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Societ english10

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Societ english10

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  1. – GED SCIENCE PRACTICE QUESTIONS – Questions 72 and 73 are based on the following passage. Questions 74 and 75 are based on the following passage. Radiation from radioisotopes can be used to In the past, people thought that the Earth was kill cancer cells. Chemist Marie Curie flat and that a ship that sailed too far would received two Nobel Prizes for her work with fall off the edge of the world. The Earth radioisotopes. Her work led to the discovery appears flat because the Earth is too large for of the neutron and synthesis of artificial humans on Earth to see its curvature. Several radioactive elements. She died of leukemia events helped shed the misconceptions. For at 67, caused by extensive exposure to radia- one, during a lunar eclipse, the Earth is posi- tion. Curie never believed that radium and tioned between the sun and the moon. It other materials she worked with were a eclipses the moon by casting a shadow on it. health hazard. In World War I, glowing The shadow the Earth casts is round. When radium was used on watch dials to help sol- Magellan circumnavigated the Earth, he diers read their watches in the dark and to proved that one could not fall off the edge of synchronize their attacks. Unfortunately, the Earth, because the Earth was round and women who worked in factories were draw- had no edges. Finally, space missions provided ing their radium stained brushes to fine us with images of our round Earth from far points by putting them between their lips. away and showed us how beautiful our planet As a result, their teeth would glow in the looks, even from a distance. dark. But this was an amusement for chil- 74. dren more than a cause of worry. About ten In the passage, what was cited as proof that the years later, the women developed cancer in Earth is round? their jaws and mouths and had problems I. Earth casts a round shadow on the moon making blood cells. This exposed the dan- during a lunar eclipse. gers of radiation. II. Earth revolves around the sun. III. Magellan circumnavigated the Earth. 72. Based on the information in the passage, which IV. images from space statement about radioisotopes is false? a. I and II a. Radioisotopes can kill cancer cells. b. I, II, and III b. Radioisotopes can cause cancer. c. I, II, and IV c. A radioisotope can glow in the dark. d. I, III, and IV d. Einstein received the Nobel Prize for working e. II, III, and IV with isotopes. e. A radioisotope was used in watch dials. 75. With which misconception about the Earth is the passage concerned? 73. Which dangers of radiation were mentioned in a. that the Earth turned the passage? b. that the Earth was in the center of the solar I. Radiation can cause genetic mutations. system II. Radiation can lead to leukemia. c. that the Earth was flat III. Radiation can cause chemotherapy. d. that the Earth was created at the same time as a. danger I only the sun b. danger II only e. that the Earth could be eclipsed by the sun c. danger III only d. dangers I and II e. dangers II and III 285
  2. – GED SCIENCE PRACTICE QUESTIONS – A nswers and Explanations 10. c. Gloves provide insulation. They can’t generate heat, choice a. Gloves left out in the snow would be cold. Gloves can’t have an effect on the tem- 1. d. It is the only pair of liquids listed in which one perature, choice b. They also don’t affect the is acidic (vinegar—pH 3) and the other basic amount of energy your body produces, choice d, (bleach—pH 9). or transform energy in any way, choice e. 2. e. The object set in motion slows down and stops 11. d. The wavelength of blue-green should be swinging because the force of friction acts on it. between the wavelength of blue light and green The kinetic energy of the object is converted to light. The wavelength of blue light is about 450 heat energy through friction with air. State- nm and the wavelength of green light is at about ments a, c, and d are true but are not the reason 500 nm. Midway between these wavelengths why the object stops swinging. An object having is 470 nm. any mass can maintain motion, so the statement in choice b is wrong. 12. a. The number of atoms stays constant throughout a chemical reaction. The number of molecules 3. b. An endothermic process requires the input of can change (choice b). For example, in photo- heat energy. The only one that requires input of synthesis, 6 molecules of carbon dioxide and 6 energy (heat) is melting ice (ice melts when molecules of water (total 12 molecules) can heated). The rest of the processes listed give off react to form 1 molecule of glucose and 6 mole- heat, so they are exothermic. cules of oxygen (total of 7 molecules). Similarly, the amount of gas and solid can change (choices 4. a. Things that float are less dense than the sub- c and d). The amount of disorder in the uni- stance in which they float. verse is always increasing, so it does not have to stay constant through a reaction (choice e). 