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toefl 'bt insider - the super guide: part 1

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toefl 'bt insider - the super guide: part 1

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part 1 book "tofel 'bt insider - the super guide" introduce: 'bt reading question types, thematic reading practice, listening section (main idea questions, supporting detail questions, content linking questions, organization questions), speaking section (brainstorming and note taking, the basics of sentence structure, varying word choice and grammar usage ,...)

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  1. Study Smarter, Not H arder e S u p e r GUt CONQUER
  2. T O E F L (BT 4SIDE ★★★★★ The Super Guide Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu – ĐH TN http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn
  3. LinguaForum TOEFL' iBT INSIDER: The Super Guide C o p y r ig h t © 2 0 0 8 b y L in g u a F o ru m . Inc No unauthorized photocopying. Ah r ig h ts re s e rv e d N o p a rt o* th s boo«, m a y b e re p ro d u c e d o r tra n s m itte d in a n y fo r m o r b y a n y m e a n s , e le c tro n ic o r m e c h a n ic a l, in c lu d in g p h o to c o p y in g , re c o rd in g , o r a n y o th e r in fo rm a tio n s to ra g e a n d re trie v a l s y s te m w ith o u t th e w r itt e n p e r m is s io n o f th e p u b lis h e r F o r in f o r m a t io n a b o u t l i n g u a l o r m n I O i l I, / B T I \ S I I ) I - R : T h e S u p e r G u id e e m a il u s a t in f o @ lm g u a fo r u m . c o m T O E F L ' is a r e g is te r e d t r a d e m a r k o f E d u c a tio n a l T e s tin g S e rv ic e . T h is b o o k h a s b e e n n e ith e r r e v ie w e d n o r e n d o r s e d b y E T S . ftxintadui the¡Republicoft Jichco Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu – ĐH TN http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn
  4. TOEFL® ÍBT INSIDER ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ The Super Guide Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu – ĐH TN http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn >vcdbyETS.
  5. 8 i> Reading Section 17 p a R1 / \ i BT Reading Question Types Ch 1. Basic Comprehension Questions 23 Ch 2. inferencing Reading & Reading to Learn Questions E3 Thematic Reading Practice Ch 1. Earth Sciences 62 Ch 2. Natural Sciences 78 Ch 3. Physical Sciences 94 Ch 4. Social Sciences 110 Ch 5. Archaeology & Anthropology 126 Ch 6. Economics 142 Ch 7. History 158 Ch 8. Art & Literature 174 i|L is te n in g Section 191 Ch 1. Main Idea Questions 197 Ch 2. Supporting Detail Questions 2 11 Ch 3. Content-Linking Questions 225 Ch 4. Organization / Rhetorical Connection Questions 239 Ch 5. Organization Questions 253 Ch 6. Identifying Relationship Questions 267 Ch 7. Stance / Attitude Questions 281 Ch 8. Function Questions 295 Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu – ĐH TN http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn
  6. LinguaForum Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu – ĐH TN http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn
  7. \ About This Book ÌẬ What is the TOEFL? ỹ About the /BT 4 Changes in the /BT TOEFL (Internet-Based TOEFL) (¡0 Implications for Test Takers 0 /'BT TOEFL Scoring Ranges What the /BT TOEFL Looks Like & Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu – ĐH TN http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn
  8. (Ạ Changes in the ¿BT TOEFL (Internet-Based TOEFL) The /'BT TOEFL not only reflects a change in the way the test is administered, but also in the format of the test itself. Some of the major changes on the test are listed below: ■ Elimination of the gram m ar section The /BT TOEFL contains no explicit testing of grammar. Rather, knowledge of grammar is tested through the test takers' ability to comprehend the reading and listening sections, and also by the range of grammar structures employed in the speaking and writing sections, and the accuracy with which they use those structures. ■ Addition of a mandatory speaking section Previous versions of the TOEFL had no speaking evaluation. However, test takers could take the TSE (Test of Spoken English) as a supplement to provide them with an evaluation of their speaking ability. On the /BT TOEFL, for the first time, all TOEFL test takers will be evaluated on their speaking abilities. ■ Inclusion of integrated tasks The /'BT TOEFL speaking and writing sections have integrated tasks which require the test taker to first read and listen to material, and then incorporate that material into their response. The objective is to more effectively mimic the type of speaking and writing that students will be required to do in a true academic