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Serene Scene

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Serene Scene

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  1. Brenda Hoddinott F-10 HATCHING: Sketching is an action word, and you can only learn this skill by actually sketching. To give you a feel for the sketching process, numerous illustrations and simple text take you step-by -step through the process of rendering a sketch from one of my sketches (much easier than working from an actual scene). The focal points of this tranquil scene are a palm tree, an island, and the reflection of the island on the surface of calm water. This lesson utilizes various beginner skills, including graduated hatching, atmospheric perspective, and sketching from a shading map. The instructions are broken down into the following three simple stages: ¾ SKETCH PROPORTIONS: You sketch the overall composition of the scene proportionately correct and outline the shapes of important objects. ¾ MAP VALUES: You decide where the light and dark values belong, by creating a shading map. A shading map (also called a value map), is a plan (or blueprint) for adding shading to a drawing. ¾ DEFINE VALUES: The shading in this drawing is based on a value scale of seven different values. Most of the values graduate into others, either from dark to light or from light to dark. The overall values are rendered lighter in the distant space than in the foreground to create the illusion of three-dimensional reality. The language of sketching serves to faithfully document your formative years of artistic development. Only a few simple lines can quickly and efficiently illustrate the important shapes and values of any scene. 13 PAGES – 16 ILLUSTRATIONS This article is recommended for both experienced and aspiring artists of all ages, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada, December, 2005
  2. 2 SKETCH PROPORTIONS The goal in this section is to very lightly render a proportionately correct map of where the different parts of the scene are in relation to one another. Proportion is the relationship in size of one component of a drawing to another or others. A sketch (noun) is a simple drawing that captures the integral aspects of a subject quickly and efficiently. To sketch (verb) refers to the process of rendering a sketch. ILLUSTRATION 10-01 1) Study the subject. Seeing is by far the most important step toward creating a proportionately correct sketch. Pretend that this sketch is an actual scene. Look at the contours and proportions. Contour lines are formed when the shared edges of spaces and/or objects meet. A contour drawing is comprised of lines that follow the contours of the edges of various components of a drawing subject. Observe how all the components within the scene interact with one another. A scene can be separated into foreground, middle ground, and distant space by overlapping (or layering) objects in front of one another. Identify which objects are closest to you, those that are farther away, and objects or parts of objects that overlap others. Overlapping refers to a technique for creating the illusion of depth in a drawing by drawing a subject so it visually appears to be in front of another (or others). The foreground is the part of the scene that is closest to you. The middle ground is the space or section of the scene beyond the subjects in the foreground. Distant space refers to the components of the scene that are farthest away such as the distant mountain range and the sky. The focal points of this tranquil scene are a palm tree, an island, and the reflection of the island on the surface of calm water. Focal point is a term used to identify the most important elements in a drawing. Primary focal point is the most important center of interest (or focus) in a drawing. Secondary focal point(s) is a center of interest in a drawing composition that is significant, but not as important as the primary focal point. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  3. 3 ILLUSTRATION 10-02 2) Follow along with the following four illustrations and render a sketch of the scene. With simple sketch lines, indicate the basic shapes and outlines of the objects in your scene in proper proportion to one another. Fine detail isn’t as important as capturing the overall essence of the subject. ILLUSTRATION 10-03 As a beginner to sketching, you may want to draw slowly. Accuracy is more important than speed. Your speed will automatically improve the more you practice. A few simple lines, along with careful observation of your drawing subject, can visually describe anything. For example, sometimes one curved line is all you need to record the curve of a tree or a section of land. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  4. 4 ILLUSTRATION 10-04 The mountains in the background appear smaller than the section of the island (on the right), which is actually much closer and smaller. Perspective is a visual illusion in which objects appear to become smaller the farther away they are from the viewer. Pay close attention to the shapes created by the positive and negative spaces. Positive space refers to the space occupied by the drawing subject and/or its (or his or her) various parts. Negative space refers to the background around and/or behind a drawing subject such as objects, people, or animals. ILLUSTRATION 10-05 Continue adjusting your drawing until you are happy. Check the relationships of objects to one another, and observe that angles, sizes, and proportions are accurate. At this point, the preliminary sketch is complete and everything is where it should be. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  5. 5 MAP VALUES In this section you identify where the light and dark values belong, by creating a shading map. A shading map (also called a value map), is a plan (or blueprint) for adding shading to a drawing. The locations and sizes of the shapes of various values are identified and/or lightly outlined. Values are the different shades of gray created in a drawing by various means. The shading in this drawing is based on a value scale of seven different values. Shading (noun) refers to the various values in a drawing that make images appear three-dimensional; (verb) the process of adding values to a drawing so as to create the illusion of texture, form and/or three- dimensional space. A value scale refers to the range of different values from light to dark or from dark to light. The value scale in the next illustration is rendered with hatching. Hatching is a series of lines (called a set) drawn closely together to give the illusion of values. The individual lines in hatching sets can be either far apart or close together. Each different value is numbered from light to dark with numbers 1 to 7. ILLUSTRATION 10-06 Compare the completed drawing (on the left) with the value map. Compare the numbers on the map (on the right) to the corresponding numbers of the values in the value scale (above). The palm tree isn’t illustrated in the map, but is shaded with several different darker values. ILLUSTRATION 10-07 ILLUSTRATION 10-08 Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  6. 