5. b. The statement is false because the gravitational force between two objects depends on the 13. d. The statement is false because light has a finite masses of both objects. All the other statements speed. It is very large, but it is not infinite. The are true and consistent with Newton’s Law of rest of the statements are true. Gravitation. 14. d. Thorns are a form of defense, but are neither 6. a. When water vapor condenses, gas changes to camouflage nor chemical defense. Choices a liquid. Choices b, c, and d involve chemical reac- and e are examples of camouflage. Choices b tions and can’t be considered physical processes. and c are examples of chemical defense. Through exhaling, choice e, air is pushed out of the lungs, but there is no phase change. 15. d. The concentration of protein in compartment B is higher. Because of the nature of the mem- 7. a. Two like charges always repel. brane, the protein can’t pass through it. The only way for concentration to reach the same 8. e. The statement is false because energy is not level in two compartments is for water to flow composed of matter (atoms). All other state- from A to B. ments are true. 9. e. The molecule in choice e has the most atoms and the largest molecular weight. It therefore has the highest boiling point. 286
  3. – GED SCIENCE PRACTICE QUESTIONS – 16. a. Every human normally inherits 23 chromo- 23. a. There was no mention of choice b in the pas- somes from the mother and 23 chromosomes sage. Choice c is true, but not as directly related from the father. However, that doesn’t mean that to snake disappearance as choice a. Choice d is humans look exactly 50% like the father and false. Sailors did not bring prey for the snakes; 50% like the mother (choice b), since one par- they brought a predator. There isn’t enough ent’s genes can be more dominant, and since information to support choice e, and even if it genes from two parents sometimes produce a were true, it wouldn’t be directly related to the blended effect. Fraternal twins happen to be in disappearance of snakes. the womb at the same time, but genetically, they 24. b. There is no support for other statements in the are not any more similar than two siblings who are not twins (choice c). Fraternal twins come passage. from two different eggs fertilized by two differ- 25. b. Someone who has blood type B can donate ent sperm cells. Exposure to X-rays can alter chromosomes (choice d). Genes are not parti- blood to those who don’t have antibodies for B. cles. DNA is not an atom and it doesn’t have a These include other people with type B blood nucleus (choice e). Genes are found in the (they have antibodies for A only) and those with nucleus of a cell and are made of DNA. type AB blood (they don’t have any antibodies). 17. a. In order for twins to have the same genes, they 26. c. Levels of norepinephrine rise when there is a need to come from one egg and one sperm cell. potential for danger, stress, or excitement. Choice c, petting a rabbit, is the only choice 18. c. According to the Punnett square, the combina- that would tend to calm, rather than scare or tion of genes of Parent I with the genes of Par- excite, a person. ent II results in either offspring with yy (which 27. a. Salty foods are less prone to bacterial attack is yellow) or Yy (which is green). because most bacteria can’t grow in environ- 19. e. The statement is false. Animal cells usually don’t ments that are too salty. Being anemic (choice b) have a cell wall. Other statements are true. is not related to bacteria. Choice c is inconsis- tent with the question. Choices d and e are not 20. e. In humans, the sperm determines the sex of the true and are inconsistent with the question. child because the male has two different chro- 28. b. Natural selection is the process whereby the mosomes. In birds, the female has two different chromosomes, so she determines the sex of the members of the species who are best able to sur- offspring. Birds have Ws and Zs, not Xs and Ys vive and reproduce in an environment thrive, like humans, so choice d is incorrect. passing their genes on to next generations. The pollution in the environment selected for dark- 21. b. The tick is a parasite. It benefits, while the ani- ness in peppered moths. mal it feeds from suffers. 29. d. Penguins are birds. They hatch from eggs and 22. e. Statements a through d were illustrated in the have wings. They are not mammals; they don’t passage. Mongooses depend on snakes for food, give birth or breastfeed their young. choice a. The balance in the ecosystem was dis- 30. c. Whales are not primates. Primates have five dig- turbed when a new predator was introduced, choice b. Humans entirely changed the ecosys- its on each hand and foot, binocular vision, and tem when they brought the mongooses, choice flexible shoulder joints. c. When the population of mongooses increased, the population of snakes decreased, causing a drop in the population of mongooses, choice d. 287
