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toefl 'bt insider - the super guide: part 2

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part 2 book "tofel 'bt insider - the super guide" introduce: speaking for /bt toefl tasks (independent speaking tasks, integrated speaking tasks), writing section (writing section, writing for/'bt toefl tasks), writing for 'bt toefl tasks.

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  1. iERCISE 2, you briefly introduced the main speaker's opinion. Now write a detailed summary of how le explains and elaborates upon his/her opinion. Remember to use appropriate transitional phrases. Exercise 4 Using the ideas you developed in EXERCISES 1-3, create an appropriate conclusion. Remember to emphasize why the main speaker holds such a strong position on the issue. Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu – ĐH TN http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn B-Ch3 | Fit and Expiam TasK
  2. Additional Practice 1 Please read the following sample task 3 passage. Underline important information in the passage. Announcement from Student Technology Services Recently it was discovered that a small group of students has been abusing the use of the Internet in campus computer labs. Due to these abuses, Student Technology Services will be changing its policy concerning lab use. Beginning in January, all students will be required to sign in using a valid student ID in order to use the campus computer labs. Anyone without a student ID will be turned away. As an additional measure, the closing time will be changed from 9:00 PM to 7:00 PM. Listen to the following conversation and take notes in the space provided below. Now respond to the following speaking prompt. T h e w o m a n e x p re s s e s h e r o p in io n o f th e a n n o u n c e m e n t m a d e b y S t u d e n t T e c h n o lo g y Services. S ta te h e r o p in io n a n d e x p la in th e re a s o n s s h e g iv e s fo r h o ld in g th a t o p in io n . 414 Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu – ĐH TN http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn
  3. ¡e read the following sam ple task 3 passage. Underline important information in the passage. Letter to the Editor rst, I would like to thank the editor for bringing to our attention the new activity fees that udents will be required to pay at registration next year. I myself feel that the extra hundred jllars is unjustified. It’s nice that the university wants to build a new campus center, but 1 ould have appreciated, at the very least, some advance notice about the new fees, and at ost, a say in whether or not we as a student body even wanted a new campus center to begin ith, especially if we’re going to be paying the bill for the next few years. L is te n to th e fo llo w in g c o n v e rs a tio n a n d ta k e n o te s in th e s p a c e p ro v id e d b e lo w . N o w re s p o n d to th e fo llo w in g s p e a k in g p ro m p t. T h e w o m a n e x p r e s s e s h e r o p in io n o f th e le tte r c o n c e r n in g a c tiv ity fe e s . S t a te h e r o p in io n a n d e x p la in th e re a s o n s s h e g iv e s fo r h o ld in g th a t o p in io n . Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu – ĐH TN http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn B‘ Ch3 | Fit and Explain Task 415
  4. Please read the following sample task 3 passage. Underline Important information in the passage. Announcement from the Office of the Registrar Beginning with the upcoming fall registration period, all students, regardless of year, will be required to see an advisor before they are allowed to formally register. Upperclassmen working on a concentration will need to speak with a faculty member from their respective departments. Underclassmen not yet working toward a major should contact the office of the registrar to be assigned an academic advisor. Students registering in person at the office will have to present a signed form from an advisor in order to register. Listen to the following conversation and take notes in the space provided below. T -L I Now respond to the following speaking prompt. T h e w o m a n e x p re s s e s h e r o p in io n o f th e a n n o u n c e m e n t m a d e b y th e O ffic e o f th e R eg istrar. S ta te h e r o p in io n a n d e x p la in th e re a s o n s s h e g iv e s fo r h o ld in g t h a t o p in io n . Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu – ĐH TN http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn
  5. e read the following sample task 3 passage. Underline important information in the passage based 5 guidelines provided in the Guided Note Taking section. Announcement from the Office of the Registrar the interest of our student body’s health and wellness, all incoming freshmen for the next ademic year will be required to take at least two physical education classes in order to aduate. In addition, other underclassmen still working to complete their general quirements may also be subject to the new policy, and should meet with their advisors to scuss the matter further. Please refer to the new student handbook for complete details. I Listen to the following conversation and take notes in the space provided below. [ Now respond to the following speaking prompt. The woman expresses her opinion of the announcement made by the Office of the Registrar. State her opinion and explain the reasons she gives for holding that opinion. Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu – ĐH TN http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn B-Ch3 | Fit and Explain Task