6 DEFINE VALUES In this section, the planned sketch is transformed into a completed sketch! Keep in mind that a full range of values gives contrast between the light and the shadow areas. You can achieve different values by using various pencils, varying the density of the lines, and varying the pressure used in holding your pencils. Most of the values used to create the shading in this drawing graduate into others, either from dark to light or from light to dark. Graduated values (also called a graduation or graduated shading) is a continuous progression of values, from dark to light or light to dark. The goal of graduated shading is to keep the transitions between the different values flowing smoothly into one another (have a closer look at the graduated values in Illustration 10-07). The process of shading is individual to each artist. Some artists prefer to work from light to dark and others work from dark to light. In this particular sketch, I worked from light to dark. The overall values are rendered lighter in the distant space than in the foreground to give the illusion of depth to the sketch. This illusion is based on an element of perspective known as atmospheric perspective. Atmospheric perspective (also referred to as aerial perspective) refers to the visual depth created by particles in the atmosphere. The farther objects and/or people recede into the distance, the lighter in value they seem to become, and their edges and forms appear more blurred. 3) Refer to the following ten illustrations, as you add shading to the sketch with hatching graduations and a full range of values from 1 to 7. ILLUSTRATION 10-09 Use various pencils to help create a full value scale, and subsequently a strong contrast of values. Contrast, the comparison of different values when put beside one another, is an invaluable tool for heightening the effects of a drawing composition. I begin by adding the lightest value (1) to the sky and water with a 2H pencil. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  7. 7 ILLUSTRATION 10-10 The diagonal hatching lines of the upper section of the sky (2) are graduated down toward the light values by progressively applying a little less pressure with the 2H pencil. The horizontal hatching lines, used for the water in the foreground (2), help create the illusion of ripples. Remember to erase the horizontal line cutting through the island before you add shading. ILLUSTRATION 10-11 A few simple hatching lines indicate the values of the mountain in the distant space (3), which is shaded with an HB pencil (press very lightly). The three land masses are shaded differently according to their positions in the drawing. The island is shaded with both HB and 2B pencils, and the tiny section of land in the foreground is rendered with 2B and 4B pencils. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  8. 8 ILLUSTRATION 10-12 The lighter values of the island (4) are shaded with an HB pencil. Take your time. If you begin to tire or feel frustrated, take a break. When you return have a fresh look at your drawing and touch up anything you’re not happy with. ILLUSTRATION 10-13 The reflection of the island in the water (5) is rendered with an HB pencil. The values used are slightly darker than the island itself at this stage. The hatching lines of the reflection are horizontal rather than angular. You may find it easier to add shading to the reflection by turning your drawing sideways (I did). Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  9. 9 ILLUSTRATION 10-14 A layer of dark values is added to the land in the foreground (7) with a 2B pencil. Currently, this style of sketching is my personal favorite. However, you are a unique individual with your own preferences. Therefore, you need to experiment with various sketching techniques until you find the style that works best for you! ILLUSTRATION 10-15 Use a 4B pencil to add a few squiggly lines to the tiny section of land in the foreground. These lines represent small shrubs and foliage. The shading of the trunk of the tree is lighter on the left, providing insight into the direction from which the light source originates (the left). Light source is the direction from which a dominant light originates. A light source identifies where to draw the light and shadow areas of a drawing subject. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  10. 10 A 2B pencil works well to add shading to the dark shadow sections along the lower part of the island (6). The shading of the island graduates from light at the top to dark in the lower sections. I’ve left a tiny horizontal sliver of light values to identify where the land meets the water. Also, I’ve used a freshly sharpened HB pencil to draw a few tiny trees and shrubs on the island. The largest branches of the palm tree are added with curved lines and a 2B pencil. ILLUSTRATION 10-16 Use freshly sharpened HB and 2B pencils and curved hatching lines to complete the smaller branches on the upper section of the palm tree. Refer to the close-up on the following page. Observe how some branches are lighter than others, especially the ones that are farther away. In other words, the branches that are in the foreground are considerably darker in value. This illusion of depth is a result of atmospheric perspective. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  11. 11 ILLUSTRATION 10-17 Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  12. 12 Step back from your drawing and have a look at the overall values. You may need to make some areas lighter and others darker. To make a section darker, simply add more hatching lines in between the others. To make a section lighter, pat the lines gently with a kneaded eraser molded to a wedge or point. Sign your name, write today’s date on the back, and put a smile on your face. ILLUSTRATION 10-18 Don’t be afraid to try different shading techniques. Drawings you don’t like, present opportunities to spot problems, and seek new ways of doing things. Even a totally disastrous drawing can teach you not to try that particular approach again! Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  13. 13 Keep in mind that the more you practice sketching the better and faster you become. On a good day, you may be creating several different and wonderful sketches within an hour! BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
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