  4. – GED SCIENCE PRACTICE QUESTIONS – 31. a. This diagram corresponds to the correct 39. b. Webbed feet enable ducks to swim better by arrangement of Earth, moon, and the sun dur- increasing the surface area on their feet. In ing a solar eclipse. The moon is located between swimming, being hydrodynamic, not aerody- the Earth and the sun, blocking the Earth’s view namic, is important (choice a). Stuck particles of the sun. It also corresponds to the correct between a duck’s toes, choice c, would most orbits, with the moon orbiting around the likely not be a frequent problem. Webbed feet Earth, and the Earth around the sun. Choice b is would not affect the duck’s density, choice d, by wrong because it shows the sun orbiting around much. The rate of heat loss, choice e, may be the Earth, and the moon around the sun. Choice slightly higher because of larger surface area, but c is wrong because the Earth, moon, and sun are heat loss is not essential for swimming. not aligned as they should be during an eclipse, 40. d. The top division on the graduated cylinder is and the moon is not orbiting around the Earth. Choice d shows correct orbits, but the moon is the 10 ml mark. There are 10 divisions, so each not blocking the sun from the Earth’s view. In one is 1 ml. The bottom of the meniscus is fact, choice d corresponds to a lunar eclipse. between 7 ml and 8 ml, so 7.5 ml is the best Choice e is wrong because it shows the Earth answer. and the sun orbiting around the moon. 41. b. This is what the object looks like when it is 32. a. Sunlight is caused by nuclear reactions on the inverted left to right (mirror image). When the sun, not by convection currents of molten rock object is flipped upside down, there is no change within the Earth mantle. in its appearance. 33. e. Ozone cannot directly change the surface of the 42. b. This is a statement that can’t be tested by scien- Earth. Processes in a through d can. tific means. All the others can. 34. d. When it’s summer in the Northern Hemisphere, 43. b. Choice a is not consistent with observation II. it is winter in the Southern Hemisphere, and Choices c and d are not testable and are there- vice versa (choices II and IV). On average, the fore invalid. Choice e is not relevant to the Southern Hemisphere is not warmer than observations. Northern Hemisphere (choice I). The sun 44. c. This is the only statement supported by the always sets in the west, everywhere on Earth. graph. 35. b. Humidity is a measure of the amount of water 45. c. Tropical rain forests are the most productive. vapor in air. 36. b. A light-year is a measure of the distance that 46. e. The number of species lost was greatest in ants. light travels in a year (about 5.88 trillion miles). 47. b. “She also found that the decrease in volume was 37. a. The passage states that the sun will first expand highest in the container with the largest radius. (not shrink—choices b, c, and e) when it runs In container 1, volume decrease was barely out of hydrogen (not helium—choice d), and detectable.” Choice d and e are false because the then 500 million years later, it will shrink. container with the larger radius reached the set temperature faster. 38. c. Choice c is the correct answer based on the 48. d. There is nothing wrong with I and IV. Using dif- passage. ferent hot plates can have an effect because some hot plates may be heating more efficiently than others. Heating water in all the containers 288
  5. – GED SCIENCE PRACTICE QUESTIONS – for the same amount of time, rather than up to 56. d. The needle on the compass responds to the a fixed temperature, would be better because the Earth’s magnetic poles. rate of evaporation is the amount of water lost per unit of time. By using different times, the 57. c. Choice a is already being done, and since the student is changing an important variable. antibiotics weren’t directly making people ill (choice e), these measures wouldn’t be neces- 49. c. Choice a is wrong because initially, the concen- sary. There is nothing that indicates that all tration decreases. There is no information about meat from South Dakota has salmonella or that the product on the chart, so choice b is incor- meat from everywhere else is always healthy, so rect. Choice d is wrong because at 500 seconds, choice b would not be necessary. Choice d is the concentration is not zero. Choice e is wrong wrong because antibiotics are not resistant to because at 300 seconds, the concentration is salmonella; some salmonella is resistant to lower than at other times, at the start of the antibiotics. experiment. 58. d. The statement, as noted in the previous ques- 50. e. This is the weakest argument because it is justi- tion, is false. fied with authority, tradition, and past belief, rather than scientific facts. People have been 59. d. Taking too many minerals can lead to poison- wrong in the past, and noting that something ing. None of the other choices was discussed in has been done a certain way for years does not the passage or listed in the table. mean that there are no better ways, and it is not a convincing scientific argument. 60. b. No other mineral deficiency has this symptom. 