  6. P A R T___ B A 4 O [ In te g ra te d S p eakin g Tasks ] Speaking Task- 4 General/Specific Task Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu – ĐH TN http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn
  7. ng Task 4, you will first read a short passage (75-100 words) which explains a general concept. You sten to a short lecture (60-90 seconds) in which that general concept is applied to a specific situation. at of the Reading ng will h a v e a title th a t in d icates th e g e n e ra l c o n c e p t b e in g d iscu s sed . T h e re ad in g will g e n e ra lly basic ex p la n atio n of th e g e n e ra l c o n c e p t a n d o n e o r tw o re le v a n t details. Lo o k a t th e e x a m p le below : Tracking ing is an educational practice in which a student’s educational focus is determined by dng the student’s inherent strengths and weaknesses. Once this has been determined, udent receives an education that focuses on developing these talents. While some educators endorse tracking as the best method to ensure each student’s various talents are utilized, others oppose tracking, claiming it limits a student’s choices for the future. Format of the Lecture ! lecture will be on a topic related to the general concept of the reading. It will provide one or two cific applications of the general concept, with points that directly relate to the relevant details of the ding passage. Listen to the following lecture and look at the outline below: M a in Id e a : Schools can influence students' future I A p p lic a t io n 1: Vocational HS Students receive specialized job training at expense of traditional academic instruction. • D e ta il 1: Selection based on income and likelihood of attending college • D e t a il 2: Students who attend vocational HS get job training but have little chance of attending college. A p p lic a t io n 2: Advanced placement programs Advanced placement programs are for students with best grades. • D e t a il 1: Students in these programs are greatly favored by top colleges. • D e t a il 2: Not many students accepted into these programs, so other students' chances of getting into a good college are lessened. lerstanding the Connections Between the Reading and the Lecture der to properly respond to task 4 you must understand the connections between the reading and the ire. In the case of the example above, you must understand that vocational high schools and meed placement programs are forms of tracking. You must also see the connections between the ils of the reading and the details of the lecture (i.e., the way that students are selected for these rams and how those programs affect a student's future options). B-Ch4 | General / Specific Task Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu – ĐH TN http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn
  8. Preparing Your Response H = Guided Note Taking When taking notes for task 4, it is important that you note the key points both from the reading passage and the lecture, as you will be asked to draw connections between the two. As you go through the reading passage, be sure to take notes on the following: 1. C o n c e p t - This is generally stated in the title of the passage. 2. D e fin itio n - In a few words, summarize the definition as it appears in the passage. 3. K e y P o in ts - Note whatever details are most relevant to the explanation of the concept (e.g. elaboration, examples, and applications). As you listen to the lecture, be sure to take notes on these key elements: 1. M a in Id e a - What is the lecture about? 2. K e y P o in ts - Note relevant details, examples, or elaboration upon the main idea. 3. C o n n e c tio n s - How does the lecture relate to. apply, or elaborate upon the concept in the reading passage? Exercise 1 Below is a sample reading passage in which key points have been underlined. Homeostasis Homeostasis is a natural biological process that exists in nearly all organisms or organic processes. The term refers to any self-regulating process by which biological systems achieve and maintain stability. If this stability is threatened or disturbed, the system responds to such changes by means of various built-in regulatory devices that work to adjust to those changes and re-establish equilibrium. Homeostasis is essential to life because it allows an organism to remain within the parameters in which life can be maintained, even in the face of fluctuating conditions. Please listen carefully to the following sample task 4 lecture. Complete the notes in the space R J I provided. Use your notes from the passage above to draw connections. M a in , idea: hu.Kw.aiA, body's self-reg . o f tem.p. K tL j P o in tS: C o n n e c t io n s t o th e r e a d i n g : Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu – ĐH TN http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn
  9. eating an Introduction r introduction should include all the elements necessary to laying the foundation for the body of your lonse. Begin with a brief summary of what the lecture is mainly about. Then briefly explain the overall lection between the lecture and the concept presented in the reading. Look at the example below: The p ro fe s s o r d is c u s s e s th e w a y s in w h ic h a s c h o o l a d m in is tra tio n c a n in flu e n c e a s tu d e n t’s fu tu re . Explain h o w h is d is c u s s io n re la te s to th e c o n c e p t o f tr a c k in g . The professor explains how program s such as vocation al high schools a n d advan ced placement programs can lim it a student’s options for the future. This relates to the concept of tracking in that these programs are basically different forms of tracking. can use the following phrases to help you create a strong introduction: Explaining the connection between Jj^Jjum m arizing the main topic of the lecture the lecture and the reading T h e p r o fe s s o r e x p la in s h o w /w h y - T h is re la te s to th e c o n c e p t o f - in th a t - T h e le c tu re is m a in ly a b o u t - T h is re la te s to th e c o n c e p t o f - b e c a u s e - Exercise 2 Use the notes you took in EXERCISE 1 to complete the introduction below. T h e p r o fe s s o r ta lk s a b o u t te m p e r a tu r e re g u la tio n in th e h u m a n b o d y . E x p la in h o w h e r d is c u s s io n o f th is re la te s to th e c o n c e p t o f h o m e o s ta s is . The professor’s discussion of relates to the concept of in that In the passage, the concept of __ ___ __ is defined as B'Ch 4 | General / Specific Task ¿,21 Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu – ĐH TN http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn
  10. Providing Support and Elaboration After you explain the main point of the lecture and its overall connection to the concept presented in the reading, you need to start explaining these ideas in detail. The exact information that you will need to include in your response will vary with each task 4 prompt, but generally you will need to explain: 1. Each application of the concept that appears in the lecture (there are usually 1 or 2 applications) 2. The relevant details of each application 3. How these details in the lecture relate to specific details of the concept presented in the reading In your response, it is important that you are clear as to which of your statements refer to the reading passage and which refer to the lecture. Here are just a few possible examples of phrases that will help you construct your supporting statements in a clear and discernible fashion: According to the professor, ~ The reading passage says that - When the professor talks about he is giving an example of - The professor mentions - , which relates directly to the concept of - Exercise 3 Use the following questions to generate connections between the reading passage and the lecture from EXERCISE 1 and 2. Listen again to the lecture if necessary. 1. How does the regulation of body temperature exemplify the concept of homeostasis? 2. In what ways is the body shown to be a ‘self-regulating’ system? W hat points in the reading passage does this relate to specifically? 3. Use your answers to 1 and 2 to create a coherent explanation of how the body’s regulation of temperature illustrates the concept of homeostasis. Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu – ĐH TN http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn
  11. îveloping a Conclusion (instructing a conclusion for task 4, it is important that you summarize the supporting details briefly efficiently. In responses for task 4, these sentences will look something like your introduction sentence, lat they should integrate your main idea with a brief summary of your supporting details. Look at the mple below: The professor explains how program s such as vocational high schools an d advanced placem ent program s can limit a student's options fo r the future. This relates to the concept o f tracking in that these program s are basically different form s o f tracking. According to the professor, students who are not likely to attend college are enrolled in vocational programs which stress teachingjob skills rather than academics. Thừ increases their ability to get a job after high school, but virtually guarantees that they will not be able to attend college; thus it limits their choicesfor thefuture. Likewise, advanced placement courses are reservedfor the very best students. Since these courses are so important to admission to top colleges, advanced placement programs limit the ability of many students to attend good colleges. In conclusion, the programs described by the professor are both form s o f tracking. 4s such they determine which students should receive which type o f education and therefore exert a controlling influence on their futures. Exercise 4 Using the ideas you developed in EXERCISES 1-3, answer the questions below to create an appropriate conclusion. 1. Briefly restate the overall connection between the reading passage and the discussion. 2. Briefly summarize relevant details and/or examples from the lecture. 3. Use your answers from 1 and 2 to create a conclusion statement that briefly states your m ain idea and briefly summarizes your supporting details. In conclusion, Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu – ĐH TN http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn 8‘ Ch 4 I General / Specific Task 423