setting. ■ Lengthening of reading and listening tasks The reading passages and the lectures that appear on the /'BT TOEFL have been lengthened. The reading passages are now typically around 700 words, and the lectures typically last from 4-6 minutes. ■ Changes in question types There have been significant changes in the question types that appear in the reading and listening sections. Questions now ask not only about basic factual and inferred information, but also about the relationships between different ideas and the pragmatic purposes of discourse. ('4 Implications for Test Takers The changes made in the /BT TOEFL have important implications for test takers. The /BT TOEFL is a far more holistic test than earlier forms of the TOEFL, and test takers will have to be truly proficient in English in order to succeed. In earlier forms of the TOEFL it was possible to “study for the test". Specifically, it was possible for students with high grammar and vocabulary abilities, but with poor communicative abilities, to do relatively well on the TOEFL. This will no longer be a realistic option. Students who possess poor communicative abilities in English will have little chance of success on the /'BT TOEFL. Therefore, mastery of fundamental English skills is an essential part of /BT TOEFL preparation. Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu – ĐH TN http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn 9
  9. Q iBT TOEFL Scoring Ranges The /BT TOEFL assesses a test taker’s English proficiency on a 120 point scale, with 30 points being assigned to each of the 4 major English proficiencies (reading, listening, speaking, and writing). What constitutes an acceptable score on the /BT TOEFL will vary from institution to institution. Furthermore, some institutions may place a heavier emphasis on the score of one section of the test than on scores from other sections. TOEFL Score Comparison for Reading Range Comparison for Reading Internet- Computer- Paper- Internet- Computer- Paper- based Reading based Reading based Reading based Reading based Reading based Reading 30 30 67 28-30 28-30 64-67 29 29 66 26-28 25-27 59-63 28 28 64-65 21-24 22-24 56-58 17-20 19-21 52-55 28 27 63 14-16 16-18 48-51 27 26 61-62 11-13 13-15 44-47 26 25 59-60 8-10 10-12 40-43 24 24 58 5-7 7-9 34-39 23 23 57 1-4 4-6 31-33 21 22 56 0-1 0-3 31 20 21 54-55 19 20 53 17 19 52 16 18 51 15 17 50 14 16 48-49 13 15 47 12 14 46 11 13 44-45 10 12 43 9 11 41-42 8 10 40 7 9 38-39 6 8 36-37 5 7 34-35 4 6 32-33 3 5 31 1 4 31 0 3 31 0 2 31 0 1 31 0 0 31 Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu – ĐH TN http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn 10
  10. TOEFL Score Comparison for Listening Range Comparison for Listening Internet- Computer- Paper- based Listening based Listening based Listening 30 30 67-68 29-30 28-30 65-68 30 29 66 26-28 25-27 60-64 29 28 65 22-25 22-24 56-59 18-21 19-21 53-55 28 27 63-64 15-17 16-18 50-52 27 26 62 12-14 13-15 47-49 26 25 60-61 9-11 10-12 44-46 25 24 59 5-7 7-9 40-43 23 23 58 1-4 4-6 34-39 22 22 56-57 0-1 0-3 31-33 21 21 55 19 20 54 18 19 53 17 18 52 16 17 51 15 16 50 14 15 49 13 14 48 12 13 47 11 12 46 10 11 45 9 10 44 7 9 42-43 6 8 41 5 7 40 4 6 38-39 2 5 36-37 1 4 34-35 1 3 32-33 0 2 31 0 1 31 0 0 31 11 Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu – ĐH TN http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn
  11. Comparison of /BT, CBT, and PBT TOEFL Scores Internet- Computer- Paper- Internet- Computer- based Total based Total based Total based Total based Total __________ / 120 300 677 39 117 430 120 297 673 38 113 423-427 119 293 670 36-37 110 420 118 290 667 35 107 417 117 287 660-663 34 103 410-413 116 283 657 33 100 407 114-115 280 650-653 32 97 400-403 113 277 647 30-31 93 397 111-112 273 640-643 29 90 390-393 110 270 637 28 87 387 109 267 630-633 26-27 83 380-383 106-108 263 623-627 25 80 377 105 260 617-620 24 77 370-373 103-104 257 613 23 73 363-367 101-102 253 607-610 22 70 357-360 100 250 600-603 21 67 353 98-99 247 597 19-20 63 347-350 96-97 243 590-593 18 60 340-343 94-95 240 587 17 57 333-337 92-93 237 580-583 16 53 330 90-91 233 577 15 50 323-327 88-89 230 570-573 14 47 317-320 86-87 227 567 13 43 313 84-85 223 563 12 40 310 83 220 557-560 11 37 310 81-82 217 553 9 33 310 79-80 213 550 8 30 310 77-78 210 547 7 27 310 76 207 540-543 6 23 310 74-75 203 537 5 20 310 72-73 200 533 4 17 310 71 197 527-530 3 13 310 69-70 193 523 2 10 310 68 190 520 1 7 310 66-67 187 517 0 3 310 65 183 513 0 0 310 64 180 507-510 I 62-63 177 503 61 173 500 59-60 170 497 58 167 493 Range Comparison 57 163 487-490 56 160 483 Internet- Computer-based Paper- 54-55 157 480 based Total Total based Total 53 153 477 52 150 470-473 111-120 273-300 640-677 51 147 467 96-110 243-270 590-637 49-50 143 463 79-95 213-240 550-587 48 140 460 65-78 183-210 513-547 47 137 457 53-64 153-180 477-510 45-46 133 450-453 41-52 123-150 437-473 44 130 447 30-40 93-120 397-433 43 127 443 19-29 63-90 347-393 41-42 123 437-440 9-18 33-60 310-343 40 120 433 0-8 0-30 310 12 Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu – ĐH TN http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn
  12. ịẠ What the ĨBT TOEFL Looks Like The /BT TOEFL takes about four hours. The sections are presented in the following order: Reading, Listening, Speaking, and Writing. There are two versions of the test, and the version which you take is determined randomly. (The differences in the two versions are explained in tables 1.1 and 1.2.) The scoring is the same no matter which version of the test you take. ‘ Please note that the Speaking and W riting sections are the same in both versions of the test. —Table 1.1 (/'BT TOEFL Version 1) Reading Listening Speaking Writing Time 60 minutes About 60 minutes About 20 minutes About 50 minutes (20 minutes per (30 minutes for (Including time for (20 minutes for passage) answering questions listening and reading Integrated task + time for listening) material needed for & 30 minutes for some questions) Independent task) Sections /Tasks 3 Reading passages 3 Listening sets Independent Integrated Writing (about 700 words (Each set contains Speaking & & Independent each) 3 Listening tasks) Integrated Speaking Writing Questions 12-14 questions per 17 questions per 6 Speaking tasks 2 Writing tasks passage Listening set (2 Independent tasks (1 Integrated task & & 4 Integrated tasks) 1 Independent task) Score 30 points 30 points 30 points 30 points - Table 1.2 (/BT TOEFL Version 2) | Reading Listening Speaking I Writing Time 100 minutes About 40 minutes About 20 minutes About 50 minutes (20 minutes per (20 minutes for (Including time for (20 minutes for passage) answering questions listening and reading Integrated task + time for listening) ! material needed for & 30 minutes for some questions) Independent task) Sections/T asks 5 Reading passages 2 Listening sets Independent Integrated Writing & (about 700 words (Each set contains Speaking & Integrated Independent Writing each) 3 Listening tasks) Speaking Questions 12-14 questions per 17 questions per 6 Speaking tasks 2 Writing tasks passage Listening set (2 Independent tasks (1 Integrated task & & 4 Integrated tasks) 1 Independent task) Score 30 points 30 points 30 points 30 points Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu – ĐH TN http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn 13
  13. Reading Section Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu – ĐH TN http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn
  14. Reading Section Contents /BT TOEFL Reading Section Question Format Question Types A /'BT Reading Question Types ch 1 Basic Comprehension Questions Referent Questions Vocabulary Questions Fact Questions Negative Fact Questions Sentence Simplification Questions Question Practice 1, 2 ch.2 Inferencing Reading & Reading to Learn Questions Inference Questions Rhetorical Purpose Questions Sentence Insertion Questions Prose Summary Questions Classifying, Categorizing, and Organizing Information Questions Question Practice 1, 2 Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu – ĐH TN http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn
  15. p A R T E3 Thematic Reading Practice ch.1 Earth Sciences 62 Ch.5 Archaeology & Anthropology 12 6 Vocabulary Preview 63 Vocabulary Preview i2 7 Guided Reading 1, 2 64 Guided Reading 1, 2 128 Unguided Reading 68 Unguided Reading *3 2 Vocabulary Review 72 Vocabulary Review 136 i BT Practice 73 /BT Practice J-37 ch 2 Natural Sciences 78 ch .6 Economics 142 Vocabulary Preview 79 Vocabulary Preview M3 Guided Reading 1, 2 8o Guided Reading 1, 2 Unguided Reading 8/, Unguided Reading 148 Vocabulary Review 88 Vocabulary Review *5 2 /BT Practice 89 /BT Practice *53 Ch.3 Physical Sciences 94 Ch.7 History 15 8 Vocabulary Preview 95 Vocabulary Preview J-59 Guided Reading 1. 2 96 Guided Reading 1, 2 iốo Unguided Reading mo Unguided Reading 164 Vocabulary Review i0zi Vocabulary Review 168 /BT Practice ->-05 /BT Practice ->-69 ch 4 Social Sciences 110 ch 8 Art & Literature 17 4 Vocabulary Preview 111 Vocabulary Preview 175 Guided Reading 1 , 2 112 Guided Reading 1 , 2 176 Unguided Reading 116 Unguided Reading 180 Vocabulary Review 120 Vocabulary Review i8 i, /'BT Practice 121 /BT Practice 185 Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu – ĐH TN http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn 17