51. e. The passage states that Pluto’s density is closer 61. b. The table lists that the function of both calcium to an asteroid’s than to any of the planets’. This and phosphorous is the formation of healthy would lead the reader to think that Pluto, based bones and teeth. on its density, may be an asteroid. But the pas- sage states that this is not the case and does not 62. d. While alcohol damages other tissues as well, give arguments to support the statement. The most alcoholics first experience liver failure. statements in all other choices are supported One of the functions of the liver is to rid the with facts. body of toxins. Alcohol is a toxin to the body. 52. b. Binoculars are used to view objects or animals 63. c. Only certain contagious diseases can be trans- in the distance. They don’t have the kind of mitted through kissing. Health problems associ- magnification necessary for studies in choices a, ated with the other choices are not contagious. c, d, and e. One can’t get lung cancer, a brain tumor, dia- betes, or Down’s syndrome by kissing someone 53. b. Choices a and e are not relevant. Choices c and who has it. d are false. 64. b. The graph shows that the level of LH rapidly 54. c. The soda bubbles you see when you open a can rises right before the 14th day of the cycle, and are made of carbon dioxide gas that was dis- then falls. solved in the soda under pressure. Pressure is not used to dissolve carbon dioxide in any of the 65. b. Only the action in choice b involves friction (of substances described in the other choices. one hand against the other). 55. b. The instrument is a compass, used to find direc- 66. d. The boiling point decreases with increasing tions of the world. pressure. So, the lower the pressure, the higher 289
  6. – GED SCIENCE PRACTICE QUESTIONS – the boiling point. At high altitudes, the atmo- G lossar y Of Terms: Science spheric pressure is low, so the boiling point should be higher at higher altitudes. The highest the rate that velocity changes per unit of acceleration altitude listed is at the top of Mount Everest. time and the direction it changes in, computed from the change in velocity divided by the change in time. 67. a. A diver would want to take a lot of oxygen with- Common units are meters per second squared (m/s2). out letting the tank get too bulky. Other choices acceleration due to gravity the acceleration of are either false (choices d and e) or not a major an object that is only acted on by the force of the concern (choices b and c). Earth’s gravity. This value is given the symbol g, and near the surface of the Earth, it has a value of approx- 68. e. According to the graph, at 40° C, about 250 imately 9.8 m/s2. The direction of acceleration due to grams of sugar can be normally dissolved in 100 gravity is downward. grams of water. In order to make rock candy, accuracy the closeness of an experimental measure- this amount has to be exceeded. ment to the accepted or theoretical value acid a proton donor substance. The pH of an acid is 69. d. There is no pollution or waste associated with less than 7. solar energy. analysis a stage in the scientific method where pat- terns of the observations are made 70. c. The passage explained that other scientists at the aqueous solution a solution in which the solvent is time mistakenly thought that the heart uses up water blood. Choices a, b, and e are not misconcep- arteries the vascular tissues that carry blood away tions. Choice d was not mentioned in the from the heart passage. astronomy the study of the planets, stars, and space atom the smallest structure that has the properties of 71. d. The passage explained that Harvey did I, II, and an element. Atoms contain positively charged protons IV. Although he also calculated the amount of and uncharged neutrons in the nucleus. Negatively blood that passes through the heart every hour, charged electrons orbit around the nucleus. he did not count the blood cells one by one ATP (adenosine triphosphate) a chemical considered (III), nor did he have the technology to do that. the “fuel” or energy source for an organism atria the chambers of the heart that receive blood 72. d. There was no mention of Einstein in the pas- base a proton acceptor substance. The pH of a base is sage. All the other statements were made. greater than 7. calibration the examination of the performance of 73. b. Danger II was mentioned in the passage. Curie an instrument in an experiment whose outcomes are died of leukemia because of lifelong exposure to known, for the purpose of accounting for the inaccu- radiation. Danger I is true, but was not dis- racies inherent in the instrument in future experi- cussed in the passage. Danger III is false; radia- ments whose outcomes are not known tion does not cause chemotherapy. Radiation is capillaries vascular tissues that receive blood from applied in chemotherapy. the arterioles and releases the blood to the venuoles catalyst an agent that changes the rate of a reaction, 74. d. Statements I, III, and IV were made in the pas- without itself being altered by the reaction sage. Statement II is true, but it does not prove celestial equator the extension of the Earth’s that the Earth is round and was not discussed in equator out onto the celestial sphere the passage. celestial poles the extension of the Earth’s north and south poles onto the celestial sphere 75. c. The whole passage is focused on listing evidence celestial sphere the imaginary sphere that all the that the Earth is round, not flat. Choice a is not stars are viewed as being on for the purposes of locat- a misconception. Choices b, d, and e were not ing them discussed in the passage. 290
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