotation exact or dictionary meaning iambic pentameter a metrical pattern in poetry in denouement the resolution or conclusion of the which each line has ten syllables (five feet) and the action stress falls on every second syllable dialect language that differs from the standard lan- imagery the representation of sensory experiences guage in grammar, pronunciation, and idioms (natu- through language ral speech versus standard English); language used by inference a conclusion based upon reason, fact, or a specific group within a culture evidence dialogue the verbal exchange between two or more people; conversation 376
  3. – GED LITERATURE AND THE ARTS, READING PRACTICE QUESTIONS – see dramatic irony, situational irony, or verbal the overall sound or “musical” effect of the irony rhythm irony pattern of words and sentences any written or published text sarcasm sharp, biting language intended to ridicule literature literary texts literature valued for its beauty of its subject form, emotional impact, and message(s) about the satire a form of writing that exposes and ridicules its human experience subject with the hope of bringing about change main idea the overall fact, feeling, or thought a writer setting the time and place in which a story unfolds wants to convey about his or her subject simile a type of figurative language that compares two melodrama a play that starts off tragic but has a things using like or as happy ending situational irony the tone that results when there is memoir an autobiographical text that focuses on a incongruity between what is expected to happen and limited number of events and explores their impact what actually occurs metaphor a type of figurative language that com- soliloquy in drama, a speech made by a character pares two things by saying they are equal who reveals his or her thoughts to the audience as if meter the number and stress of syllables in a line of he or she is alone and thinking aloud poetry sonnet a poem composed of fourteen lines, usually monologue in drama, a play or part of a play in iambic pentameter, with a specific rhyme scheme performed by one character speaking directly to the speaker in poetry, the voice or narrator of the poem audience stage directions in drama, the instructions pro- narrator in fiction, the character or person who tells vided by the playwright that explain how the action the story should be staged, including directions for props, cos- nonfiction prose literature about real people, places, tumes, lighting, tone, and character movements and events stanza a group of lines in a poem, a poetic paragraph ode a poem that celebrates a person, place, or thing structure the manner in which a work of literature is omniscient narrator a third-person narrator who organized; its order of arrangement and divisions knows and reveals the thoughts and feelings of the style the manner in which a text is written, composed characters of word choice, sentence structure, and level of for- onomatopoeia when the sound of a word echoes its mality and detail meaning subgenre a category within a larger category paragraph a group of sentences about the same idea suspense the state of anxiety caused by an unde- personification figurative language that endows cided or unresolved situation nonhuman or nonanimal objects with human symbol a person, place, or object invested with spe- characteristics cial meaning to represent something else plot the ordering of events in a story theme the overall meaning or idea of a literary work poetry literature written in verse thesis the main idea of a nonfiction text point of view the perspective from which something thesis statement the sentence(s) that express an is told or written author’s thesis prose literature that is not written in verse or dra- tone the mood or attitude conveyed by writing or matic form voice protagonist the “hero” or main character of a story, topic sentence the sentence in a paragraph that the one who faces the central conflict expresses the main idea of that paragraph pun a play on the meaning of a word tragedy a play that presents a character’s fall due to quatrain in poetry, a stanza of four lines a tragic flaw readability techniques strategies writers use to tragic hero the character in a tragedy who falls from make information easier to process, including the use greatness and accepts responsibility for that fall of headings and lists tragic flaw the characteristic of a hero in a tragedy rhyme the repetition of an identical or similar that causes his or her downfall stressed sound(s) at the end of words 377
  4. – GED LITERATURE AND THE ARTS, READING PRACTICE QUESTIONS – a tragic play that includes comic when the intended meaning of a word tragicomedy verbal irony scenes or phrase is the opposite of its expressed meaning a statement that is deliberately voice in nonfiction, the sound of the author speaking understatement restrained directly to the reader 378
  5. PART VI The GED Mathematics Exam T his section covers the material you need to know to prepare for the GED Math- ematics Exam. You will learn how the test is structured so you will know what to expect on test day. You will also review and practice the fundamental math- ematics skills you need to do well on the exam. Before you begin Chapter 40, take a few minutes to do the pretest that follows. The questions and problems are the same type you will find on the GED. When you are fin- ished, check the answer key carefully to assess your results. Your pretest score will help you determine how much preparation you need and in which areas you need the most care- ful review and practice. 3 79
  6. – THE GED MATHEMATICS EXAM – P retest: GED Mathematics Question 3 is based on the following figure. 3b Directions: Read each of the questions below carefully a+ and determine the best answer. To practice the timing of the GED exam, please allow 18 minutes for this pretest. Record your answers on the answer sheet provided here and the answer grids for 3a + b 2a + b questions 9 and 10. Note: On the GED, you are not permitted to write in the test booklet. Make any notes or calculations on a sep- arate piece of paper. ANSWER SHEET 3a + 2b 3. What is the perimeter of the figure? 1. a b c d e a. 8a + 5b 2. a b c d e b. 9a + 7b 3. a b c d e c. 7a + 5b 4. a b c d e d. 6a + 6b 5. a b c d e 6. e. 8a + 6b a b c d e 7. a b c d e 8. a b c d e 4. Jossie has $5 more than Siobhan, and Siobhan has $3 less than Michael. If Michael has $30, how 1. On five successive days, a motorcyclist listed his much money does Jossie have? mileage as follows: 135, 162, 98, 117, 216. a. $30 If his motorcycle averages 14 miles for each b. $27 gallon of gas used, how many gallons of gas did c. $32 he use during these five days? d. $36 a. 42 e. Not enough information is given. b. 52 c. 115 d. 147 e. 153 2. Bugsy has a piece of wood 9 feet 8 inches long. He wishes to cut it into 4 equal lengths. How far from the edge should he make the first cut? a. 2.5 ft. b. 2 ft 5 in. c. 2.9 ft. d. 29 ft. e. 116 in. 380



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