  16. y iBT TOEFL Reading Section ✓ The Reading section will contain either 3 or 5 reading passages ✓ Each reading passage is between 600 and 700 words in length / Each reading passage contains 12-14 questions / Test takers have 20 minutes per passage ■ Reading Sections On the /BT TOEFL, reading passages are grouped together in short sections. For example, if there are three reading passages in total, they will be grouped together in two sections, one with two reading passages and one section with a single reading passage. In any section, you may go back to any question within that section at any time. However, once a section is completed, you may not go back to questions within that section. This means that you may skip difficult questions and return to them later, but only within a section. ■ Tim e Managem ent Since you only have 20 minutes per passage to read each passage and answer all of the questions for that passage, you must be aware of how you utilize your time during the test. If you spend too much time on questions at the beginning of a reading section, you may run out of time before you reach the end of the section. ■ Deep Reading vs. Skimming In order to save time, many test takers skip reading the passage and go directly to the questions. Then they go back and skim the passage as they attempt to answer the questions. In general, this is not a good strategy to use. Many /'BT TOEFL reading questions test your understanding of broad concepts from the passage, not specific details, and it is hard to grasp these broad concepts just by skimming the passage. Instead, start by reading the passage thoroughly but quickly. Then move on to the questions. If it is necessary to go back and skim the passage to find the answer to a specific question, then do so. ■ Glossary Term s Occasionally, a reading passage will have a word or phrase that is marked in blue. If you click on to these phrases, a pop-up box with an explanation of the term will appear. 18 Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu – ĐH TN http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn
  17. (¡0 Question Format Most questions on the reading section ot the /BT TOEFL will follow the flow of the passage. The first questions will relate to information at the beginning of the passage, and later questions will refer to later sections of the passage. However, there are a few exceptions to this rule. Some questions will draw on information from the entire passage. These questions will be some of the last questions for READING the passage. In addition, there are certain question types that always appear as the last questions for a passage, no matter what part of the passage they refer to. Most questions will refer you to a specific section of the passage which contains the information needed to answer the question. There are two ways that questions can refer you back to the passage. Some questions will refer you to a specific paragraph in the passage. Skim this paragraph to find the relevant information. Other questions will highlight a keyword from the passage. This keyword will be highlighted in the passage as well. Focus on the sentences immediately around the highlighted word in the passage to find the relevant information. 9 Question Types There are three main types of questions on the reading section of the /BT TOEFL: basic comprehension questions, inferencing reading questions, and reading to learn questions. ■ Basic Comprehension Questions These questions test your ability to comprehend the basic ideas in the passage. In general, they focus on your basic reading skills and your overall vocabulary level. Basic comprehension questions are the most common questions on the test and usually make up about 60% of the questions for each passage. ■ Inferencing Reading Questions These questions test your ability to recognize the logical connections between different ideas in a passage. These questions focus on more advanced reading skills, such as the ability to recognize a logical flow of ideas and to draw logical conclusions. In general, inferencing reading questions make up about 30% of the questions for each passage. ■ Reading to Learn Questions These questions test your ability to understand the passage as a whole. They focus on your ability to “see the big picture” in the passage. There is only one of these questions per reading passage, but these questions are worth more than one point. Therefore, it is important to take your time in answering them. Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu – ĐH TN http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn i9
  18. [/BT Reading Question Types] Basic Comprehension Questions Inferencing Reading & Reading to Learn Questions Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu – ĐH TN http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn
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