  12. Guided Practice 1 Exercise 1 Please read the following task 4 reading passage. Key ideas have been underlined for you. Nature vs. Nurture The concept of nature versus nurture comes from the debate over which of our physiological and behavioral traits are innate (representing “nature") and which are products of our environment (or “nurture”). The idea that humans gain all of their behavioral traits from personal experience enjoyed wide acceptance for a long time, but through advances in the science of genetics, scientists have been able to demonstrate that some behavioral traits may actually be transmitted genetically, thus blurring the distinctions between “nature" and “nurture” and reigniting a longstanding debate among specialists. Please listen carefully to the following task 4 lecture. Complete the notes in the space provided. h \ a i n s-piflteir's o p in io n : HCey P o in ts : cp cb C o n n e c tio n s to th e reacting : Exercise 2 Use the notes you took in EXERCISE 1 to write an introduction that responds to the prompt below. T h e p ro fe s s o r ta lk s a b o u t M o z a r t a s a c h ild g e n iu s . E x p la in h o w h e r d is c u s s io n o f th is re la te s to th e c o n c e p t o f n a tu re vs. n u rtu re . The professor’s discussion of relates to the concept of in t h a t Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu – ĐH TN http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn
  13. ircise 3 the following questions to generate connections between the reading passage and the discussion from :RCISES 1 and 2. How does the question of Mozart’s genius relate to the concept of nature vs. nurture? What questions arise when considering Mozart's genius in light of the nature vs. nurture debate? Use your answers to 1 and 2 to create a coherent explanation of how Mozart’s genius demonstrates the nature vs. nurture debate. Exercise 4 Using the ideas you developed in EXERCISES 1-3, answer the questions below to create an appropriate conclusion. 1. Restate your introduction sentence, including the m ain idea. 2. Briefly state your supporting details. 3. Use your answers from 1 and 2 to create a strong conclusion statement. In conclusion, ______ __________ ______________________ _______ ___________ B-Ch 4 | General / Specific Task 425 Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu – ĐH TN http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn
  14. Guided Practice 2 —i Read the following task 4 reading passage and underline key ideas. Anorexia Nervosa Anorexia nervosa is a medical term that describes a type of eating disorder characterized by a distorted body image and a manic obsession with weight control. It can and often does result in a fatally low body weight. It is a condition that affects mostly young men and women in industrialized Western nations. While there is no single cause of anorexia, researchers find that those with traits like perfectionism or psychological disorders like obsessive compulsive disorder are more likely to develop the illness. Please listen carefully to the following task 4 lecture. Complete the notes in the space provided. Main, id e a : K e y P o in ts : Use the notes you took in EXERCISE 1 to write an introduction that responds to the prompt below. T h e p ro fe s s o r ta lk s a b o u t e a tin g p h o b ia s a n d w o m e n in th e m ilita ry . E x p la in h o w h is d iscu s sio n of th is re la te s to th e c o n c e p t o f a n o r e x ia n e rv o s a . The professor's discussion of relates to the concept of because 426 Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu – ĐH TN http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn
  15. 21311 he following questions to generate connections between the reading passage and the discussion from RCISES 1-2. -low does the issue of eating phobias and women in the military relate directly to the description sf anorexia nervosa in the reading passage? io w do the pressures wom en face in the military relate to the description of anorexia nervosa in he reading passage? Jse your answers to 1 and 2 to create a coherent explanation of how eating phobias among vomen in the military relate to anorexia nervosa. Exercise 4 Using the ideas you developed in EXERCISES 1-3, answer the questions below to create an appropriate conclusion. 1. Restate your introduction sentence, including the m ain idea. 2. Briefly state your supporting details. 3. Use your answers from 1 and 2 to create a strong conclusion statement. In c o n c l u s i o n , _____________ ________________ ___ ______________________ Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu – ĐH TN http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn B‘ Ch4 | General / Specific Task 427
  16. ^ Additional Practice 1 Please read the following task 4 reading passage and underline key ideas Social Darwinism Social Darwinism is the theory that the driving force in the evolution of societies is competition among groups, races, and even nations for survival and dominance. Proponents of this theory believe that different societies are locked in a struggle for existence, and that only those societies fit for their environments (be it a political environment or an economic one) will "survive’' the struggle. Supporters of this theory also believe that it is this struggle that drives the advancement of human civilization. Please listen carefully to the following task 4 lecture. Take notes in the space provided. M a i n idea: K tij Poi-wts: C onnections, to the re a d in g : Construct your response to the prompt below. T h e p ro fe s s o r ta lk s a b o u t th e te c h n o lo g ic a l a d v a n c e s a n d c o n s e q u e n c e s o f th e C o ld W a r. E x p la in h o w h e r d is c u s s io n o f th is re la te s to th e c o n c e p t o f S o c ia l D a r w in is m . 428 Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu – ĐH TN http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn
  17. e read the following task 4 reading passage and underline key ideas. Pseudoscience eudoscience is any variety of thought, theory, or concept that claims to be scientifically unded but actually has no solid grounding in science or has not been acknowledged as true plausible by the scientific community. Fields of study often characterized as pseudoscience ually lack theories or claims that can be tested or verified utilizing the scientific method. :spite their lack of scientific evidence, pseudosciences may gain widespread acceptance long the general populace if they espouse ideas that help to confirm the beliefs or values of e community. Please listen carefully to the following task 4 lecture. Take notes in the space provided. Mflwv idea: K e y P o in ts : C o n n e c tio n s to tine r e a d in g : Construct your response to the prompt below. The professor talks about 19th century attem pts to justify the practice of slavery. Explain how his discussion relates to the explanation of pseudoscience. B-Ch4 | General / Specific TasK 429 Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu – ĐH TN http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn
  18. Please read the following task 4 reading passage and underline key ideas. Nuclear Fusion in Stars Nuclear fusion is the process by which the nuclei of different atoms fuse together to form a single nucleus. In order to fuse, nuclei must be subjected to enormous am ounts of heat and pressure. In the natural world, such conditions are only found in the cores of stars. Temperatures inside a star's core can reach tens of millions of degrees, and the immense gravity of the star exerts a great am ount of pressure on nuclei. W hen nuclei fuse, they release energy, primarily in the form of heat, thus inducing other nuclei to fuse as well. Please listen carefully to the following task 4 lecture. Take notes in the space provided. M a in id e a : K e y P oin ts: Connections to t h e reading: Construct your response to the prompt below. T h e p ro fe s s o r ta lk s a b o u t th e o b s ta c le s to p ro d u c in g fu s io n p o w e r. E x p la in h o w h is d is c u s s io n o f th is re la te s t o th e c o n c e p t o f n u c le a r fu s io n in s ta rs . Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu – ĐH TN http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn
  19. Please read the following task 4 reading passage, then take notes on the key points in the space provided. Xenophobia Xenophobia is an excessive and irrational fear of individuals who are different from oneself. Xenophobia often centers on a fear and aversion to a specific social group. Generally, xenophobia is rooted in a preexisting cultural prejudice but is often exacerbated or brought to the surface by a traumatic experience involving a member of a certain group. Xenophobia can result in discriminatory or violent behavior towards a group of individuals even in the absence of provocation or justifiable cause. © 4.33 Please listen carefully to the following task 4 lecture. Take notes in the space provided. 3 Mai.«, idea: Key Points: Connections to the reading: Construct your response to the prompt below. The professor talks about the imprisonment of Japanese Americans during World War II. Explain how his discussion relates to the concept of xenophobia. Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu – ĐH TN http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn B'Ch 4 | General / Specific Task 431
  20. [ Integrated Speaking Tasks ] Speaking Task - 5 Problem I Solution Task Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu – ĐH TN http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn
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